SCHOOL ESSAYS Part -I
School Essays Part-I for school students written by Menonim Menonimus, Published by Growhills Publishing, Internet Edition by www. menonimus.org
School Essays Part-I
School Essays Part-I
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School Essays Part-I
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School Essays Part-I
D.T.P. by Adid Shahriar
School Essays Part-I
- The Cow
- The Dog
- The Cat
- The Elephant
- Our Classroom
- Our School
- My Native Village
- My Town
- The Bihu or National Festival of Assam
- Sri Sankardeva or Life of a Great Man
- Mahatma Gandhi or Life of a Great Man
- Mother Teresa or Life of a Great Woman
- Hazrat Muhammad
- Dr. Bhupen Hazarika
- Kalpana Chawla
- My Hobby
- My School Library
- Science in Everyday Life
- Science and Mankind
- Science and War or Science and Its Bad Effects
- My Daily Life
- Holidays and How I Spend Them
- Cottage Industries of Assam
- Fifty Years (Golden Jubilee) of Indian Independence
- My Family
- Prize Distribution Day at My School
- If I were a Millionaire
- Responsibilities of Students
- My Last Day at School
- The Busiest Day I Experienced
- Flood in Assam
- My Study
- My Aim in Life
- Early Rising
- The Value of Time or Punctuality
- Outdoor Games
- A Picnic Party Shared by Me
- Journey by Train
- Village Life in Assam
- The Durga Puja
- Travelling to a Historical Place
- Sustainable Development
- Mobile Phone
- Conventional Resources of Energy
- Kaziranga National Park
- How I Spent My Last Summer Vacation
- Physical Exercise
- Natural Resources
- Children’s Day
- National Integration
- Teacher’s Day
- Rainy Season or Rainy Day
- The National Festivals of India
- Gandhi Jayanti
- Tree Plantation
- Honesty is the Best Policy
- Digital India
- Drug addiction
- Road Safety
- Knowledge is Power
- Child Labour
- Good Manners
- Independence Day
- Republic Day
- My Summer Vacation
- Wildlife Conversation
- The Camel
- The Monkey
- The Rhinoceros
- The Horse
- The Lion
- The Tiger
- The Domestic Pets
- The Honey Bee
- The Crow
- The Rose
- The Coconut
- The Mango
- The Rice
- The Tea
- The Sugar-cane
- The River
- The Sun
- The Clock
- The Bicycle
- Motor Car
- Transportation: Old and Modern
- The Post Office
- The Hospital
- The Public Library
- The Printing Press
- A Village Market
- School Magazine
- Debating Societies
- School Life
- A Cricket Match
- Saraswati Puja
- The Maharam
- Town Life and Village Life
- If I Were a King
- Health is Wealth
- Obedience to Parents
- The Value of Labour (Industry)
- Social Service
- A Gentleman
- Kindness to Animals
- Amusement (Entertainment)
- The Study of Science
- The Study of Biography
- Military Training for Students
- Technical Education
- Use of Books
- Importance of Sports
- Utility of Leisure
- The Value of Experience in Life
- Life is Work
- A Village Fair
- The Importance of English in Modern India
- National Integration of India
- The Role of Students in Nation-Building
- Travelling as a Part of Education
- Pollution and Its Remedy
- Football: My Favourite Game
- The Pen
- The Cuckoo
- The Fruits of Assam
- The Natural Beauty of Assam
- Charles Darwin: My Favourite Scientist
- If I Were the Principal of a School
- Benefits of Swimming
- World Rivers Day
- Benefits of Book Reading
- Benefits Of Fruits
- Tips For Writing Essay
SCHOOL ESSAYS Part -I
Essay Writing: An Introduction
The word ‘Essay’ is derived from the French word assay which means ‘trial of a subject or attempt towards it.’ Montaigne, a sixteenth-century French writer, was the first to write essays. He called his writings ‘Essays’ because Montaigne thought that he was trying or attempting a new genre of literature. Being inspired by him an English diplomat and scholar of the sixteenth century named Francis Bacon wrote essays first in English. Hench this new branch of literature has been being attempted by writers throughout the world in almost every written language. To speak in brief, an Essay is a prose composition wherein the writer expresses his point of view on a topic. Thus an Essay expresses the mind and ideas of the writer. Nowadays Essay is the most widely written and read branch of literature.
English Essays may broadly be divided into two classes: Expository Essays and Personal Essays.
Expository Essays are those essays which are written from a historical, biographical, philosophical, scientific or critical point of view. The objective of such essays is to give information or instruction. The essays of Mathew Arnold, Spencer, Macaulay, and Carlyle belong to this type.
Personal Essays are those essays which are written on any subject from the personal point of view and exhibit the personality of the writer. Whatever may be the topic, Personal Essays always reflect the opinions, whims and fancies of the essayist. The objective of such essays is not to instruct but to please. These essays are coloured by the writer’s imagination. This type of essay is described often as Lyric in Prose. The essays of Charles Lamb, William Hazlitt, and De Quincy belong to this category.
On the basis of the treatment of the subject matter, essays again may be classified into three classes, as- Descriptive Essays, Narrative Essays and Reflective Essays.
Generally, the essays are written on known things, animals, natural phenomena as- flood, cyclones, volcanoes, earthquakes etc. are Descriptive Essays.
Narrative Essays are those essays which are written on some events- historical, accidental or imaginary such as-Sepoy Mutiny, Railway collision, a kind of journey etc.
Reflective Essays are the essays which reflect the writer’s reflections or thoughts on any subject which are generally of an abstract nature. Punctuality, perseverance, discipline etc. fall under this class of essays.
Nowadays essay is the most popular form of literature. In school and college, this genre of literature is prescribed in the curriculum. The main Objectives of the Students’ Essays are as follows:
The practice of writing essays increases the curiosity about learning more information.
It enhances the linguistic power of the students.
It develops the reflective as well as the reasoning power of the students.
There are Three Steps of Writing an Essay, such as-
Reading for Data Collection: In this step, the students should read journals, magazines and related books for collecting data on their topic. They should not read mechanically rather they should try to enter into the main spirit of the contents of the book they read. This would increase their vocabulary and power of understanding. While reading the book they should mark the passage which strikes them and go through them a second time.
Thinking: In this step, the students must learn to think for themselves. Everything which is read should not be granted. Therefore the students should think and judge for themselves and accept only what are considered to be correct and logical to their topics.
Writing: After reading and thinking, the students should step ahead for the third and final step. But before going to write they should make an outline of the essays they want to attempt. It would help the students to arrange their thoughts and give clarity to what they say.
An essay may usually be divided into three parts as- Introduction, Body (Description) and Conclusion.
The introduction to an essay should be brief and attractive. In Introduction the writer should give a brief allusion of what he is going to describe below. Every word written in the Introduction must have a bearing upon the main theme. Introduction to an essay should be written in one brief passage.
The Body is the main part of an essay. In this part, the writer should give a detailed description or elaboration of what he has hinted or written in the introduction. The Body of an essay may be divided into three or more points according to need. The points should be dealt with in a separate paragraph. In this part, the main theme of the essay must be developed and elaborated logically.
The conclusion is the third and final part of an essay. In this part, the essay writer should draw an effective ending from the main body of the essay. It bears the thoughts and opinion of the writer on the subject. The Conclusion should be as effective as an effective beginning. But the Conclusion should never be impertinent to the topic; rather it should be as natural as possible. However, nothing else is possible a brief summary of the previous statements may be given.
There are some Qualities of Good Essays, as-
(i) The simplicity of Language: The language of an essay should be simple and comprehensive; because the essays are generally informative. The use of the bombastic word, long sentence and much use of figures of speech may cause difficulty in understanding the main spirit.
(ii) Unity of Thought: A good essay must have Unity of Thought and matter. It means that an essay must deal with only one subject (one topic). Everything which is not connected with it must be left out.
(iii) Logicality: In an essay, the idea should develop logically and naturally. The important points should be given more space than the less important ones.
After writing an essay the writer should revise the essay bearing the following points in mind-
He should be sure that there is no grammatical mistake in the essay. If there is he should correct them.
Except for autobiographical essays, the writer should avoid the use of such personal pronouns like- ‘I’, ‘We’ etc.
If any quotation is used in the essay he should ensure that the quotation is an exact word by word. If not so he should avoid such quotation. 0 0 0
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Introduction: The cow is a four-footed useful animal. In almost every peasant family there is a cow.
Description: The cow has two eyes, two ears and a long tail. She has two horns on her head. Her body is covered with smooth fur. Her hoofs are cloven. There are cows in many colours like white, red, black, brown etc. She has a set of teeth in the lower jaw.
Food: The cow lives chiefly on the grass. She eats wheat, paddy rice, vegetables and a few other things.
Usefulness: The cow is very useful to us. It gives us milk. The farmers plough their lands with her. Cow dung is used as good manure. Some people take the flesh of cow as meat. Its bones are used to make fertilizing chemicals. Its skin is used to make shoes, bags, belts, jackets etc. Oxen and bullocks are used to draw carts. The farmers cannot live without a cow. The cow gives us a calf once a year. Its milk is nutritious food for us. We should take care of its calf.
Conclusion: In our real-life, the cow is so useful to us that we should take good care for such a useful animal. 0 0 0
Introduction: The dog is an easily domesticated four-footed animal.
Description: The dog has two eyes, two ears and a curved tail. It has sharp teeth and nail. It fights its enemies with them. The young ones of a dog is called a puppy. It gives birth to a number of puppies at a time.
Dogs are of many sizes and colours. The dog eats the flesh of other animals. It also eats rice and other food taken by a man.
The dog is said to be the most faithful servant to man as it guards the house of its master. It does not allow a stranger to enter the house of its master.
Dogs are used in circus also. It can be trained well and can show and performs various tricks.
Conclusion: The dog is most faithful of all animals. We should take care of our pet dogs. 0 0 0
Introduction: The cat is a four-footed animal. It looks like a small tiger as it belongs to the tiger family. In most countries, the cat is kept as a domestic animal. There are wild cats also. The wild cats are very ferocious.
Description: The cat has two eyes and two ears on its round head. It has sharp teeth. It has a coat of soft fur. There are sharp nails in her feet. Its eyes are very bright. The cats are of a different colour as– white, black, brown etc.
Food: The cat is fond of milk and flesh. It takes other foods like rice, bread and almost all the foods that humans take.
Nature: The cat is very mild. Children like to play with it. It loves warm places. In the winter season, it often likes to sleep near the fireplace. Some cats like to sleep in the bed of its master. It sleeps by day and hunts at night. It kills rat, mouse, cockroach, spider and even sometimes it seem to kill snake also. It gives birth to four to five youngs at a time.
Conclusion: The cat is a very gentle and faithful servant to its master. A well-nursed cat is a proud possession of a family. We should take care of it. 0 0 0
Introduction: The elephant is a four-footed giant animal. Though the elephant is a wild animal, yet it can be tamed and domesticated.
Description: An elephant has two eyes, two fan-like ears and a long trunk. Its trunk is its nose. It has two teeth which are very precious. It has a tail but it is short. An elephant helps a man in many ways. It can carry a burden from one place to another. It is a faithful friend to the hunters. They go for hunting riding on its back. The wild elephants are hunted with the domesticated elephant. Asia and Africa are rich in elephant population. But the elephant of Assam is world-famous. Among the Indian states, Assam is rich in elephant population. The colour of the elephant is generally black. Some white elephant is found in Myanmar.
Food: An elephant eats leaves of trees, grass, paddy etc. The banana tree is its favourite food. An elephant takes about three hundred kilograms of food every day.
Usefulness: An elephant gives birth to a young once a year. In addition to its use in carrying a burden, it is also used in the circus. An elephant can be trained well. It can show tricks to give entertainment to the spectators in a circus.
Its teeth are used to make ornaments. Its bones are used in making various things. Its bones are used in preparing some medicines also.
Menace it faces: Forest is the natural habitat of the elephants. But with the increase of population the space for forest has been coming down and as a result, these valuable animals have been facing a deadly menace.
Conclusion: To protect this species of animal Government must take some decisive steps like increasing forest area, guarding it against smugglers and planting more of its food trees. 0 0 0
Introduction: I am a student of Kayakuchi H. S. School. I read in class VIII. There are five buildings in our school. One building is used as a library and Teachers’ Common room. Our classroom belongs to the new building.
Description: Our classroom is a very spacious nice room. There are about twenty-five desks and benches. They are made of fine wood. There is a platform in the front middle side of the classroom in which there is a chair and a table. There is a big blackboard hung in the wall beside the platform.
There are eight windows and two doors in our classroom. There is a ceiling made of bamboo but well painted. There are four fans to cool us in summer. We all take care of our classroom and try to keep it neat and clean every day. We all maintain discipline and sweep our classroom ourselves by turns. The class representative is very sincere to keep us under discipline. We never write on the desks and benches. To scribe on the walls and doors is strictly prohibited.
Conclusion: We are proud of belonging to such a neat and clean classroom. 0 0 0
Introduction: The name of our school is Barbala H. S. School. It is situated about six kilometres northward from Barpeta town. In the north of it, there is a Masjid, in the east, there is a public road which runs from Kaljhar to Barpeta town. Towards the west, the river Palla is flowing down gently. In the south, there is a public health centre.
Description: Our school has four buildings each containing three rooms. Two rooms are used as Teachers’ Common room. One is used as a library. Our classroom is very neat and clean. Every room contains six windows and two doors. In addition to those rooms, there is a big hall which is used for seminars and meetings. All the rooms contain good ceilings made of bamboo. They are well painted.
There are about four hundred students in our school. There are thirty teachers including the principal. Our teachers are good, ideal and amicable to us. They teach us very attentively. Our Principal is a strict disciplinarian. He often punishes the students who break discipline.
We have a well stock library. We have got a spacious playground in front of our school. The school has been producing many highly educated citizens.
Conclusion: I love my school very much. I am proud of being a student of this esteemed school. 0 0 0
My Native Village
Introduction: The name of my native village is Kamalpur. It is situated about seven kilometres northwards from Barpeta town. It is a small village.
Description: There are about three hundred families and about three thousand inhabitants in our village. They belong to different castes but they have been living peacefully and happily.
Most of the villagers are cultivators. Their economic condition is very bad. There are some businessmen and servicemen also. But their number is very few.
The transport means are very woeful. The government has taken no step to construct our roads. We are also deprived of the advantage of electricity. The climate of our village is usual- very cool in winter and very hot in summer.
There are two Primary Schools, one M. E. School and one High school in our village. There is a post office also. Most of the population belongs to the religion of Islam. We have three small Masjids in the village. We pray to God five times a day.
Conclusion: Though our village is poor, we love it very much. We have been trying hard for the development of our village. 0 0 0
Introduction: The name of my town is Howly. It is a small town but very neat and clean. It is situated about ten kilometres northwards from Barpeta town.
Population: The town is thickly populated. There are about ten thousand people of different castes living in the town. We live in perfect peace and harmony.
Public Institutions: There are five Primary Schools and three High Schools- one for the girls only. There are two Junior Colleges. There are seven Masjids and five temples to worship God. There is a Town Library. It is full of books on various subjects. There are two hospitals, two post offices and two veterinary dispensaries. The Police Station is on the west side of the town. It is one of the most important business places in the district of Barpeta.
The Bazaar is the nucleus of business of the town. The market is famous for the business of tamul-pan. Large numbers of people come from the nook and corner of Assam for purchasing tamul and pan. Wednesday and Saturday are the market days. On the market days, the town becomes over and overcrowded.
The main attractive and praiseworthy thing of the town is the Rash Mandir. It is famous all over Assam. During the observation of the Rash Festival, people from distant places come to sanctify their heart and soul.
Conclusion: Our town is a grand one. I love it the most. I shall try my best to lead this town to the path of more glory and development. 0 0 0
The National Festival of Assame
My Favourite Festival
Introduction: The Bihu is the national festival of Assam. There are three Bihus in a year as-Rangali Bihu, Kati Bihu and Bhogali Bihu.
Rangali Bihu: The Rangali Bihu starts from the last day of the month of Chot and it continues for seven days to the sixth day of the month of Bahag. The young boys and girls dance in the open fields in a festive mood. It is also called the Spring Festival. It symbolizes the youth of life. Some customs are observed. People take new clothes. Gamoshas are presented to the kith and kins. Cows are worshipped. In the Rangali Bihu people enjoy much and it lasts for a week for which it is called the Great Bihu.
Kati Bihu: The Kati Bihu begins on the last day of the month of Ashwin. In this Bihu, the fields remain bare. Foods and grains found scanty. So it is called Kangali Bihu (Bihu of Scarcity). Only the lamps are lit in the paddy fields as a mark of worshipping Laxmi Devi.
Bhogali Bihu: The Bhogali Bihu starts on the last day of the month of Puha. It continues for seven days. In this month the granary of the peasants is full of harvested crops. So many sorts of delicious dishes of foods as- pithas, cakes, sweets, laddus are prepared. People eat them up to their greed. Kith and kins are invited and offered delicious items of foods. In this Bihu, people eat plenty of food. So this Bihu is called Bhogali Bihu (Bihu of Food). Mezis made of straw and bamboo is burnt for amusement.
Conclusion: The Bihus are the part and parcels of Assamese culture. It is the symbol of peace, love, harmony and life. The Assamese are very proud of the Bihus. 0 0
Newspaper is a set of paper giving the latest information on various fields of knowledge and data. It is the easiest means of communication.
There are different types of newspapers such as- daily, weekly, bi-weekly, fortnightly and monthly. Fortnightly and monthly papers are called Magazines.
The modern newspaper was originated in 1536 in Venice of Europe. At first, it was a periodical publication called Gazzetta. In Germany, by the end of the 17th century, there were published three daily newspapers. Hence the newspaper spread in different countries of the world. In India newspaper came into being in 1780 published by James Augustus Hiki.
There is immense usefulness of newspapers. A newspaper publishes varied information that includes politics, economics, literature, sports, scientific etc. The reading of newspaper increases our store of knowledge. It develops a human relationship. It evolves our linguistic ability. Some people read the newspaper for recreation. In building public opinion newspaper has no alternatives.
The newspaper industry is now very developed. It gives us news in an artistic getup. It also publishes photographs and cartoons. Almost every newspaper publishes an editorial on important news.
But unfortunately, every good thing has also a bad effect. Most papers are seldom impartial. Sometimes some baseless and false news are published which bewilder the reader community. So some amount of carefulness should be maintained while reading news in a newspaper.
Considering the overall significance of the newspaper, its bad effects are comparatively less. 0 0 0
The LIfe of a Great Man
The Man I admire Most
Introduction: The man I admire most is Sri Sankardeva. He was the founder of Vaishnavism, a prolific writer and a social reformer.
Birth and Parentage: Sri Sankardeva was born in 1449 in the village called Alipukhuri in the district of Nagaon, Assam. Kushumber Bhuyan was his father and Satya Shandhya was his mother. He lost his parents in his childhood. Then he was brought up by his grandmother, Khershuti.
Education: At the age of twelve he was taken to the tool of Pandit Mahendra Kandali. There, under Kandali, he learned Sanskrit and Sanskrit scriptures, Byakaran and some other Sastras within a very short period.
Pilgrimage: He was a descendant of the noble Bara Bhuyan dynasty of Assam. After the death of his father, he inherited his father’s property. But he was indifferent to worldly matters and soon he handed over his property to his uncle and set out for pilgrimage.
For twelve years he travelled throughout North -East India and visited many sacred places like Dharaka, Mathura, Brindaban etc. Returning from his pilgrimage, he began to preach Vaishnavism in Assam.
Why I Admire Him: He is my ideal great man and I admire him most for the following reasons.
First, he was a prophet as he introduced a new sect of religion and through it he gave a spiritual unity to a disorderly nation.
Secondly, he was a prolific writer. He composed songs, hymns, dramas and some other valuable books. Kirtan Ghosha is his masterpiece. It is considered to be the text Book of Vaishnavism. His religion is based on Sri Bhagbat Gita. ‘Ek Deva Ek Seva Ek Bine Nai Keo’ (There is none but only one God whom all should worship) is the creed of his religion.
Thirdly, he was a social reformer also. He gave the Assamese nation an ordered life. His religion teaches that all the beings and things are the creations of only one God and we should look on all being with equal eyes. There is no high and low in the eyes of God. His teachings teach us the lessons of love, brotherhood and unity among the human race. He set up many namghars (prayer Houses) in many places of Assam which brought unity among the people of Assam.
Conclusion: Sankardeva is now regarded as the real founder of modern Assamese culture. His contribution to the Assamese nation and culture is unique. he died in 1568 at the age of 119 in Koch Bihar. 0 0 0
Life of a Gereat Man
A man is called great when he contributes something to the cause of human peace, unity, happiness, brotherhood or fellow-feeling. There is no dearth of great men who have contributed to the growth and prosperity of human civilization. But among them, I have chosen Mahatma Gandhi as my ideal great man.
Mahatma Gandhi’s original name was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi. He was born in Rajkot in Gujarat on the 2nd October 1869. His father Karamchand Gandhi was the Prime Minister of Rajkot. His mother Putlibhai was a saintly lady.
He took his early education in Rajkot and after passing the Entrance Examination; he went to England and became a lawyer. Gandhi practised law in the Bombay High Court. Then he went to South Africa and joined the bar.
In 1915 he returned to India and took the leadership of Indian National Congress and started several movements against the British. At last under his leadership, India got independence from the British on 15th August 1947.
I admire him the most. It is because he sacrificed his life for the cause of our nation. Besides this, he tried his best to unite Hindu and Muslims.
He was a great social worker also. He tried to banish untouchability and communalism from India. He gave much importance to the development of cottage industry in India. He introduced Basic Education in India. He was a writer also. His autobiography My Experience with Truth is praised by millions of readers. He was assassinated by a fanatic Hindu named Nathuram Godse on 30th January 1948.
We should follow the great ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. 0 0 0
Life of A Great Woman
On 27Th August 1910 in Yugoslavia, there was born a she-child with a heart full of love, affection and charity whose whole life was dedicated to the welfare services to mankind and became the mother of the poor, sick and afflicted persons irrespective of caste and creed and unanimously was recognized as one of the greatest women of the twentieth century world- the name of that great woman was Mother Teresa.
Mother Teresa came off a poor Albanian family. Her father’s name was Mr Nichola and mother’s name was Mrs Drana. Teresa was the third but the youngest child of her parents. Her childhood name was Agnes.
About the age of five, like other children of her age, she went to a nearby village school where she learnt the A. B. C. of formal education. At the age of seven, she lost her father and then the family fell into extreme poverty. Consequently, she put an end to her formal education at the age of sixteen.
As she grew older, she became more and more reflective, indifferent and restless. She could not make out what to do. At last, to have peace of mind, she decided to serve the poor and the sick. Then she took up the name of Teresa after a French nun Teresa Martin and joined a Christian Missionary of Yugoslavia. With the Missionaries, she came to India in 1929 and settled down in Calcutta. At first, she devoted herself to educating the poor illiterate children.
One morning, during her earlier life in Calcutta, she happened to come by a poor sick old person lying helpless in the footpath of Calcutta and noticing his helpless condition, her heart began to burn within her. Thence she decided to devote herself to the service of the poor, sick and forlorn. This was the turning point of her life that led her to greatness. Then with anxiety, but with much hope and eagerness, she founded the Missionary of Charity in 1949 and began to serve the poor, sick and the forlorn whole-heartedly. Basing upon her Missionary of Charity she founded sixty schools and more than 200 dispensaries in different countries of the world. And through them, she rendered her motherly services to mankind till her death on 5th September 1997.
Teresa was not only the universal mother of the poor, sick and the forlorn but was an ideal symbol of a simple life-style. She was an exemplary disciplinarian also. Besides this, she was a great patriot and an ideal patron of international peace and mutual understanding among the nations.
The world was so much affected and influenced by her services that after the recognition of her incessant services to mankind, the world bestowed many degrees, honour and awards on her. In 1962, the Indian Government bestowed the Padma-Shree title on her. In 1972 she was awarded the Jawaharlal Nehru Award for international understanding. In 1978 she was awarded the Nobel Prize for world peace. In 1980, the Indian Government offered her the Bharat Ratna honour. In 1993, she was awarded the Rajib Gandhi Probability Award. Moreover, she was shown much honour by many countries of the world wherever she went. All the money she received along with those honour and awards was spent for the cause of the poor and the afflicted.
There were some other women like Sarojini Naidu, Annie Besant, Indira Gandhi, Aruna Asaf Ali and some others who were also recognized as the great women of the twentieth century; but Mother Teresa was the greatest of all the greats because her services were much more extensive and universal.
Mother Teresa was so much busy with the welfare services to mankind that she got no opportunity to enter into a marriage bond and remained virgin for all her days in the world. That is why she may be called the Virgin Mother of the world.
We should be inspired by her great ideals. 0 0 0
Introduction: Hazarat Muhammad was a social reformer, lawmaker, administrator, paragon of ideal personality and above all the founder of Islam, a monotheist religion. He was born about 570 A. D. in Makka, Saudi Arabia. His father’s name was Abdullah and mother’s name was Amina.
Early Days: He lost his father six months before his birth. His mother, Amina, died when he was six years old. Then his grandfather, Abdul-Muttalib, took care of him but unfortunately, he too died two years later when Muhammad was only eight years old. After his grandfather’s death, his uncle Abu Talib took care of him and was a support to him for many years of his adult life. Muhammad did not have any formal education. He travelled neighbouring countries with his uncle in business purpose and learnt some knowledge about people and place. While he was twenty-five he married Khadijah, a wealthy widow who was fifteen years older to Muhammad.
As a Prophet: In 610 A. D. when Muhammad was forty years old, he went to the mountain of Hira near Makka where the angel Gabriel appeared before him and taught the oracles ( divine messages) which become the basis of Islam as a monotheist religion. Along with it, Muhammad was commanded to preach the divine teachings to the pagan people of Arabia.
Preaching of Islam: When Muhammad first started teaching the divine messages to the people, many of the people of Makka, who were idol worshipers, began to hate and oppose him. But there were also people who listened to his preaching and obeyed his messages. These people were the first of the followers of Islam. Leaders of Makka tortured the followers of Islam. Some followers of Islam were executed. Muhammad resisted this and continued to preach Islam.
Migration: Being harassed and tortured vehemently by the idol worshipers of Makka, Muhammad migrated to Medina. The people living in Medina received him with warm enthusiasm. Muhammad wanted them to convert to Islam. They agreed and converted to Islam willingly. Later on, many of his followers migrated to Medina to live in contact with Muhammad. This movement from Makka to Medina is called the Hijrah (migration). The Hijrah was also the beginning of the Islamic calendar. In Medina the prophet built the first masjid, worshipping house.
Conquest of Makka: The people of the Jewish tribe both in Medina and Makka disagreed with the teachings and rules set by Muhammad. Therefore several fights took place between the Muslims and the idol worshipers. The number of Muslims were fewer than the pagans, yet in most battles the Muslims were victorious. At last, after a series of battles over twenty years, Hazarat Muhammad with his followers conquered Makka and established the supremacy and influence of Islam all over the Arabian Peninsula.
The Pillars of Islam: Islam is a monotheist religion. ‘There is no God but Allah and Muhammad is a messenger of Allah’ — is the motto of Islam. Kalema, salat, fast during the Ramadan month, jakat and pilgrimage to Makka — are the five pillars of Islam. All the divine messages he received from Allah are compiled in the book called Koran, the much-read book in the world.
Social Reforms: Hazarat Muhammad was not only the founder of Islam but also a great social reformer of all times. He reformed many social evils like girl child killing, communal discrimination, slavery etc. He also established some madrassas for the dissemination of education.
Death: In 632 AD, on June 8, Muhammad became very sick and died peacefully. He was buried in the chamber of his wife Aisha in Medina. 0 0 0
Dr Bhupen Hazarika
Introduction: Dr Bhupen Hazarika popularly known as ‘Sudhakantha’ (having a sweet voice) was an internationally famed Assamese singer, musician, poet and film-maker.
Birth and Parentage: Bhupen Hazarika was born on 8 September 1926 to Nilakanta and Shantipriya Hazarika in Sadiya, Assam. He was the eldest of ten children of his parents. His father was originally from Nazira in Sivasagar. In 1929 his father moved to the Bharalumukh of Guwahati where Bhupen Hazarika spent his early childhood. In 1932 his father moved to Dhubri and in 1935 to Tezpur.
Beginning of Career as a Singer: In Tezpur that Bhupen Hazarika, then 10 years of age, was discovered by Jyotiprasad Agarwala, the noted Assamese lyricist, playwright and the first Assamese Filmmaker and Bishnu Prasad Rabha, renowned Assamese artist and revolutionary poet, where ten-year-old Bhupen sang a Borgeet (traditional classical Assamese devotional songs were written by Sankardeva and Madhabdeva), taught by his mother. In 1936, Bhupen Hazarika accompanied them to Kolkata where he recorded his first song at the Aurora Studio. His association with the icons of Assamese Culture was the beginning of his artistic growth and career. After this Hazarika sang two songs in Agarwala’s film Indramalati (1939): Kakhote Kolosi Loi and Biswa Bijoyi Naujawan while he was only twelve. He composed his first Assamese song, Agnijugor Firingoti Moi at the age of 13 and began his career as a lyricist, composer and singer.
Education: He took his formal education at Sonaram High School and matriculated from Tezpur High School in 1940. He completed his higher education in Political Science from Banaras Hindu University. For a brief period, he worked at All India Radio, Guwahati when he won a scholarship from Columbia University and set sail for New York in 1949. There he earned a Ph. D. in 1952 on his thesis Proposals for Preparing India’s Basic Education to use Audio-Visual Techniques in Adult Education. At Columbia University, he met Priyamvada Patel, whom he married in 1950. Tez Hazarika, their only child, was born in 1952 and he returned to India in 1953. But their married life became unhappy one as his wife left him after the birth of their first child.
Works: Returning from the USA, he became a teacher at the Guwahati University. But after a few years, he gave up the job of teaching and went to Kolkata where he established himself as a successful music director and singer. During that period, Hazarika made several award-winning Assamese films such as Shakuntala, Pratidhwani, etc. He added a new trend to Bengali music. Bhupen Hazarika composed music for films from Bangladesh too which got international acclaim. He was elected the President of the Assam Sahitya Sabha in 1993. In 1967, Hazarika was elected as a member of Assam Legislative Assembly from Nauboicha constituency.
With Kalpana Lajmi: He was introduced to Kalpana Lajmi in the early 1980s by his friend Hemendra Prasad Barooah in Kolkata. Subsequently, Lajmi began assisting him professionally and personally until the end of his life.
Most of his songs were composed and sung by Hazarika himself. His songs are characterized by humanity and universal brotherhood. His songs, based on the themes of communal amity, universal justice and empathy, have become popular among the people of Assam, besides West Bengal and Bangladesh. He is also acknowledged to have introduced the culture and folk music of Assam and Northeast India to Hindi cinema at the national level.
Death: With the passing of time Bhupen Hazarika became older and weaker and died of multi-organ failure on 5 November 2011. His mortal body was cremated on November 9, 2011, near the Brahmaputra river in a plot of land donated by Guwahati University. About half a million people attended his funeral to show their love and homage to Bhupen Hazarika who made his name a legend during his life-time. 0 0 0
Introduction: Kalpana Chawla (1962 – 2003) was an American astronaut and the first woman of Indian origin in space.
Birth and Education: Kalpana Chawla was born on March 17, 1962. Banarasi Lal Chawla was her father and Sanjyothi Chawla was her mother. As a child, Kalpana liked to draw pictures of aeroplanes. After getting a Bachelor of Engineering degree in Aeronautical Engineering from Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh, she moved to the United States in 1982 where she obtained a Master of Science degree in Aerospace Engineering from the University of Texas in 1984. In 1983 she married Jean Pierre Harrison.
A career as an Astronaut: In 1988, she began working at NASA, where she did Computational Fluid Dynamics Research on vertical or short take-off and landing concepts. Her first space mission began on November 19, 1997, as part of the six-astronaut crew that flew the Space Shuttle Columbia flight STS-87. Chawla was the first Indian-born woman and the second Indian person to fly in space. On her first mission, Chawla travelled over 10.4 million miles in 252 orbits of the earth, logging more than 372 hours (15 Days and 12 Hours) in space.
In 2000, Chawla was selected for her second flight as part of the crew of STS-107 and she with his associates performed nearly 80 experiments studying earth and space science. During the launch of STS-107, Columbia’s 28th mission, the shuttle had had minor damage from foam shedding, but NASA managers limited the investigation reasoning that the crew could not have fixed the problem if it had been confirmed. When Columbia re-entered the atmosphere of Earth, the damage allowed hot atmospheric gases to penetrate and destroy the internal wing structure, which caused the spacecraft to become unstable and break apart.
Death: Kalpana died in the Space Shuttle Columbia disaster on February 1, 2003, when the Columbia disintegrated over Texas during re-entry into the Earth’s atmosphere. The disaster took the death of all of seven crew members along with Kalpana Chawla. Chawla’s remains were identified along with the rest of the crew members and were cremated and scattered at National Park in Utah.
Conclusion: Kalpana Chawla though died young, had left behind her a legend of becoming successful female astronaut of Indian origin. The young generation of ours should be inspired by her life. 0 0 0
Discipline is training to act according to some rules and regulations. It implies complete obedience to the order of an authority. Discipline is a must in every walk of life.
The training of discipline begins at home. Every member of a family must obey the head of the family to maintain peace, order and happiness.
In school, discipline is of great importance. The students must obey their teachers and the rules and regulations of the school. Otherwise, no education is possible.
In the playground, every player must obey the captain. The players must maintain certain rules and regulations imposed upon by the authority. If anybody disobeys the order of the captain then success is impossible.
Nowhere is discipline as necessary as in the army. An army without discipline is no army, but a disorderly crowd. “Do or die”- is the motto in the army. The soldiers must obey the commands of their commanders without any objection.
Discipline is the key to success in every walk of life. It is the root of all other virtues that adorn human life. 0 0 0
Hobby means one’s leisure time favourite activity. It is a means to divert our mind from humdrum daily life. Hobby differs from person to person. I have also a hobby and it is gardening.
I am a lover of trees. So I have chosen gardening as my hobby. We have a spacious outer courtyard. I have divided the courtyard into four parts. I have planted some wood trees around the north side of the plot. In the front part of the plot, I plant various kinds of seasonal flowers. In the second part, I plant vegetables and in the third part, I plant and nurse young trees.
Every evening, after coming back from school, I spend about an hour nursing and watching my garden. My younger sister helps me often. My garden provides us with the necessary vegetables for us. We sell surplus production in the market and thus we earn some extra money.
Every morning I take a walk in the garden. When I see the bloomed flowers dancing in the wind, my heart leaps up with joy. Thus gardening is my best means of recreation. I wish that everybody should take up gardening as his hobby. 0 0 0
Introduction: Friendship is an intimacy between two persons who share each other’s joys and sorrows, fortunes and misfortunes. In other words, to say, friendship is an affectionate attachment of one for another.
Kinds of Friends: There are two kinds of friends- a false friend and a true friend. False friends are they who share only our joys and fortunes. They forsake us in times of sorrows and misfortunes. They are fair-weather friends. On the other hand, a true friend is one who shares both joys and sorrows equally. He never deserts us in time of misfortunes. True friendship must know and understand the feelings and wants of each other. The proverb says, “A friend in need is a friend indeed.”
Value of Friendship: Man is a social animal. His instincts long for the company of others. But when one succeeds in selecting and getting a true friend it becomes a blessing. It has much value in life as- friendship helps in developing noble virtues. It develops our tolerance, sympathy and affection. One can lay bare his heart to one’s friend. True friends are sincere to each other and they wish each other’s success. A poet says:
“Society, friendship and love
Divinely bestowed upon man.”
Conclusion: True friendship is a blessing in one’s life. To be happy in life, we must have friends. But we must be very careful in selecting friends. A true friend is a light in the darkness. He guides, encourages and enlivens one and remains a well-wisher of his friend throughout his life. 0 0 0
My School LIbrary
The library is room or building where books on different subjects are kept for study. A library is a necessary condition without which a school can never be a perfect school. Our school has owned a spacious library.
Our school library is adjacent to the Teachers’ Common Room. It is a big room with almost all modern scientific facilities. A senior teacher of our school is in charge of the library. There are some hard and fast rules for managing our library.
There are more than ten thousands of books in our library. Besides school books, there are many books on different branches of human knowledge. The school authority provides newspapers, magazines and journals for our study in the library. Books are issued for a period of fifteen days. Our library authority lends five books to poor students at a time. I am a regular reader of our library. I spend my leisure hours in the library reading literary magazines.
Our library has been serving students since its establishment in 1971 and thus it has been exercising its roles in disseminating knowledge and wisdom. 0 0 0
Science in Everyday Life
Systematic and analytical knowledge of anything is called Science. The modern age is an age of science which has affected our every sphere of everyday life. The inventions of science have made our life more secure, easy and comfortable.
Science has entirely transformed the transport system in the world. Nowadays we have motor-cars, aeroplane, electricity, telephone, mobile phone, telegram, radio, television etc. which have quickened the transport and communicative systems of the modern world.
In the field of Medical Science, the gift of science is immense. Nowadays almost every disease is a subject of cure and remedy due to the use of science. We have x-rays, Xerox, ultra-sound and many other instruments to examine our body. Thus science has made our life-span longer and happier.
Science, to say, is a faithful servant to a modern man. The alarm clock wakes him at any hour he likes. The electric oven prepares his meals. The cooker cooks his food. The television, radio, internet etc. give him daily news and information.
The use of science makes us know and reveal the mystery of the universe. By means of science, scientists have become able to send rockets to remote planets.
There is no doubt that science has made our life more and more comfortable. But it has also made our life complex and artificial. But the benefits of its use outweigh its ill. 0 0 0
Science and Mankind
Science means special and systematic knowledge of anything. The first systematic and special knowledge of mankind was the use of fire and production of fire by rubbing two pieces of flints together. This was the beginning of science on human life. But with the passing of time, mankind has acquired so much knowledge on things by means of systematic study that it has invented and discovered many things and has revealed many mysteries to make our everyday life more easy and comfortable. From a small fountain pen to an artificial satellite science has contributed so many things that without the contributions of science everyday life of mankind is beyond imagination.
After having a deep sleep at night we get up in the morning and take a brush and some paste to clean our teeth and mouth. The brush, the paste and even the tap of water are the contributions of science.
Secondly, after having our hand and face washed in the morning, we sit to take our breakfast. We take tea, cake, loaf, biscuits or something else. All the things, even the plate and spoons are the contributions of science.
Thirdly there was a time when men used the bark of trees and the skins of animals as their garments. But nowadays men don’t depend on such coarse things and instead of such things we wear plain, clean and velvety clothes which are the inventions of science.
Fourthly, the use of science which has affected our life is Printing press. Nowadays the knowledge we gain is through printing books. Only five hundred years ago it was a very painstaking effort to have a book at will. But nowadays we can have a thousand copies of a book without any difficulty due to the invention of the printing press.
Fifthly, in the field of agriculture, science has done many contributions for which today it has become possible to produce a large number of goods to cater to our foods.
Sixthly, in the field of amusement and recreation science has contributed many things as- radio, television, telephone, mobile phone, computer and so on.
Thus in every sphere of our life, we are sunk under the contributions of science and it seems that hardly can we get a thing that is not the invention of science. Science has affected our daily life so much that science might be thanked as our god. But such an assumption is foolish because too much of anything is bad. It seems that too much dependence on science is going to make mankind a good for nothing fellow.
At last, it may be said that if we use science sparingly and with our conscience then our life will be more and more comfortable, ease and meaningful and then our desired peace will be had in our hand. 0 0 0
Science and War
Science: Its Bad Effects
The modern world is called to be the world of Science as it has affected the modern world so much that no man living in human society can live a moment without the aids of science. Everything that we handle and use from morning till evening and even the things on which we sleep at night are the contributions of science. Thus science is associated with every walk of our life. Besides this, science has not fallen back to affect war that the nations do against each other. Though almost all the scientific implements of war are invented during the last two centuries, yet science is associated with warlike a fierce lion to suck the blood of mankind. The things and implements that are used in wars are guns, cannons, tanks, missiles, atom bombs, hydrogen bomb, lethal gas etc.
In the very ancient time, we see the use of science in the war between Hiero, the king of Syracuse and the Romans. During their wartime, the scientist Archimedes had invented some scientific implements after the request of King Hero. Among some other things, he invented a special kind of mirror by which the king Hiero destroyed all the warships of the Romans.
In the war of Kurukshetra, the second Pandava Bhima had used a kind of implement called Club from which explosive fire came out when struck with it. In the modern age, the club of Bhima is equivalent to modern hand bomb.
In the middle ages the scientist like Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo had been engaged to the government services by the Duke of Milan and the Duke of Tuscandy respectively because of their contributions to science. Thus during the time of the French Revolution the chemist Lavoisier was compelled to prepare explosive materials. From such instances, we see that even the kings and political leaders patronized the scientists to use scientific implements in war.
But the first systematic use of science and scientific inventions was made and used in the war of Crimea in 1854. In that year the British soldiers built the railroad to use in war.
In India, in the war of Panipat, the Mughal Emperor Babar used cannons against his enemy Ibrahim Lodi.
During the twentieth century, the world has experienced two World Wars in which science had shown its front teeth to the civilized mankind. The most dreadful use of science is seen in World War II. Hiroshima and Nagasaki, two cities of Japan, are the worst instances of the bad effects of science. In recent times, we have faced another deadly war between Iraq and America in which almost every kind of war implements are used.
Thus we see that where there is war there is science. Now a question may arise that whether the use of science in war is bliss or curse upon mankind. To its answer, we must admit unanimously that the use of science in war is a curse, not bliss. Because war can do nothing, except devastation, death and decay, sorrow and sufferance. It seems that one day if the use of science is not cut off from war the world would be destroyed forever.
We hope that a time will come when all human being would give up all the harmful and jealous intentions against each other and will live peacefully forgetting the talk of war. 0 0 0
My Daily Life
Introduction: From my childhood, I have been brought up through strict discipline by my parents. And from my grandfather, I have learnt the lesson of simplicity in every sphere of life. Hence my daily life is very simple and disciplined. I have divided the day into four parts- morning, noon, afternoon and night. I usually spend these parts of a day in the following ways:
Morning: I get up from bed early in the morning and wash my hands and face. Then I pray to God and after this, I do some physical exercises for about fifteen minutes and then I sit down for my study. First of all, I read English and then other subjects. I continue my studies till 8.30 a. m. Thereafter I take my bath and then I take my meal. At about 9 o’clock I start for my school with my books.
Our school sits at 9. 30 a. m. I am never late in attending my class. I hear very attentively what my teachers say in class. In leisure time I play with my classmates. At 3 o’clock in the evening, our school breaks and I go home straight.
Afternoon: I reach home at about 4 p.m. After changing my school dress, I get my hands and face washed and then takes my tiffin. After this, I take rest for sometimes and then I sit down to do my home works. After this, I go out for a walk in the open field with my friends and return home just before the sun sets.
Night: After returning home I wash my hand and feet and I sit to pray to God for some time. Then I take a cup of either tea or milk and then begin to read. I continue my studies till 10 p.m. and then I take my meal and about 10. 30 p.m. I go to my bed and sleep.
On Holidays: I do not follow this routine on holidays. During holidays, I read some out books, besides my school books. In the evening I play some outdoor games with my brothers, sisters and friends. In the afternoon I work sometimes in the garden. Sometimes I listen to the radio and watch television. Every Sunday evening, I visit the village library and read various magazines.
Conclusion: Thus I spend my daily life. I always try to keep up my daily hours doing my routine duties because I think that disciplined life is the best life to be happy and successful. 0 0 0
Holidays and How I Spend Them
A Holiday means a day of rest from our day-to-day routine life. The word ‘holiday’ is very pleasing to everybody.
The object of holidays should be great and we should spend the holidays meaningfully and wisely. During our working days, we are occupied with our duties. We have no time to stand and stare. But it is a holiday which gives us opportunities to refresh our body and mind. We can make use of holidays in the following ways:
We can visit new places during our holidays. It will be easy to meet our relatives during the holidays. Visiting friends and relatives act positively on our mutual understanding and cooperation.
During the holidays the students can revise old lessons. Besides this they should read out- books also to increase their store of knowledge.
During holidays we should devote ourselves to some social works like repairing village roads, cleansing temples or doing household work. The students may help their parents in their agricultural or other work.
During holidays the students may take to some extra-curriculum activities like practising arts, music or any other technical works so as to get practical experience.
If one can spend a holiday meaningfully, it will seem to do a lot for our body and mind. It can add vigour and zest to our life. 0 0 0
Cottage Industries of Assam
Cottage Industries are the industries where products are produced at homes by the members of a family with the help of some simple tools. Cottage industries are there all over India. They vary from state to state. In Assam cottage industries have special importance. Some of the important cottage industries of Assam are as follows:
Sericulture and Silk- Weaving: Assamese women are very skilled in the art of spinning and weaving. The cottage industry is the first requirement of every Assamese family. Some lakhs of handlooms are in use in Assam. Different varieties of clothes are produced in it. The tribal women are also experts in this art. Ari, endi, mega, silk, pat etc. with handloom woven-design are some of the important varieties. Sualkuchi is famous for producing pat at their looms.
Cane and Bamboo Works: It is the second important cottage industry of Assam. Chairs, tables and other beautiful furniture are made of cane and bamboo. This industry is practised by all Assamese people at their homes.
Brass and Metal Industry: In these industries, Assam is famous all over India. Hajo and Sharthebari, in the district of Kamrup, have earned a reputation for these industries. Sarai manufactured in these industries is the symbol of Assamese culture and tradition.
In addition to these industries, Assam is not lagged behind in woodworks, goldsmithy and blacksmithy. Some lakhs of people are involved in these industries.
In the economy of Assam, these industries are rendering a better contribution since the advent of the Ahoms. But nowadays the cottage industries have been facing keen competition from merchandised industries. The products of cottage industries require much time and energy and consequently they become costlier than the merchandised products. For such reasons, most of the cottage industries of Assam are on the verge of death.
The development of our economy depends largely on the improvement of the rural economy. To improve the country’s economy these cottage industries must be developed and improved and the government must come forward to protect and develop these industries. 0 0 0
Fifty Years of Indian Independence
Golden Jubilee of Indian Independence
After being governed for about two hundred years, India got freedom from the imperial yoke of the British on 15th August 1947. On that day, all the Indians jumped up with jubilant hearts full of self-belief and with a glaring face of hope for a bright and prosperous future of independent India. One by one free India has trodden on its fifty years on 15th August 1997 and has celebrated its Golden Jubilee in the nook and corner of the country. During these fifty years of independence, it has progressed and developed considerably in one hand, but on the other hand, it has fallen back considerably.
When India got freedom it dreamt of a prosperous India and laid emphasis on science and technology and imported many foreign aids and implements with which many industries were founded. There is no doubt that India has many industries but the standard of the produced goods are comparatively lower than that of other countries such as China, Japan, Sweden, America, German etc.
In the field of agriculture, though many modern technologies are introduced, yet agricultural productions have not increased considerably. It is because of the lamentable ignorance of the average peasants and farmers.
To compare the communication system of free India with that of British India, it must be admitted that free India has developed praise-worthily; but the matter of sorrow is that the communication system of the rural area is yet underdeveloped. The transport media such as- motor car, train, ship, the aeroplane has been increased considerably no doubt but on the other hand, the amount of accident have increased beyond imagination which have been taking away thousands and thousands of lives every year.
In the field of education, free India, during this fifty years, has done much progress and established many schools, colleges, universities and many technological institutions but the standard of education is still in the bud. The present education system is more theoretical and less technical for which the education system of free India has increased the unemployment problems and due to this problem, the social and economic condition is lamentable.
During these fifty years, literature as a branch of fine arts has done unparalleled progress in poetry, novels, drama and short story but the standard of poetry has fallen down beyond imagination.
In the Constitution, India has firmly declared that it would be a secular country, which would patronize no religion, but put emphasis to keep unity, brotherhood among all religions. The fifty years of free India has proved that the creed of secularism is futile.
The last but the most striking affair of independent India is its politics. With independence, India declared that India would be governed by no king but by people themselves. It is no doubt that India has got freedom from the English but its freedom is limited only to some political brokers. It is white truth that the law and principles of administration are unique but its proper application, in reality, is the lowest. In the history of Indian Democracy such leaders like- Narashinha Rao, Laluprasad Yadav, Deve Gowda, Harshad Mehta, Joy Lalita etc. are stains of corruption forever. Almost all the political leaders that India got after its freedom are corrupted persons either personally or politically or by traditionally for which the condition of free India is lamentable in every field.
To conclude it is to say that, during these fifty years, India has failed lamentably to keep up the aim that it took at the time of its freedom. Now if it wishes to fulfil its aim of making a prosperous India all the Indians must raise a revolt strongly and unanimously against all corruption. 0 0 0
Husband and wife with their children living together are called a Family. Family is the first unit of society. Every man belongs to a family. There are two types of family-Small (Single) Family and Joint Family. In a Joint Family, more than one family of the same clan live together with parents, brothers and children. I also belong to a family. My father is the head of our family.
Our family is a small family. We are only five members in our family. My parents, I, one younger brother and sister consist of our family.
We live in a village far from the town. My father is a peasant. He earns our livelihood by exerting hard labour in the field. On my holidays I help my father in the field. We have a small fishery also. My younger brother nurses the pond. My mother is an ideal housewife. She along with my younger sister performs household work and besides this, she cultivates vegetables in the backyard of our house.
I am still a student and am reading in high school. My younger brother and sister are also reading. They are in an M. E. School.
We are not well-to-doing economically. We often fall into poverty. But my mother tackles the family with much tact and patience.
Sometimes my father becomes disheartened and loses hope in life. So he often admonishes us to pursue technical education so as to take to jobs earlier. My aim is to become a journalist. If I can reach my aim, I would serve the country with true and impartial news and information and lead the country to a better position.
Though we are poverty-stricken yet we have been living happily in our small family. 0 0 0
The Prize Distribution Day of Our School
A Memorable Day of My School LIfe
The Annual Prize Distribution Day of the last year is a memorable day of my school life. The Prize Distribution Day is always the happiest day to us in school. The Annual Prize Distribution Ceremony of the last year was held on the 7th November 2011.
In the morning of the day, the students of the school gathered in the school campus and decorated the school building. The school gate was painted and a special gate was constructed to welcome the guests and the visitors. A spacious pandel was built for the ceremony. Local guardians and distinguished persons were invited. The function was begun at 1 p. m. The Principal of our school presided over the function. Most guests came on time. The local M. L. A. also gave his gracious presence. The ceremony was opened with an opening song. After this, the principal read out the Annual Report of the school. The boys and girls who stood first in the song competition were asked to sing again to entertain the visitors. After this, the principal requested the chief guest to give away the prizes.
The principal read out the names of the prize winners. They came one by one and received their respective prizes from the hand of the chief guest.
The day was especially a memorable day for me because I got three prizes. One was received for being first in the debate competition; one for securing the highest mark in the school and the other for extempore speech.
At 4 p. m. the prize distribution was over and the chief guest delivered a laudable lecture addressing to the students which inspired us all to maintain discipline in every walk of life. The local M. L. A. also gave a brief but praiseworthy lecture emphasizing on the necessity of moral lesson in education. After this, the President gave concluding speech encouraging the students to try their best to win prizes the next year.
At 6 p. m. the ceremony came to an end. Everybody may forget the day, but I will remember it forever.
If I Were a Lakhpati
If I Were the Winner of the First Prize of a Lottery
Every state of our country has introduced a lottery. In our state, it has been introduced in the 1970s. Some people are crazy about the lottery. Some purchase ticket for entertainment, some purchase it for testing his luck but most people buy it with the sole intention of winning prizes so as to become rich within an overnight.
I have some weakness for lottery and sometimes purchase one or two tickets. Though I have won no prize till today, yet I desire that if one day I win the first prize in the state lottery and become a lakhpati then I shall do the following things:
First of all, I shall build a small house to live there comfortably. I shall divide the house into three rooms. In one of the rooms, I shall make a small library and for that, I shall make some almirahs, a spacious table and some chairs. In my library, I shall keep all the best books in the world. As my hobby is reading books, so I shall make the room filled up with every kind of books. Though it will be my private library, yet I will keep a special provision so that needy students may borrow books on the condition of returning them within a specified period.
After building and making my house and library, if there remains some spare money, I shall buy a bigha of land to make a garden of plain trees as I am very much fond of green trees.
So when I purchase a ticket, I pray to God that He might help me in winning the first prize. 0 0 0
Reponsibilities of Students
Duties of Students
The children who go to school or any educational institute with the sole aim of acquiring knowledge and building themselves as responsible citizens of their motherland are called Students. Student life is the best part of a man’s life. It is the period of pursuing knowledge with devotion. The life of a student is usually free from all worries, anxieties, wants and troubles faced by a grown-up man.
Though the foremost aim of a student is to devote himself to study for acquiring knowledge and ways of living, yet he has some other social responsibilities as follows:
It is said that today’s students are the citizens of tomorrow. They are the future leaders, administrators, philosophers, social workers, Parliamentarians etc. of the country. To become such a leader proper education is necessary for them. Along with acquiring knowledge, the students should have some political responsibilities. But there are some people who do not like any kind of involvement of students in politics. They argue that students should not be associated with political activities. But they are wrong- as the students of today are the citizens of tomorrow, so they must have a certain political background. They must prepare themselves with some political views and knowledge. In a democratic country like ours, future leaders will come out from the student community. So our students must acquaint themselves with political events. They need some training and understanding of politics. The theoretical knowledge of politics will develop a sense of patriotism and a sense of consciousness of their responsibilities to the country. But it is harmful if the students involve themselves in practical politics.
Besides this, the greater duty of the students is the duty to society. Social service, nowadays, is considered as a part of education. It develops in him a sense of humanity. In the holidays, groups of students can go to the interior villages to do some services for the welfare of society. They may come out to improve the roads, to cleanse the temples; public tanks etc. Social service enables the students to realize the dignity of labour.
Thus the students should have duties towards society and country besides their first duty. 0 0 0
My Last Day at School
It was 29th December 2011 that became my historic last day at my school. The result of our Test Examination had already been out and all the students who were going to appear in the H. S. L. C. Examination from the school were invited by the General Secretary of the school on 29th December to bid them farewell.
At 1 p. m. the Farewell-meeting was held over which the Headmaster of our school presided. Just before the start of the meeting a group photo of the students with the teacher- staff was taken. The meeting started with a song in chorus. As the meeting progressed, I felt uneasy at the thought of leaving the school where I had been reading for six years.
The General Secretary of the Students’ Union spoke out the purpose of the meeting. Some junior students of the school addressed to the meeting first. They expressed their best wishes to the examinees and requested to forgive their faults in dealing with us. Then our turn came. The first boy in our class stood up first. He expressed his gratitude to the teachers who enabled us to appear in the examination. Secondly, I stood up. At first, I had to stammer because my heart was paining with the thought of separation from my teachers and schoolmates. I begged my teachers to excuse us for our conscious and unconscious wrong dealings and finally, thanking the students for their grand arrangements to honour us by holding this meeting, I stopped my fare-welling speech.
At last our respected Headmaster stood up and wished us to do well in the examination. He warned us to avoid unfair means in the examination. He also admonished us to be good citizens along with becoming good students in life. After the presidential address, the meeting came to an end.
After the meeting, we were entertained with sweet-meats. In this way, my last day at school was a day of mixed feeling- a feeling of sadness and pleasure. I shall remember this day all my life. 0 0 0
The Busiest Day I Experienced
It was the first January of the last year that remains ever fresh and green as my busiest day. On that day we were going to celebrate New Year’s Day. The celebration was held under the patronage of Green Valley Self-help Group. I was the General Secretary of the group. I, with the other active members, was busy round the clock to make the celebration a grand success. On that day I left home for the office of the S. H. Group after my breakfast. I, with all my friends and co-workers, arrived at the office at 7 o’clock.
The first thing we were to do was to make a temporary stage for arranging our cultural function. I was busy to make and decorate the gate. Some of my friends were sent to the nearby market to buy a piece of clothes and some flowers. The gate was ready by 10 a. m. By that time we had our tea. Then I went to fetch the microphone and other gadgets. The office compound became lively with songs on the microphone. We got the grounds filled up with tables, chairs and benches. The local people and children began to pour into there.
The meeting was held at 2 o’clock. Our auditorium became lively with the children and invitees. Some volunteers were engaged to maintain discipline. The honourable local M. L. A. was our chief guest. He arrived on time. We escorted him to our office. There he was entertained with tea and sweet-meats.
The meeting opened with a chorus. The President of the S H. Group presided over the meeting. I explain the purpose of the meeting. A modern song followed it. Then the turn of my reading out the Secretarial Report came. I read it out and made an appeal to the students to maintain peace, harmony and cooperation among us to strengthen our democracy.
The chief guest made a very praiseworthy speech. The prizes were distributed among the winners of sports competitions held on the last day of the year. I helped the president in handing over the prizes to the winners. Fortunately, I was awarded a prize for becoming first in the extempore speech. After the Presidential Speech, I conveyed gratitude and thanks on behalf of the Group to the chief guest for his gracious presence.
After that, the Secretary in charge of the cultural function did everything for the grand success of the cultural show. Some reputed artists participated in the function. The cultural function came to an end at 1 p. m. though I was tired I felt fresh and ecstatic for the success of the function.
That was the busiest day of my life. It remains ever fresh and green in my memory. 0 0 0
Flood in Assam
Introduction: The overflowing of water beyond what is usual is called Flood. Among the Indian states, Assam is one of the most flood-prone states. From time immemorial Assam has been being affected pathetically by flood. It is a spontaneous natural calamity of the state.
Causes of Flood: Many resources are responsible for the flood in Assam.
First, the heavy rain caused by the Monsoon may be called the main cause of flood in Assam.
Secondly, Assam is a land of hills and mountains, rivers and rivulets. In the Summer Season, the snows in the mountains, especially in the Himalayas, melt and provide with over water to the Brahmaputra and its tributaries.
Thirdly, the defective system of embankment and drainage and the roads with inadequate bridges and culverts of Assam also cause a flood.
Bad Effects: The effects of flood in Assam are far-reaching. It destroys crops, ponds, orchards and thousands of houses. It damages roads, bridges, railways causing disruption to transport and communication. As a result, it makes the people of Assam suffer indescribable miseries.
Relief Measures: Flood affects the people of Assam every year and every year relief measures are taken both by the Government and the voluntary organizations. But such measures are like a single chilli in a basketful cabbage. The little relief given by the Government does not get at the affected public; instead, it goes to the selfish belly of the corrupted officials.
Attempts to Control Flood: To control monstrous flood in Assam the Government must take some permanent measures, as-
First, the mighty Brahmaputra must be dammed scientifically so that its water resources can be utilized for other works.
Secondly, the embankments must be constructed scientifically and very strongly so that flood may not flow in the fields.
Thirdly, natural outlets should be improved. The building of dams and water reservoirs may also help in controlling flood.
Conclusion: If the flow of water which causes a great flood in Assam can be controlled, then Assam will contribute much to the economy of India and then Assam would smile upon the world as a healthful region of the earth. 0 0 0
I am a student and study is my sole duty. I read books to learn and know matters so as to mould myself as fitted and successful citizens of the world.
Though the study is my sole duty, yet I do not keep myself busy at study all the time. After the advice of my English teacher, I have made a timetable of my study which I follow strictly. During my school-going days, I read my curriculum for three hours in the morning. And at night I spend three to four hours studying Science, Mathematics and English textbooks.
But during holidays, I do not follow this time-table strictly. I am a curious student and to meet my curiosity, I read books other than my school books with much interest. Among the out books, I read literary and historical books. I also like autobiographies and travelogues. Already I have read out the complete works of Laxminath Bezbaruah, Rajanikanta Bardoloi and Satyanath Bora. Besides these, I like to study the scriptures of world religions.
Through study, I have been benefited in various ways. From the study of books, I have learned many valuable lessons which have not been taught in school. Moreover, the study has taught me scientific outlooks towards life. It has broadened my store of knowledge and has been leading me from narrow- mindedness to broad-mindedness.
I pray to God may He keep my mind and body hale and sound so that I can continue my study throughout my life and can spread the outcomes of my study to the welfare of humanity. 0 0 0
My Aim in Life
‘Aim’ means ‘a goal to be achieved in life.’ Every man should have an aim in life. An aimless man is like a boat without an oar. But a man should determine his aim in life according to his taste and aptitude.
After much careful selection, I have fixed my aim in life and it is to become an ideal and perfect teacher. I have a great interest in English and after passing the H. S. L. C. Examination I wish to do my B. A. with honours in English. After getting my B. A. with honours, I wish to join the University of Guwahati for the Master Degree in English.
I have noticed that an ideal teacher gets much honour and value in society. He is an object of pride in society. I want to be an ideal teacher not only in the teaching school curriculum but also in teaching the ideal ways of living. Nowadays society feels the scarcity of ideal men whom everybody can follow. I want to be such a teacher. I think that a teacher should be a friend, a guide, a philosopher and above all a prophet who can build men worth the name. I have been practising simple, plain and humble ways of life so that I can teach my students and to all who come into my contact the lesson of human qualities as- honesty, sincerity, perseverance, simplicity, dutifulness, punctuality etc.
The future of a country depends on the students. And the responsibility of making ideal men depends on the teachers.
But to become successful in my aim I have been trying my best to become a good student first and then a good and ideal teacher. Let God bless me in fulfilling my aim in life and offer me the opportunity to serve my people. 0 0 0
Early-rising means the habit of getting up from bed early in the morning. The proverb says:
Early to bed, early to rise
Makes a man perfect and wise.
There are many benefits of early rising. It helps us improve our health. In the morning the air is fresh and pure. It soothes our body and refreshes our mind. An early riser gets plenty of time to work for the whole day. He never gets short of time. The habit of early-rising teaches us the lesson of punctuality as it is the first step of maintaining discipline.
Early-rising is many beneficiaries for the students. A student, who gets up early in the morning, feels calm and quiet in mind. This freshness helps him to do his work properly. In a calm and fresh environment, the student can concentrate his attention in his study. So the habit of early-rising should be maintained by all students.
Later risers are often seen to complain of bodily disorder. They are always in want of time. It is known that most weak (both bodily and mentally) students are later risers.
Everybody should cultivate this habit of early-rising from his childhood. 0 0 0
The Value of Time
There is a popular proverb that-Time and tide wait for none. It is a universal truth that time is a thing that never learns to stop. It is flying all the moments. Time once passed cannot be regained. It is so valuable that no money can buy a past time.
Everybody should be very mindful to the proper use of time because life is a collection of time. We should do the right things at the right moments. The student should make good use of time in reading and acquiring knowledge. Businessmen should use time in such a manner that they may prosper in their business. Success in every sphere of life depends on the proper use of time.
Idleness is said to be the killer of time. Those who spend time in idleness must suffer in life. We should not waste the precious moments of life in idle talk, in reading bad books or doing things that have no good effects.
Human life is precious. The value of life is counted on the deeds one performs in life and the great deeds are performed by them who take care of every moment in life. Time is flying fast. We must seize it before it flies away and put it to our best use. In brief to say, we all should maintain punctuality in life. 0 0 0
The games that are played in the open field are called Outdoor Games. Football, volleyball, cricket, hockey, badminton, lawn-tennis are some of the outdoor games.
It is said that play is a part of education. As the study makes a man wise, so play makes a man healthy and keeps a man fit and active. Playing outdoor games is a kind of physical exercise.
Outdoor games help us in various ways. It teaches us the value of discipline, obedience, unity and order. It teaches the virtue of team-spirit and sense of cooperation.
Outdoor games should be included in the school curriculum as it is a part of education. But every game may not suit everybody. One should take up to play outdoor games according to his taste, age and interest. None should ignore the importance of outdoor games; because only work and no play make one melancholic and heavy in mind. Outdoor games make us social and more humane.
Every school should have a playground to promote the cause of outdoor games. 0 0 0
A Picnic Party Shared by Me
Introduction: Picnic means feasting for pleasure with one’s friends, colleagues or relatives taken out of home. After the Half-yearly Examination, we the students of class X decided to go for a picnic. On our headmaster’s advice, we decided to go and have a feast at Kaziranga.
Time: Our Half-yearly Examination ended on the 30th of June 2011 and we started for the picnic on 1st July. We had thirty students and two teachers with us. We started very early in the morning. We took necessary food-staff, utensils and firewood with us.
Description of the Venue: We contracted an omnibus to carry us to Kaziranga. We arrived there at 1 p. m. Kaziranga is a region of natural beauty. It is full of all kinds of flora and fauna. We enjoyed heart-attracting beauty in and around. We enjoyed the sights and sounds of various kinds of trees, herbs, birds and animals. We saw a lion and a tigress with her cub, besides many others. We enjoyed the leaping and dancing of a pair of peacocks. We had enamoured of the murmuring sound of the brook flowed down from the hills. Our English teacher played on violin which added more joys to our merriment.
Food and Refreshment: On reaching the place we had tea with loaves and bananas. After this, we enjoyed the natural sights of that place. After 4 o’clock in the evening, we took our meal with great rejoice.
Other Entertainment: After meal, we took rest for a while. Some of us danced and sang Bihu songs. Thus we enjoyed the whole day enjoying all sorts of merriment.
Conclusion: At 6 o’clock in the evening, we got on the bus and started our return journey. Our hearts were pained to leave such a place of natural beauty. I shall remember the joys and experience of this day all my life. 0 0 0
Journey by Train
Introduction: A journey either by boat or train is always exciting for me. I have several experiences of the journey by bus and boat but one experience of the journey by train which have been taken recently from Guwahati to New Delhi.
Occasion and Preparation: One of my cousins is an employee of a multi-national company. He works in Delhi. During the last Summer Vacation, I received an invitation from my cousin to visit him and without making any delay, took the chance of it. I took Raja, one of my bosom friends as my companion.
Description of the Journey: We started our journey from Guwahati on the 1st June of the last year. We had our reservations in the first-class compartment by the Rajdhani Express. For the first time in my life, I was travelling beyond Assam and it gave a kind of thrill of awe and joy from the start of the journey.
As it was an express train it made stop only in important stations. After running two and a half hours, it reached Bongaigaon where two passengers boarded the compartment that became friendly with us. We came to know that they were students of Guwahati Medical College and they had to take the journey from Bongaigaon to Howrah. From their conversation, we came to know many things about Calcutta as they had been there several times. After running about ten hours it reached Howrah and there they got off the train.
In our compartment, there was a jawan of Indian Army who had been on the way to join his company. We had a series of conversation with him from which I got a pre-knowledge of Delhi. The train began to cross the stations one after the other. Through the window, we saw the outside world moving quickly behind us. About twenty-four hours of our journey the train reached Delhi. We got off the train with a tired body and mind. My cousin suddenly appeared before us and received us affectionately. He took us directly to his quarter.
We stayed there for about two weeks and during our stay, he took us around the whole of Delhi. We enjoyed The Tajmahal, The Qutub Miner, the Red-fort and so many other historical monuments of the Mughal Emperors.
Conclusion: Thus the train journey was very exciting and pleasant for us. I learned many new and new things about people and places. Thus this journey which was my first train journey remains still a thrill of joy for me. 0 0 0
Village Life in Assam
An area away from city or town commonly inhabited by the naive and simple non-educated or less educated people whose occupation is mainly agriculture is called a Village. Assam is an Indian state which is primarily village-based. Ninety per cent of the total population of Assam live in the villages. The village life of Assam bears some peculiar characteristics. We can enumerate them briefly as below:
First, the village life of Assam is especially based on agriculture. Every village of Assam consists of vast fields for producing crops of various kinds. As the soil of Assam is fertile, almost all kinds of crops grow abundantly. Assamese people living in the villages may be called self-dependent as they produce all their necessary food staff in their fields. The agricultural products of the villages of Assam contribute the lion’s share to the economy of the state.
Secondly, the villages of Assam are rich in cottage industries. Assamese women are skilled weavers. They weave their necessary clothes for themselves and in addition to meeting their needs, the surplus goods are exported to the other states of India. The Assamese people living in the villages are skilled in handicrafts. They manufacture household furniture with bamboo and canes which have given peculiarity to the culture of Assam.
Thirdly, the village life of Assam is full of difficulties. As almost all the inhabitants of a village of Assam comprise of peasants, farmers, weavers, crafts and labourers so the village life is full of hard labour. The peasants earn their livelihood with sweat. They suffer more physical hardship than that of those who live in cities or towns.
Fourthly, the village life of Assam is free from the artificiality and corruption which is seen in city life. The inhabitants of the villages are simple, naive and their heart is full of fellow-feeling which is visibly absent in city life.
Fifthly, the villagers live in direct contact with Nature. Assamese villages are rich in horticulture. They work in their own orchard, gardens and fields and enjoy the uncorrupted natural environment.
Comparatively the village life of Assam is happier than that of city life, though most villages are deprived of the modern amenities of city life. The inhabitants of the villages are united by love and fellow-feeling. They stand by one another in times of needs. Most of them live in joint families, the members of which are held together by the bonds of hearty affection. 0 0 0
The Durga Puja
The Durga Puja is the grandest and pompous festival of all the Hindu festivals. It is observed in the season of autumn. The Durga Puja symbolizes the victory over evil powers.
In Hindu Mythology, Sri Durga is represented as Divine Mother who is believed to come down the earth with the blessing of power and help to all. Durga is said to have ten hands with weapons in all the hands and offers herself to save her devotees from the forces of evil. Buffalo is her chariot and she comes down sitting on it. She has two sons with her on both sides Kartik the General and Ganesh the visible embodiment of wisdom and success. She brings also her two daughters- Lakshmi and Saraswati. Lakshmi is said to be the Goddess of Fortune and Wealth and Saraswati as the Goddess of Learning.
The Indians, especially the Hindus all over the world worship Goddess Durga in memory of the victorious forces of good over those of evil. The worship is held in the season of autumn and hence it is also called Autumnal Festival. It is celebrated with great pomp and splendour. The festival is based on Ram’s worship of Durga for overcoming the powerful Demon-king Ravana of Lanka.
The worship of Durga lasts for four days. The first day’s ceremony is called Bhodan (invocation). The puja proper begins on the 7th day of the moon and lasts till the end of the 9th day when Ravana is said to have fallen.
During those days verses from Chandi are recited. The offering of fine rice, fresh fruits and sweet-meats and flowers are offered to the Goddess. After each puja, edible things are distributed as Prasad among all. The Arati (offering of Light) is held every evening.
On the Vijaya Dashami, the tenth day of the moon, the worshippers bid farewell to the goddess. The image is led through some pompous procession and in the evening it is taken to the neighbouring river for immersion.
Nowadays the Durga Puja has become the universal festival of Hindus all over the world. In India, all the Indians irrespective of caste and creed take part in the festival. It is not only a festival but an integral part of Indian culture and a means of love and brotherhood. It makes us forget the differences among us and unite us with the bond of fraternity. 0 0 0
Introduction: The computer is one of the most wonderful inventions of modern Science. First, it was called ‘Counting machine’ as initially it was made for performing the task of counting things rapidly. But with the passing of days, its scope of functioning has got increased beyond imagination.
Its Origin: The computer is not an invention of any single person. Many scientists have contributed to the evolution of the computer. But Charles Babbage is called to be the father of the modern computer as he initiated its evolution with rapid success.
Its Functions: Computer is said to be the alternative of the human mind. By it, we can make a rapid solution of any numerical problems. But the only difference between the human mind and computer is that it cannot think fundamentally as a man does. Its function is limited only to the data and information put into it by man.
Nowadays the scope of its function is so much increased that with the help of a computer we can do almost everything of our everyday works. It is used in banks, in industries, in the shops, in the stations and even in the bathroom to perform respective works as it is suggested. In the field of education, medical treatment, in controlling vehicles and even in sending rockets in the space computer is used. In brief, to say, the modern age is the age of computer.
Conclusion: Computer is a very useful thing in this modern age of Science. Let the computer be used for the benefits of human being. 0 0 0
Introduction: Television is a modern invention of science. It is a chief means of entertainment as well as the easiest means of communication. In television, we can see and enjoy events along with speeches taking place somewhere in the world.
Origin and Functions: Television was invented by an English scientist named John Baird in 1925. There are two types of television as: black- white and colouring. It is a very strong means of communication as it broadcasts news, cinemas, songs and many other branches of entertainments. In preaching advertisement it plays an important role. In building public opinion, it plays a significant role.
In some countries the governments have undertaken a new policy to spread education through television. It is hoped that the education spread through television would enable the young generation to face the complexity of the present-day world with much skill and enthusiasm.
Its Bad Effects: As almost all the inventions of science bear both good and bad sides so is borne by television also. many times television exhibits some false news and rumours which bewilder its spectators. Moreover, all the news are not always impartial. Many programmes are run by television but all the programmes don’t suit to everybody. So some amount of carefulness should be maintained while enjoying the programmes. The students should watch those programmes only which are suited to their age and mind. They should not use it as mere means of entertainment. in addition to these, too much watching of television is harmful both to the eyes and mind.
Conclusion: Television is a necessary thing of the civilized world. But we should use it avoiding its bad effects. 0 0 0
Travelling to a Historical Place
Introduction: A place having historical background is called historical place. By instinct, man feels an eager curiosity and desire to see new places, he desires to learn new facts and more he desires to see the monuments bearing the testimony of the past happenings. And to quench this curiosity he takes travelling to far off places.
My Travelling to Sonitpur: I have also a weakness for travelling to historical places and since my boyhood I have been carrying some pet dreams of seeing the ancient monuments of India. Already I have paid a visit to Sonitpur, a historical place of Assam and here I am telling about that travelling in brief.
Its Significance: Sonitpur was the capital of Bana, a king of ancient Kamrup. We have read in history that the king Bana had a beautiful daughter named Usha Devi. To keep her safe from the touch of man he built a castle called Agnighar near the capital. Some armed forces were in the guard of her safety. But one night she dreamed of Anirudha, the grandson of Lord Krishna. In dream she fell in love with him. Usha had a friend named Chitralekha. With the help of Chitralekha she called in Anirudha and fled with him. On the other hand, the king Bana hearing the news of her elopement with Anirudha seized Anirudha and put him in jail. Shri Krishna, having being informed of his grandson’s captivity attacked the kingdom of Bana. Bana was a devotee of Lord Shiva. In such a time of peril Lord Shiva came forward to help his disciple Bana. Resultantly a battle took place between Lord Krishna and Lord Shiva. Shri Krishna won the battle and rescuing his grandson Anirudha along with Usha Devi went back to Dharaka. In history, this battle is called ‘The Battle of Hari-Har.’ It is called so because the battle took place between two gods as Shri Krishna (Hari) and Shiva (Har).
Description of My Visit: I had a long hope to visit the Agnighar where Princes Usha was kept in isolation. Last year during the Summer Vacation the chance came and I seized it without failing. Fortunately one of my cousins happened to stay there for someday. I told him about my curiosity to visit the place and he immediately agreed to accompany me. on the first day of July, we started our journey by a night super. we reached the place next day at about 9 o’clock in the morning. I spent there a week. My cousin took me to many historical spots of Sonitpur.
Sonitpur is a very beautiful place with charming natural scenery. The place is so neat and clean that I got astonished. We saw the Agnighar, the Maha Bhairabi Mandir and the relics of the capital city of King Bana.
Conclusion: Thus enjoying the historical monuments of Sonitpur I quenched my long-nursed curiosity and returned home after a week. The memory of this visit will remain fresh in my mind for long. 0 0 0
Steps Taken by the Government For Sustainable Development
Our surrounding both natural and man-made is called environment. It includes air, water, trees, animals, rivers, hills, houses, factories, industries etc. The human being is not only the slave of the natural environment but also the dependent on it. Without the use of natural objects, human life is impossible. Nature is the sole resources of all energy for a human being. When our surrounding remains unaffected by human activities then it is called a sound environment. But with the increase in the human population, the natural environment has been deteriorating rapidly. As a result, natural sustainability has been decreasing rapidly day by day. The decrease of the natural standard of the environment is called environmental pollution and this pollution has stood as a menace in the face of human civilization. The environmental pollution may be classified as – air pollution, soil pollution, water pollution and sound pollution. But the human being is not conscious of this degradation of the natural environment for which human being has been facing some fatal problems. Already UNESCO and some countries of the world have become conscious of this degradation of the environment and resultantly some measures have been taken for the protecting environment by the governments which may be summarized as follows:
First UNESCO has declared 5th June as World Environment Day and has invoked all the countries of the world to take certain measures to make people conscious of the degradation of the natural environment. On that day some seminars are held in the educational institutes and concerned government departments where the teachers, students and officials along with common people talk about the environmental problems, the effect of environment on flora and fauna and thus people are going to be aware of the fatal effects of the degradation of the natural environment.
Secondly, our country has passed a law concerning the development of natural sustainability of the environment. The uses of all kind of chemical fertilizers that can spoil the natural stamina of soil are prohibited from using on the crop fields to save soil from being polluted.
Thirdly, the government has taken some bold steps for social foresting the main objectives of which is to plant trees in the village areas and uncultivated lands. The government has opened a scheme of providing financial assistance to the sapling nursery industries with a view to encourage social forestation.
Fourthly, many of the forests have been nationalized and declared as protected sanctuaries. Many saplings have been being planted every year in the reserved lands.
Fifthly, hewing of trees is prohibited strongly. To decrease the dependence on wood for fuel, the government has taken steps to popularize the use the solar energy and other conventional resources of energy in household affairs.
Sixthly, under Industry Act the government has taken some steps so that the concern authorities must take some measures to reuse the refuse and it is highly suggested that the refuse might not fall into the soil and water that may cause degradation of their natural standard.
Seventhly, in the school curriculum, a subject or topic on environment has been prescribed to be read by the students in order to make them conscious of the degradation of the natural environment and to make how to safeguard earth from being polluted.
Eighthly, sound pollution is another menace to the face of human society. The main sources of sound pollution are sounds issued out of automobiles, microphones, radios, televisions, fireworks and the sound issued out of the factories and industries. The air pollution mainly effects on our ear-drum, lung and brain which resultantly cause harm to our organism. According to Indian Council of Medical Research the sound issued out of the radio, television, microphone should be from 35 to 45 decibel. And the sound issued out of factories and industries should not be more than 85 decibels. But in our country, it is seen that this standard has not been maintained. For this, of late the government has taken steps to control the sound pollution. In some countries for example in Japan, decibel meters have been set up in the towns and cities to see that the propensity of sound does not break the prescribed limit.
Ninthly, the government has promulgated a law through which every municipality has been ordered to maintain to use spittoons and dustbins in the cities to keep it clean.
All these measures have been taken by the government to control the pollution of natural environment. But in India, the laws are often ignored because of people’s illiteracy and corruption of the governmental officials. But it is worth praised that the government has become conscious of the fatal menace faced by human society because of environmental degradation. If the steps taken by the government can be enforced effectively then the menace, we have faced due to environmental degradation, may be overcome in the days to come. Of course the government of every country of the world must come forward willingly and co-operate with each other in solving this deadly problem. And only then we would get an earth free from pollution to live with healthy and sound body and mind. 0 0 0
The Role of Mobile Phone
The mobile phone is a wonderful invention of the late twentieth century Science. Now-a-day it is the most used necessary tool used in the world of human communication.
There are lots of benefits of the use of mobile phone.
First, the mobile phone makes our communicative system more easy and comfortable. By means of a mobile phone, we can contact any person around the world within minutes.
Secondly, we can share text messages with beautiful photos and video clips with our friends and relatives easily.
Thirdly, we can enjoy video games in mobile phone. Apart from that, we can listen to music also at our convenience.
Fourthly, of late internet facility is provided through mobile phone taking advantage of which we can watch TV programmes, read rare books and download lots of data at any time.
Thus. the mobile phone provides us with so much service that it may be called a unique boon of science upon mankind.
In spite of such advantages of the mobile phone, there are some disadvantages or bad effects of the use of it as:
First, mobile phone while used creates certain radiation which falls negative effect on our health. Much use of it may cause serious diseases as cancer, heartbeat, deafness, tumour, visual disturbance etc.
Secondly, the use of mobile phone interferes with people’s activities. For example, while calling or receiving call distracts the attention of the nearby people who may be busy in some important business.
Thirdly, some people misuse it by calling or sending unnecessary messages to people which may harm them.
Fifthly, report says that juvenile crime is increasing because of the misuse of mobile phone.
To sum up, as most things have some negative effect so has the mobile phone but we can assure that its advantages outweigh its disadvantages. 0 0 0
Conventional Resources of Energy
Energy refers to the ability of something to make things happen, whether it is moving something, heating it up, or changing it in some way. Energy exists in many different forms including electricity, sound, heat and light. All resources of energies are classified into two types as– Kinetic Energy and Potential Energy. Kinetic Energy is the energy of moving objects, while Potential Energy is energy that is stored, ready for use. Human life is possible because of the use of energy that we get from different resources. There are some resources of energy which are called Conventional Sources of Energy such as- the sun, wind, wood, water, cow dung and some others. They are called so because they are used conventionally (from generation to generation). The use of conventional sources of energy may be described briefly as follows:
The Sun is the most used conventional source of energy. Man uses its heat and light in performing all the day to day works as drying up woods, crops, clothes, preparing foods and so many.
The wind is another source of energy which is used conventionally. By means of wind people sailboats, ships in the rivers and seas. In winning chuffs from grains wind is also used. Besides these, some people use wind as a means of drifting away things from one place to another.
Wood, coal cow-dung etc. are other resources of conventional energy. People use them as fuel and in cold countries, people burn coals for keeping their houses warm.
Nowadays the emphasis is given on the use of conventional resources of energy because of the scarcity of electric sources. Besides these, the scientific or electric energies have some side effects as they cause environmental pollution. It is seen that some developed countries like Japan, German, France, and Switzerland have passed laws in favour of using conventional sources of energy to lessen the propensity of environmental pollution.
But people are not conscious of the benefits of the use of conventional sources of energy. The government may take necessary steps to popularize the use of these conventional sources of energy. 0 0 0
Kaziranga National Park
Kaziranga National Park, a site for world heritage is situated in the districts of Golaghat and Nagaon, Assam. Its land area is 430 square kilometre. The nearest city to Kaziranga is Jorhat, Tezpur. It is declared as a national park by the Indian Government in 1905. It is especially famous for one-horned rhinoceros. The park hosts two-thirds of the world’s one-horned rhinoceros. The term ‘Kaziranga’ is derived from the Karbi word ‘kajir-a-rang’ which means ‘the village of the Kajir’.
According to a popular traditional belief, once the locality of Kaziranga was ruled by a Karbi woman named Kajir and after her name, the area ruled by her was called by Kaziranga.
Through the bed of Kaziranga two rivers- Difu and Vengra and many streams have been flowing from east to west. Its soil is fertile done by the mud of the mighty Brahmaputra. Kaziranga is the habitat of many precious wild animals, birds and trees. Of the total area, the 28 per cent is covered by a variety of trees, 66 per cent is grassland and 6 per cent is covered by marshy area.
Among its trees, there are shal, Shishu, cotton, jamu, ajar, kabai, sunaru, teak and many others. Among its animals, there are rhinoceros, buffalo, elephant, deer, monkey, porcupine, cats, jackal, leopard etc. The park is full of many kinds of birds among which mention may be made of cock, ducks, vulture, goose, wren, crow, pigeon, bulbul, parrot, kite, heron kingfisher and so on.
Kaziranga now has been facing a menace of poachers. Every year many rhinoceros have been poached by the poacher because of its horn, many elephants are killed for its teeth. Another menace the park has been facing is the cutting of its trees and deforestation caused by the explosion of population. Every year many acres of land of the park have been deforested and occupied by the homeless people ignoring the law. In addition to these, the great flood has been doing great erosion to the park every year besides taking away the lives of many birds and animals.
The Kaziranga National Park is maintained by the Government by Assam. But in time to time, the Indian Government also renders financial assistance and suggestions for its conservation and development. For its maintenance, there is an especial forest force with modern facilities.
Kaziranga is now a world heritage and many tourists from other states and even from foreign countries come to Assam to enjoy the wild animals especially world famous one-horned rhinoceros and its natural beauty. To visit the entire Kaziranga there are a departmental elephant, cars, boats etc. In Kohera there is an inn for the tourists. Every year the Assam Government has been earring a lot of royalties from the Kaziranga National Park.
Kaziranga is not a forest or park only but also a resource of bio-diversity. The people of Assam as well India are proud of it. We should protect this world heritage from the hand of the poachers, smugglers, and illegal intruders and to bring about this into reality the local people must co-operate with the government. 0 0 0
How I Spent My Last Summer Vacation
The students generally have a great weakness for holidays. As the Summer Vacation is big and long in span of all holidays so the students keep waiting for its arrival very eagerly. Every year our Summer Vacation generally falls on 1st July and it lasts till 31st of the month. During the last summer vacation I had postponed my usual daily routine and made an especial routine to spend the month meaningfully as follows:
I usually got up very early in the morning and had a long morning walk along the bank of the river Pallah. The morning walk took about half an hour and then after returning home, I got my hand and face washed. Then I took my breakfast and sat down to read books. As I am weak in Mathematics so I spent more than two hours in studying Mathematics and at 10 o’clock, I took my bath and after having food, I watched some educational programmes in the television till 12 o’clock. After this, I did either some household works or helped my father in the field for two hours.
In the afternoon, from 3 o’clock, I sat down to read my books again, especially English and Science. Sometimes I read some out books besides my school curriculum. I kept busy in my studies till 5 p.m. and then I went to the field to play cricket with my friends. Sometimes I played badminton also.
I returned home just before the sun setting and washing off my hand and face I prayed to God with my father and then after having a glass of water, I sat down to study my books. I continued my studies till 10 o’clock. After having finished my studies, I took my super and for about an hour I watched scientific channels, especially National Geography in the television. At about 11 o’clock I fell on my bed and had a sound sleep.
But on every Saturday and Sunday, I did not follow the above routine. On every Saturday morning, I attended my music school. Our music lesson continued till 10 p.m. After this, for the whole noon, I kept myself busy doing household duties. In the evening I went to the village library and read magazines, newspapers and books on general knowledge. Sometimes I played with my little sister and brother.
On the 15th July, I along with my mother went to my maternal grandmother’s house which is about ten kilometres away from our home. We spent five days there. My grandmother fed us some variety of delicious food items like fried rice, flattened rice, laddos, cakes, besides feeding us chicken meats.
Thus I spent the last summer vacation and enjoyed the days fully. 0 0 0
Physical exercise refers to bodily movement or the use of the parts of our body in order to keep our body active and healthy. In other words, to say, physical exercise is a course of activities followed regularly for good health. Walking, riding, swimming, running, playing etc. are some forms of good physical exercise.
There is a great value of exercise. It improves our health. It makes our body sound, strong and active. Physical exercise falls a good effect both on our body and mind. It is said, ‘Health is wealth.’ A sound mind in a sound body is a source of happiness. Those who ignore physical exercise become weak in mind and health. A man of weak health suffers in life. He is attacked by many diseases.
There are many people who refuse to take physical exercise and grow up to suffer a lot in life. The students should be very careful about their health. They should remember that the time spent on exercise is never wasted. They should take part in games and sports. Health is the source of all happiness and bliss. If we lose health, we lose precious wealth in life.
There are many forms of exercise. But all forms of exercise are not suitable for all. Strong men can take almost all forms of exercise but the weak and the old cannot do so. Of all forms of exercises, regular walking up to at least three kilometres is considered to be a good exercise.
To keep our body and mind healthy, active, strong and fit there is no substitute for physical exercise.
Resources like air, water, sunlight, forests, land, rock, soil, minerals, metals etc. obtained from Nature are called Natural Resources. Natural resources are extremely necessary for the survival of any organism including human being.
Categories of Natural Resources:
On the basis of availability, natural resources are divided into two categories: Renewable Natural Resources and Non-renewable Resources.
The resources that are either reproduced naturally or can be reproduced or increased with the efforts of human labour are called Renewable Resources. These resources are plants, fresh air, water, land, animals etc.
On the other hand, Non-renewable Resources are those which are limited in quantity and can never be reproduced with human endeavours. The quantity of such resources is decreased with consumption. For examples: petroleum, coal, minerals, metals etc.
In addition to these two categories, natural resources are again divided into two categories, as Biological (Biotic) Resources and Abiotic (Non-living) resources:
Biotic Resources are the natural resources derived from the biosphere and contain life-saving flora, plants and animals.
On the other hand, Abiotic (Non-living) Resources are the resources that include non-living things like air, soil, water, mineral, metals etc.
Importance of Natural Resources:
All living beings are dependent on natural resources for their survival. Without the use of natural resources, no life is possible to survive on earth. Different resources have different importance in human life such as we need oxygen to take a breath. Sunlight gives us the heat that we need for our daily needs. Growth of plants requires land, soil and water. The tree gives fruits, vegetables, wood, etc. Using wood, we make paper, built house, bridge and various types of furniture. We need water to drink, wash clothes, to grow plants etc.
Other natural resources like petroleum, minerals, coal etc. are used for various purposes. Different types of energy can be produced by different sources such as solar energy can be produced by sunlight, hydroelectric power is produced by using water, electricity is produced by coal and water is burned by burning coal to produce electricity.
Minerals and metals are found deep beneath the soil and are used to make coins, gold, steel and many other things needed for our day to day life. Petroleum is used as fuel for transportation.
Availability of Natural Resources:
Some renewable resources are very limited and rarely available in the world, such as petroleum and metals. In India, hundreds of minerals are produced in various places, which is very important for financial gain. We export these minerals to other countries and import some other minerals not available in India. In the case of petroleum, each country has a different percentage of the production of petroleum and they import or export petroleum as per their requirement.
Impact of the Destruction of Natural Resources:
With the increase of human population, the impact of natural resources has also increased. To meet the daily needs and comfort of human being, the natural resources are being consumed without considering their availability. People cut trees and clean forest to get arable land and to build human habitation. Resultantly the balance of nature has been degrading. For want of sufficient trees, the natural environment is being degraded. The cultivators use chemical fertilizers and pesticides to increase the quantity of food-grain which in turn has been deteriorating the natural stamina of soil. Likewise, the industrial refuse and debris have been polluting the water resources.
If we still do not understand the importance of natural resources, the consequences are risky for everyone. Without fresh air and water, people’s lives will become impossible in the future. So, to avoid this catastrophic situation, we should be conscious of the considerate and sparing use of natural resources. 0 0 0
Children’s Day in India is an annual event celebrated on 14 November. It is celebrated on the birth anniversary of Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, the first Prime Minister of Independent India.
Pandit Nehru shared a very cordial relationship with the children and was always vocal about their psychological and physical needs. In his opinion, the progress of a nation is determined by how well its children are raised. He also emphasized that children’s education is compulsory and should be provided compulsorily.
Respecting Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru’s love and views on children, we celebrate Children’s Day on his birthday. Before his death in 1964, Children’s Day in India was observed on 20 November as ‘Universal Children’s Day’. After the death of Pandit Nehru on November 14, his date of birth is designed to celebrate as ‘Children Day’ in India in his honour.
Children’s Day is celebrated enthusiastically by children across the country. Although it is not a public holiday, most classes are suspended to allow time for events. Children participate in many recreational and entertainment activities that their teachers have organized for them.
Some of the activities include gifts, tanga (horse chariot) rides, swings, magic shows, etc. Children love to hang out and cherish those moments, remembering their ever-loving uncle Nehru for thinking so rationally about their welfare.
Some schools also organize speech programs, in which children are asked to give speeches on Pandit Nehru and Children’s Day. They know about the works and thoughts of Pandit Nehru and confirm their belief in him.
Children’s Day is a very essential event and is like an awareness program for the welfare of children. 0 0 0
National Integrity implies that all the people of a nation are equal regardless of their interests, religion, race, sex and class. To build a strong nation, it is very important to have national unity or a sense of unity among the people.
Maintaining national unity is essential for every country. A nation will be great only if it is successful in maintaining unity among the diversity of the people of the country, but this is possible only when the people living in that country have awareness, intelligence, tolerance, new ideology, positive thoughts and generous heart.
Despite having different religions and castes, the thing that takes our country on the path of progress is our national unity. That is why we must understand the true meaning of “unity in diversity” in India. It does not mean that the nature of integrity should be due to racial and cultural equality here. Rather, it means that despite this difference there is unity. India has the second-largest population in the world.
People of all major religions of the world live here with different languages. In spite of all differences, we should live in peace with each other without any political and social dispute. We should enjoy unity in this great country where everything is diversified to fulfil the purpose of national integration. Therefore, looking at these reasons, we can say that if we want to develop our country fully, there is a need for national unity among us.
There are many factors that act as barriers in creating national unity, as:
The first factor is Communalism. Communalism is allegiance to one’s own ethnic group rather than to the wider society. It thinks that other communities and their beliefs are inferior. Communalism is the main threat to the unity of our country.
Terrorism is a serious challenge facing the world today. People with terrorist ideology want to express their views through fear and terror. At present, terrorism is constantly trying to break our national unity.
Despite the existence of communalism and terrorism, the national integrity of India is worth praising. 0 0 0
‘Teacher’s Day’, in India is celebrated on 5 September every year to thank the teachers for their contributions to the nation. It is celebrated enthusiastically by students to commemorate the birth anniversary of Dr Sarvepalli Radhakrishnan.
In our school too, Teachers’ Day is celebrated with great joy and gaiety. Students take all necessary precautions for their performances and other events.
Speech rehearsals are also very common during Teacher’s Day, as students give speeches commemorating Dr Radhakrishnan and thanking their teachers.
In our school, Teachers’ Day is celebrated like a school festival and students are at liberty to choose and summon a distinguished personality as the chief guest.
Our school suspends regular classes on Teacher’s Day so that both teachers and students can make the most of the day and enjoy it. The money for the stage and other decorations are voluntarily collected through donations by the students.
On Teacher’s Day, the celebration is inaugurated by the chief guest and the principal together. The opening ceremony is followed by dance, singing and speech performances.
Once the performance is over, the host calls the teachers on stage and presents them with gifts, cards or flowers by their students. The teacher who receives the maximum gifts is coined as “Teacher of the Year” and he is presented with a memorandum.
The Teachers’ Day would be more and more meaningful if the teachers on that day take a vow to be more sincere and ideal for the students. 0 0 0
Rainy Season or Rainy Day
In India, the rainy season generally falls during the months of June and July. However, like summer and winter, the rainy season also comes with its negative and positive effects to us.
There are some positive effects of the rainy season as:
First, during the rainy season, the rainwater can be collected for various useful purposes. This helps prevent the problem of water scarcity.
Secondly, rain is necessary for proper growth of crops. Farmers wait for the rainy season to see their crop bloom.
Thirdly, the trees and plants get adequate water and become greener.
Fourthly, the rainy season gives much-needed relief from the heat of the summer season.
Along with the positive effects of Rainy Season, there are some negative effects of it also:
First, there is a lot of waterlogging due to the malfunction of the drainage system. This causes a traffic jam. Going to work during this time becomes a big task.
Secondly, mosquitoes thrive due to waterlogging and resultantly diseases like malaria, typhoid, cholera etc. break up.
Thirdly, the trees are uprooted due to the strong winds during this season. This causes a lot of damage.
Fourthly, power cuts happen more in this season.
Fifthly, the rain gives way to moisture which is very difficult to deal with.
Sixthly, heavy rain causes most sufferance to the people living in slum areas.
Thus, while the rainy season is favoured by almost everyone, its disadvantages cannot be ignored. 0 0 0
The National Festivals of India
The festival celebrated nationwide is called ‘National Festival’. In India, many festivals are celebrated of which Republic Day, Independence Day and Gandhi Jayanti are considered to be the most significant. The national festivals of India are celebrated in schools, colleges and in some government offices across the country. They play an important role in the lives of its citizens. The celebration of these festivals brings young minds closer to the country in their unique ways and motivates them to work for its betterment and development.
Among the three significant National Festivals of India, the Republic Day is one. It is celebrated on the 26th of January every year. It is a day to remind the students of the enforcement of the Constitution of free India. It stirs the hearts of the students with a sense of responsibility for the country. Essay, quiz and debate competitions are held on this day. On this occasion, those who drafted the Constitution of India are commemorated, praised and honoured. Many students also get the opportunity to participate in the nationally organized Republic Day program at Rajpath, New Delhi.
The second national festival of India is Independence Day. It is celebrated on August 15 every year. On Independence Day, the heroic deeds of the freedom fighters are commemorated. In schools and colleges, the students celebrate it with some cultural programmes as Poetry recitation, essay writing competition, quiz competitions etc. and realize the sacrifices of the freedom fighters. In some schools and colleges, the students dress up as freedom fighters to celebrate the occasion. Many educational institutions organize kite flying competition as a symbol of expressing freedom.
The third national festival of India is the Gandhi Jayanti. It is celebrated annually on the 2nd of October every year, commemorating the birth anniversary of Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of India. Gandhiji was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar, Gujrat. He was a freedom fighter, great leader and advocate of Non-violence Policy in gaining a goal. Under his leadership, India got freedom from the hand of the British on August 15, 1947. Considering his contribution to the nation, he is hailed as the ‘Father of India’ and his birth anniversary is celebrated every year as ‘Gandhi Jayanti’. On this day the students are seen dressed as Gandhiji. Speeches are made in praise of Bapu. Painting, debate, quiz and essay competitions are also held on this day.
Thus, the celebration of national festivals in schools and colleges inspire students with a sense of patriotism. Students wait for these festivals throughout the year and participate to them enthusiastically. 0 0 0
Gandhi Jayanti is one a national event of India. It has great significance in the lives of every Indian. It is celebrated annually on the 2nd October, commemorating the birthday of Mahatma Gandhi, the Father of India.
Gandhiji was born on 2 October 1869 at Porbandar, Gujrat. He was a freedom fighter, great leader and advocate of Non-violence Policy in gaining a goal. Under his leadership, India got freedom from the hand of the English on August 15, 1947. Considering his contribution to the nation, he is hailed as the ‘Father of India’ and his birth anniversary is celebrated every year as ‘Gandhi Jayanti’. Gandhi firmly believed in truth and non-violence. Not only Indians but foreigners also were inspired by his ideals. In 2007 the United Nations General Assembly announced that 2 October would be celebrated as ‘International Non-violence Day’.
The President and Prime Minister of India celebrate this day by visiting the tomb of Mahatma Gandhi at Raj Ghat in New Delhi. They then pray there along with other political leaders of India. Since Gandhi respected all religions in India, that is why people from different religions gather at the Raj Ghat and pay homage to Mahatma Gandhi.
Gandhi Jayanti is celebrated by people throughout the country as a national festival. Since it is a national festival, schools and colleges remain closed on the occasion of Gandhi Jayanti. On the day of Gandhi Jayanti, some cultural programmes are also held in schools and colleges where the students take an active part.
Along with celebrating the Gandhi Jayanti, we should take a vow to be inspired by the noble ideals of Mahatma Gandhi. 0 0 0
Love refers to the intense feeling of affection or interest in something. Love is the highest expression of the human heart. Besides humans, the feeling of love is also present in other beings of nature.
There are different forms of love as love to man. love to the motherland, love to nature, love to God, love to some concrete thing, love to abstract ideas etc. In love, one does not see the other’s faults.
Among the different forms of love, the love to the opposite sex is said to be the extreme form of human love. It is an instinctive feeling of the human heart.
Love to birds and wild animals is another form of love. For love, people domesticate cats, dogs, birds and so on. It is love for which the poets like Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley, Raghunath Choudhuri wrote poems in praise of wild birds.
Love is also felt for nature and the natural environment including trees, flowers, forests, mountains, rivers etc. We find a heart-touching description of nature and natural objects in the poetry of Rabindranath Tagore, Rudyard Kipling, Shakespeare and so on.
There is another form of love which is called patriotism. It is the love for one’s motherland. For love to the motherland, some people even sacrifice their lives.
The love of God is the highest form of love. He who loves God become a devotee to Him and practise some religious creeds and rituals and become inspired to lead a pious and virtuous life.
Love does not require any grand deeds for its manifestation. Love can be shown in small things. Love can also be expressed in thoughts and words.
The love between humans is expressed in different ways in different relationships. Parents love their children. The love of parents for their children is selfless. Parents love their children without any expectation. Children also love their parents very much.
In a family, members love each other. This creates harmony and joy in the family. Brothers and sisters love each other. There may be small differences between brothers and sisters in a family, but love binds siblings very strongly together. In marriage too, it is love that keeps husband and wife together in harmony and happiness.
Love is also shared between friends. Good friends are well-wishers with whom a person shares thoughts and feelings. This is how friends share a relationship of love and happiness.
To conclude it is to say that in matters of love we should be sincere and honest. 0 0 0
The trees are said to be the friends of human beings. Humans along with other living beings depend on trees for their survival. Without trees, we cannot imagine the existence of life on Earth. Once before the advent of human being, the earth was full of trees. But with the increase of human population, the number of trees have been decreasing which has fallen an adverse effect on the lives of humans and animals.
Trees play an important role in ecological balance and by protecting trees and growing more and more trees we can ensure the balance of the ecosystem.
The planet Earth is home to humans and millions of other terrestrial and aquatic life forms. Earth is capable of sustaining all forms of life. Earth has air to breathe for life, as well as water and vegetation to provide us with food.
Plants and trees that grow on Earth are valuable for all life forms. Edible roots, stems, leaves, flowers, fruits and seeds are food for humans as well as all vegetarian animals and birds. We also get necessary things like wood, fuel, shade etc. from trees.
The trees are inhabited by many wild creatures. Birds make their nest in trees. Reptiles and insects also live on trees. The forests are home to many big wild animals like tigers, lions, rhinoceros and elephants.
Trees and forests also help maintain the hydrological cycle. They help in maintaining the rainfall pattern and the monsoon cycle. Trees are useful in making the environment pollution free.
Destroying the forest leads to the accumulation of greenhouse gases which causes an increase in the temperature of the atmosphere. This leads to the harmful effects of global warming and climate change.
Trees do not only provide our food and necessary things but also add charm and beauty to nature and the environment. So we should plant more and more trees and encourage our children to do the same for our own benefits. 0 0 0
A doctor is a person who is qualified and trained to treat people who are ill. In other words, to say, a doctor is a qualified and trained medical professional who can diagnose and treat the various health condition of people. In our everyday life, we need the help of a doctor.
The doctors render the noble service of curing the sick and injured persons. The doctor’s work can mean the difference between life and death for a person. Doctors work in clinics and hospitals and sometimes medical camps are also organized where the doctors render their services free of cost.
Some doctors get specialized in a particular disease. The specialists can treat the diseases of particular parts of the human body. For example, an orthopaedician is a specialist in the branch of human bones and treats bone diseases. Likewise, an ophthalmologist treats eye diseases. Similarly, an ENT specialist treats the conditions of the ears, nose and throat. Likewise, a diabetologist treats those people who suffer from diabetes. There are also surgeons who conduct surgeries on patients to cure and repair certain parts of human limbs.
A doctor’s service to human being is so great and noble that he can give life to a moribund patient. Some people regard the doctors to be next to God. We should show sincere respect to the doctors. 0 0 0
Science is a systematic study of the structure and behaviour of the physical and natural world through observation, analysis and experiment. There are three main branches of science as Physical Science, Earth Science and Life Science. Again all these branches of Science have been classified into many sub-branches for better study.
Physical Science studies the inanimate natural objects and the laws that govern them. The physical world includes the Earth also where humans and all other living organisms as the plants, animals, insects etc.
The study of different parts of the physical world comes under different branches of Science.
Geology is a science that helps us learn about the Earth and its many layers and their formation. Physics and Chemistry help us understand the phenomena around us. For example, the phenomenon of lightning and thunder can be understood from the study of physics and chemistry.
Similarly, the phenomena of light, sound, heat, and electricity have been explained through various theories of physics.
Chemistry helps us understand various chemical reactions and the products made by it.
Zoology and Botany help us learn about the animals and plants that we see around us. Medicine is also a science that helps us find out how the physiology of man works.
There are different types of instruments that help us in scientific study. Tools help us understand observations and facts by conducting experiments in the real world or in laboratories. Microscopes are devices that help us study very small life forms as well as invisible life forms such as bacteria.
At the other end, there are telescopes that help us learn more about the heavenly objects in the sky such as stars, planets and galaxies that are far away from us.
In brief, to say, Science is that vast branch of knowledge studying which we can know the inner truth of things. The impact of scientific knowledge on us is so immense that it has drastically changed our lifestyle as well as our outlooks towards life. 0 0 0
Honesty is the Best Policy
Honesty is a set of qualities of a person which includes truthfulness, sincerity, dutifulness and just behaviour. The phrase ‘Honesty is the best policy’ reflects the value and importance of being truthful, sincere, dutiful and moral. It is one of the universally recognized and accepted statements. Honesty is one of the most appreciated characteristics that a person can have. An honest person avoids all kind of lying, cheating, flattery and everything that is immoral and loathsome. Honesty is a lesson which is learnt from the people we live and deal with.
We grow up watching our parents, teachers, and others around us. Honesty is a sign of strength and gives us long-term benefits. An honest person is one who acts as he says and is thus more reliable and credible.
The importance of being honest is immense. There will be more confusion and chaos in our society if everyone keeps lying and cheating with each other. For example, if one gets high marks by copying matters in the exams instead of studying hard, then there will be no importance of having knowledge. Or if we get fake degrees and get jobs then hard work will be of no importance and it will lead to inefficient work performance which can result in many adverse consequences.
Therefore, in every aspect of life, it is important, to be honest. An honest person can lead a more confident and respectable life. The fruits of honesty can be enjoyed for a long time. We all should live an honest life and inculcate this virtue to our children from their cradle. 0 0 0
‘Digital’ is the adjective form of the word ‘digit’ that means any of the numerals from 0 to 9 especially when forming part of a number. In modern technology, the word ‘Digital’ refers to the electronic technology that generates, stores, and process data in terms of positive and non-positive states. Modern world is termed as ‘digital world’ because of the availability and the use of digital tools to communicate on the internet through digital devices like computer, smartphones, i-phones etc.
Digital India initiative is a very meaningful program launched by the Government of India to improve digital connectivity and make governance in the country more transparent. Digital technologies are increasingly being used in day to day life.
This technology is used for bill payment, booking tickets, transferring money, etc. It is being used in retail stores, educational institutions, government offices and almost everywhere. They help us in online transactions, connect with each other and share information from anywhere in the world.
Digital India is transforming India and revolutionizing people’s lives through various aspects of the program. There has been tremendous growth in the various services and sectors that make our country a digital one. It aims to train rural people, make them digitally literate and provide various job opportunities in rural areas. With the effective implementation of e-governance, information technology can reach the common man.
There is no doubt that Digital Technology has revolutionised the world of ours and has been transforming our lifestyle tremendously yet it has some disadvantages also as: security issue, terrorism, complexity, social disconnect, work overload, plagiarism, fake data, addiction etc.
In conclusion, it is to say that the advantages of the use of digital technology outweigh its disadvantages. 0 0 0
‘Drug addiction’ is a complex neurobiological disease. People who have drug addiction experience compulsive, often uncontrollable craving for their drug of choice.
Drug addiction is not an immoral code of conduct but a chronic disease that has various direct and indirect effects on the addicted person. The severity depends on the use of a specific drug and the quantity of the usage. It can lead to changes in mood, changes in appetite, weakness, blood pressure, etc. There are other more persistent effects like mental illness, cancer, heart disease, lung disease, etc.
There are a lot of indirect effects on the addicted person and the people around him. This can include affecting a person’s sleep, nutrition and decision-making ability, education, employment, social relationships, family status and can lead to violence, injury, engagement in illegal activities, unprotected sex, HIV and other transmissible diseases.
Drug addiction results in the following effects on the addicted persons:
Drug addicted people often lose their consciousness that can lead to unprotected sex. It greatly increases the chance of contracting HIV and other transmissible diseases.
The Drug addicted people easily develop mental health issues like depression, paranoia, anxiety disorders and aggressive behaviour.
One might get into criminal activities to meet the daily need of drug supply in case of the financial crisis.
It may lead to cardiovascular conditions like abnormal heart rate and heart attacks. It can also cause infections of the blood vessels and heart valves.
Chronic use of some drugs like heroin and steroids can cause severe damage to the liver and can also lead to liver failure.
So, there are several undesirable direct and indirect effects of drug addiction that can relapse. Such addiction for a long term can damage one’s personal and social life completely.
It is wise to avoid such fatal habits for a secure, better and healthy life. 0 0 0
Road safety refers to the methods used to prevent road accidents and to protect road users such as pedestrians, cyclists, bikers and other vehicle passengers and drivers from being injured or killed on the road.
The major goal of road safety measures is to reduce the impact of speed affecting the severity of accidents. It is estimated that approximately 1 million people die in road accidents each year.
This issue is more important in developing countries. Severely high speeds cause serious injuries. The speed of the vehicle should be limited to reduce the impact of speed which can cause serious injuries to the victims on both sides.
Other factors that can cause accidents are driver’s illness or fatigue, drink and drive, brake failure or steering failure and poor roadside to name a few.
Safety can be improved by following responsible driving and traffic rules and by designing vehicles to reduce the intensity of accidents. Traffic calming measures are used to improve road safety. The modern paradigm of road safety replaces the Killed or Seriously Injured (KSI) rate with the accident rate i.e. accident per million vehicle miles.
Along with improving road construction, several safety-related methods and systems have been devised to improve road safety.
In conclusion, it is said that the drivers should avoid taking of drugs and narcotics of any kind and should follow the traffic laws strictly for the safety of themselves, pedestrians and passengers. 0 0 0
Knowledge is Power
Knowledge is knowing things, facts, information, skills and awareness regarding something gained through experience and education. It is a theoretical or practical understanding of the subject under study.
Knowledge is important in every aspect of life. We are rarely aware of what skills or information we need. It is important to stock up a wide range of subjects and to acquire skills that we think will be useful in the future.
Man is not strong enough like a tiger nor can run fast like a horse nor can they fly like a bird, yet he is the most powerful species on earth due to knowledge. A tiger is physically strong but on the contrary, man is more powerful in mental capacity and thoughts. Physical strength is important but when we combine it with our mental strength we get a better understanding of how to use it better.
Knowledge helps us to transform our thoughts into action. Humans can domesticate birds and animals, train and rule them and use them with skills because humans are mentally superior to them.
Knowledge is the real power gifted to humans by nature. It distinguishes them from other beings. Humans can acquire, learn, understand, experiment, research, perform, share and enhance their skills and knowledge. The more knowledge they acquire, the more power, capacity and authority they gain.
Man has progressed and developed to a great extent by his intelligence. He has physical as well as intellectual strength. With mental capacity, it is possible to advance and achieve superiority when physically strong.
Knowledge can be used both in positive deeds and negative deeds. When we use our knowledge, we should act wisely avoiding its negative or harmful effects. 0 0 0
Poverty is the lack of adequate finances, status and possession of other things which are necessary to live a peaceful life. It refers to deprived economic and social conditions. This indicates the low income and inability to obtain basic necessities such as food, shelter, clothing, education and healthcare.
There is a term called ‘Cycle of Poverty’. It refers to an event where poverty persists for at least three generations. There are limited or no resources for such families.
There are five primary factors which are responsible for poverty in a family or in a state, or in a community. The factors include ignorance, disease, apathy, dishonesty and dependency. These factors, in turn, contribute to the secondary factors such as poor infrastructure, lack of market, wrong leadership, bad governance, under-employment, lack of skill, lack of capital and some others. According to an estimate of the World Bank, 220% people of India live under the poverty line and 36% of the world population have been living in extreme poverty.
Poverty is a curse upon society. It demoralises people and undermines the qualities and skill in them. By adopting proper and honest measures, poverty can be driven away from society. For this, the Government must take the initiatives and strengthen the infrastructure like providing proper cropland, necessary finance, proper market to sell products, education, modern tools, transport etc.
It is a matter of shame for us to live under the poverty line in this peak age of science. As long as there is poverty in any region of the world, humanity can not claim to be civilised to the true sense. 0 0 0
Technology is the practical use of machinery and pieces of equipment developed from the application of scientific knowledge and invention. The 21st century is empowered with the gift of technology such as the Internet, smartphones, super-fast computers, smart TVs, artificial intelligence (robots) etc. Technology has become a part and parcel of our everyday routine and has revolutionized our lives in unimaginable ways.
In almost all the sphere of our daily life, technology has been playing a vital role without which the machinery of the modern civilisation would cease to survive.
Technological innovations have made man’s life convenient, easier and better than it was yesterday. This has made it possible to connect people from all over the world via smartphone, email, video call etc.
Technology has replaced the traditional modes of transport and provided us with swift cars, trains, aeroplanes, jet plane, etc. Medical Science has also developed beyond imagination. Today almost all the deadly diseases are under cure. Today we have technological innovations such as Ultra Sound, MRI scans, surgical pieces of machinery and other advanced tools.
Technology has now become the most integral part of the development of any nation. Technology has also revolutionised the agricultural production beyond imagination.
I n the field of education also, Technology has been being widely used and nowadays it is possible to acquire knowledge on anything with the press of a key button only.
Though technology has revolutionised the age of ours, yet it has given rise to some negative effects also. For example:
It has produced a vicious cycle of cyber warfare, hackers, terrorist attacks, social tensions and so on.
It has made people addicted to social networking making them dull and ignorant. Modern technology is eroding the creativity of human hands and brain.
For too much use of technology in every field of human activity, the natural environment has been degrading day by day.
The world of today is so much technology dependent that it is quite impossible to come out its net. But we should use it for our fair purpose only so that we can get rid of its bad effects. 0 0 0
Book is a written or printed work in any language giving information on anything consisting of pages sewn or glued together along one side and bound in covers.
It is said that the tradition of writing books began in ancient Egypt. Then the books were written by hand on the barks or leaves of trees called papyrus. But with the invention of the printing press in Germany by Gutenberg in the fifteenth century, a new revolutionary turn came to the world of books and the production of books became cheap, easy and available. Again with the beginning of the twenty-one century, a new revolution began in the world of books and since then the books have been taking a new shape called ‘Digital book’ or ‘Electronic book’. Digital books are available only in digital devices like computer, smartphones, iPhones etc.
There is various kind of books on a variety of subjects. But all the books are classified broadly into two categories as Fiction and Non-fiction. Again on the basis of theme, subject matter, form and style books are classified into some branches as Poetry, Essay, Novel, Short Story, Drama etc. Over again, books are categorised subjectwise also as: Literature, Science, Mathematics, Geography, History etc.
Books are said to be the best carrier of knowledge and civilisation. The great messages and teachings of great philosophers and thinkers are recorded and preserved in books for the next generations and thus the mobility of knowledge has become more and more flexible and easy.
All the great inventions of science and the progress of mankind have become possible for books. It is seen that the nations which produce more books and study more they become more developed and civilised.
A book has thousandfold benefits. Books are our best friends. A book can make us happy when we are alone or unhappy. It can change our mind and give meaning to our life. Books are a treasure of knowledge. Books can take us anywhere in the universe through words and pictures. We can learn about the world of matter and spirit in reality and through the imagination of the author.
There is no alternatives to books. We should form the habit of reading books from our childhood. 0 0 0
When a child under the age of fourteen is put to work in an industry or in any business or in a household for monetary purpose depriving of their regular schooling and freedom is called ‘Child Labour’. Child labour is illegal and considered exploitive.
In spite of the existence of laws against child labour, in many countries of the world including India, child labour has been going on both in the cities and the villages.
Child labour is a deeply rooted social evil which has, in turn, led to other social issues such as the sale and trafficking of children, debt bondage, severe and forced labour at low cost and many more.
Some of the other acts include hiring children under fourteen for such activities like prostitution, pornography, production and smuggling of drugs etc. Al these acts are not only illegal but also immoral, inhuman and anti-social. The engagement of children in work harms their health, development, safety and morality.
According to the Constitution of India, children under the age of 14 are absolutely prohibited to engage in any kind of factory, quarry or other hazardous employment. They should be provided free and compulsory education by the government. They should not be misused and forced by economic necessity. They should be given full opportunities and all necessary facilities to develop in a healthy way. Despite all these rules and regulations, there are many industries and businesses that are using child labour.
It is rightly said that the children of today are the citizens of tomorrow. If the children of today are exploited and are deprived of their proper growth, education, and development then the future of the nation would ruin and humanity would be degraded lamentably in the hand of immature, inadept, weak and immoral citizens. So the child labour must be eliminated erelong enforcing the law with all its rigidity. 0 0 0
Christmas is an annual festival of the Christians celebrated on December 25 every year. Though it is primarily a festival for those who follow Christianity, yet in course of time, it has become popular among all sects of people. There is a lot of attraction in India for this festival because it brings lots of fun and enjoyment. Children enjoy Christmas very much as they get gifts, sweetmeats etc. from their elders. Many Indian states such as Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Goa, Nagaland, Mizoram, Meghalaya, Manipur and Arunachal Pradesh show especial attraction for this festival.
Christmas is also popular in Kolkata, the capital of West Bengal because Kolkata (Calcutta) was the capital city during the reign of the East India Company.
Christmas is celebrated to commemorate the birthday of Jesus Christ. During Christmas, people forget their enmity and come together to celebrate their beloved Lord’s birthday with great zeal and enthusiasm. By distributing sweets and gifts, people spread the message that our actions should be equally fruitful and be devoid of hatred or enmity.
The Christmas tree and Santa Claus are an essential part of this festival. A huge cedar or cedar tree is decorated with glitter, chocolate, gifts, sweets, etc. Cities are illuminated by different types of light. The passion and charm of the Christmas festival have been increasing year by year and has now become one of the national festivals of India.
We should not take the festival as a means of fun and entertainment only but we should also be inspired by the noble ideals and teachings of Jesus Christ. 0 0 0
Clearing a forest off its trees and vegetation is called ‘Deforestation’. The land thus obtained is then used for constructing residential or industrial areas or for the practice of agriculture or for laying roads or railway tracks. In this process, many development goals of human beings are satisfied. But the ecosystem and environment are irreversibly damaged due to deforestation.
Trees and vegetation in a forest take a long time to grow. Although a forest takes years to grow, man’s desire and greed can destroy it in minutes. Trees and forests play a very important role in our ecosystem. Forests have a great floral variety that includes trees, creepers, climbers, grasses, shrubs, herbs etc.
Many wildlife species like mammals, birds, reptiles and insects live in the forest. There live large animals such as elephants, rhinoceros and tigers, and smaller ones such as foxes, jackals, antelopes, rabbits etc.
There are many types of birds endemic or native or migrants found in forests. There are many varieties of snakes, butterflies and insects that also live in the forest. All these wildlife species depend on forests for their food.
These species lose their homes and food when forests are cleared. Thus we lose wildlife diversity by cutting down the trees of the forest. It is from deforestation that we have lost wildlife like leopards and many others and the lives of many species are endangered. Some species have got extinct so far.
The scientific report says that humans are in imminent danger and ruin due to the adverse effect of their foolish acts towards nature. For want of ample forest land, global warming is increasing. The climate is changing. Drought and untimely flood are now common phenomena. All these foretell that the future of the Earth as well the living organisms on it are facing a drastic menace in the imminent future.
Therefore if we want to keep our mother-earth habitable and congenial to us and to other living beings we should prohibit deforestation and must take to plant more and more trees. Let us protect the forest, let us live like humans. 0 0 0
‘Manner’ refers to a person’s outward way of behaving towards others. Again ‘ Good Manners’ refers to the manners which is polite, just and morally correct. Good manners are reflected in how we conduct ourselves in our daily life. We can also show good manners at home, at school, on the playground, and in any other place, whether we are travelling on a bus or flight, or enjoying an excursion or vacation.
Our parents and teachers help us to develop good manners. It is best to learn good manners in childhood. If we have good manners, we are appreciated and loved by our family, teachers, classmates and friends.
Respecting elders is good manners. It is also good behaviour to show courtesy to our elders. We show good manners by what we speak and the way we complain. Our body language can also reflect good manners. If we are polite our words should also be polite.
Good manners don’t support rude, profane and egoistic behaviour. We can show humility when we speak using sweet language. Speaking slowly and mildly is a feature of good manners. On the other hand, speaking loudly and being rude is bad manners. It is good that we say thanks to those who help in our need. Likewise, it is humility to justify forgiveness.
Being polite and considerate is good behaviour. For example, closing a door on a person’s face is a bad manner. Being considerate towards the sick and physically disabled is good behaviour.
Our manners express our personality. If our manner is good then our personality is said to be good. Good manners also consist of speaking the truth and being honest. Because without the qualities of truthfulness and honesty our dealings with others would be fake and artificial.
Good manners can make our social life more and more fine, peaceful, brotherly and co-operative. Therefore we should practise the habit of good manners from our childhood and the parents should give emphasis on inculcating good manners in their children. 0 0 0
‘Independence’ means the state of being free from dependence. From the sixteenth century, many countries of the world had been losing their independece in the hands of some imperialist countries like England, French, Portugal, Spain and some others. India also became a victim of the British occupation in the eighteenth century and they governed India till the first half of the twentieth century. But under a series of struggle, India got its freedom from the grip of the British on August 15, 1947. Then a gazetted holiday is declared to commemorate this date every year. Hence the celebration of the Independence Day on every 15th August becomes a great national festival of India.
The celebration of Independece Day is inaugurated by hoisting of the National Flag at 7 o’clock in the morning. It is celebrated with great pomp and entertainment. The Prime Minister of India delivers a lecture addressing the people of India from the Red Fort, Old Delhi. In every school and college, Independence Day is celebrated with great zeal and enthusiasm.
On this day many cultural programmes are held in schools, colleges, clubs and some government offices. Some competition is also held.
In some institutions, a special meeting is also held where the teachers and students deliver lectures commemorating the freedom fighters who sacrificed their lives for our motherland.
Independence Day inspires us to be ever ready to love our country and sacrifice our lives for our honour and integrity.0 0 0
Holi is a popular ancient Hindu festival of colour and fun. It is celebrated with great enthusiasm in every nook and corner of the country. It is celebrated predominantly in India and Nepal but it has also spread to some other Asian countries through diaspora from the Indian subcontinent.
People perform the ritual of ‘Holika Dahan’ night before the colourful Holi in the myth of burning all their sins of the last year. ‘Holika Dahan’ or ‘Holika Jalana’ belongs to King Hiranyakashyap and his son Prahlad.
There is a big story behind the festival of Holi. Prahlada the son of Hiranyakashipu was a worshiper of Lord Vishnu but was forced to worship his father (Hiranyakashyap). Prahlad refused. His father was very angry and decided to kill his son in various ways. One way was to kill his son through his (Hiranyakashyap’s) sister Holika by sitting in the fire as a boon to keep him alive. Unfortunately, due to the blessings of Lord Vishnu, Prahlada was saved, but Holika (her aunt) was burnt alive. Since that time, people celebrate ‘Holika Dahan’ by burning their sins and stay healthy and happy. The next morning, they celebrate colourful Holi to show their happiness.
After celebrating ‘Holika Dahan’ people celebrate the arrival of spring in the Hindu calendar. It seems to be celebrated with a colourful, messy and chaotic party. For many, it has become less synonymous with religion but more a sport with colours. In its celebration, powder of colour is thrown over everyone and everything. In this festival, old clothes are worn because the power of colour spoils the clothes.
No doubt, Holi is a festival of fun and joy but we should be careful in throwing the powder of colours at everyone so that they can not harm us. 0 0 0
Among the significant National Festivals of India, Republic Day is one. It is celebrated on January 26 every year. It is a day to remind the enforcement of the Constitution of free India. It stirs the hearts of people with a sense of responsibility for the country.
It is celebrated schools and colleges by organizing educational, cultural and sports activities. People put a lot of effort into organizing programs and activities to commemorate Republic Day. A grand parade is organized by the Indian Army in New Delhi on the Rajpath to honour the Indian flag. This includes special performances by the Indian Army, Navy, and Air Force.
A wreath is laid by the Indian Prime Minister at the Amar Jawan Jyoti at India Gate to honour and remember the great soldiers who have fought bravely for the cause of the nation. The Indian Army salute the President of India during the parade. There is a flypast program by the Indian Armed Forces through fighter jets.
Along with celebrating Republic Day, we should be inspired by the ideals of democracy and should take a vow to render our best service to the nation. 0 0 0
My Summer Vacation
‘Summer’ is synonymous with the holiday because we get a full month off from school during the hottest time of the year. I like the summer vacation very much because I can do many interesting things during the vacation. I get enough time during the vacation to develop my hobby and do all the fun activities that I shouldn’t have to do during my school-going days.
I do not sleep late because the morning hours are the most productive time of the day. So I wake up early and go for a morning walk with my younger brother to a nearby park. Many other joggers also visit the park. It is refreshing to go for jogging. After returning from the morning walk, I wash my hand and face and sit down to read books. I also do some additional practice in English.
I also like to play badminton. So I spend the evening hours with my friends in the playground.
I enjoy eating cool salads during the summer. I like to be creative and make salads with raw vegetables like onions, tomatoes and cucumber.
Summer is also the time when we can visit interesting places. My parents take my sister and me for fun activities like river rafting. We also go to the house of our grandparents who live in the village and spend a week with them. My grandparents love us and when we meet them, they treat us with a lot of goodness.
Sometimes I read the biographies and autobiographies of the world’s personalities. During my summer vacation, I frequent the public library of our locality.
I enjoy my summer vacation doing things on my own accord. 0 0
‘Unemployment’ is a situation where someone of working age and ability is not able to get a job though he is willing to be a full-time employee. Unemployment is an issue that confuses governments around the world.
Unemployment occurs due to many reasons. Despite often being educated there is a high level of unemployment. This may be due to the lack of association between education and the requirements of jobs or job profiles.
Our education system is such that gives emphasis to producing high degree holders but cannot ensure jobs or occupations for them. Educated youth, therefore, remain unemployed, although they have the physical, mental and intellectual capacity to obtain jobs.
The unemployed are often poor and destitute. They lack the resources to access food, clothing, shelter and medical facilities required for themselves. By being jobless they become completely dependent upon the resources of others for survival.
Unemployment gives rise to many problems. An unemployed person, due to lack of finance cannot take nutritious food and consequently become prey to various deficiency diseases which can be fatal. Without a roof over their heads, people who are unemployed may have to turn to the streets to live a low life. The number of homeless and street dwellers, therefore, increases day by day. Unemployment and the poverty caused by it also increase the level of a beggar.
People who are unemployed and have no means of livelihood will also not have mental well-being. They may suffer from mental conditions such as depression requiring medical help.
At present unemployment has become a deadly issue throughout the world. Even in the first world countries like the United States of America, Japan, German, France, Arabia etc., this problem has become a principal national issue.
There is no doubt that unemployment is a curse upon society but if the governments of the consisting countries take some decisive measures honestly, we think this fatal problem must be solved. 0 0 0 School Essays Part-I
The End of School Essays Part- I
Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:
- Advertisement Writing
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- School Essays Part-I
- School Essays Part-II
- School English Grammar Part-I
- School English Grammar Part-II..
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