Story Writing ‘by Menonim Menonimus, Published by www.menonimus.org
D.T.P. by Miss Samima
My Dear Younger Brother
Who helps me much
In doing the task of painstaking proofreading.
Story Writing is a branch of Composition. This branch of composition has been prescribed in the school syllabi with a view to increasing the knowledge of students on vocabulary, imagination, creative power, logic and ability of expression.
In the art of Story Writing, some outlines of a story are given to the students. They have to complete the story upon the given outline.
While writing out a story the students should bear in mind the following points:
1. The students should read the outline several times until they grasp the plot of the story.
2. After grasping the plot, they should begin to write out the story.
3. The story should be arranged in accordance with the given outline.
4. The story should develop logically. Every outline should follow the former one spontaneously and naturally.
5. When needed ‘conversation/ dialogues’ may be used. But conversations or dialogues should be brief and to the point. Dialogues should be inserted within inverted commas (“——”).
6. A title should be given. The Title should be direct and relevant to the plot.
7. At the end of the story, a moral may be given.
8. The story, prescribed to the students, should be written within 100 to 150 words.
9. After completing the writing of the story the students should read the story from the first to the last correcting the grammatical and spelling errors.
Like other branches of composition, Story Writing is not an easy task. The students should practise this art as much as possible.
Some Specimens of Story Writing have been given for practice.
Outline: One day an ant was being carried away in a stream……. A dove sitting on a tree beside the stream saw it and cropped a twig…… the ant climbed on it and was saved…….. Another day a hunter was aiming at the dove with his gun……… the ant saw it and bit the hunter’s toe…… missed the aim……. the dove flew away.
The Ant and the Dove
One day an ant went to a stream to drink water. As he went close to the water he slipped and fell into the water. The stream began to drift it away.
By the side of the stream, there was a tree on which lived a dove. He saw the ant in a helpless condition. He picked a twig from the tree and dropped it into the water. The ant managed to get upon the twig and saved his life. He remained grateful to the dove.
After some days a hunter came near the tree on which the dove lived. He saw the dove and aimed at it to shoot her. The ant saw this. Then the ant hurriedly went there and bit the hunter’s toe. The hunter then missed his aim. Thus the life of the dove was saved.
Moral: If we do good to others then others will do good to us.
Outline: A lion had three followers: a fox, a wolf and a bear…….all went a hunting……..got only a stag…… the kill was divided into four parts………the lion claimed the first part…… as he was the king……..the second part was due to him for his superior strength and bravery………….the third part for his offspring………for the fourth part, he challenged each of them to fight and get it by defeating him.
The Lion and His Followers
In a forest, there was a lion. He had three followers: a fox, a wolf and a bear. Once they went hunting together. They could hunt a stag. They returned being tired and hungry. The kill was divided into four parts to be shared by the four. But the lion was intending to get all the parts for him.
The lion said to the followers, “I am the king of the forest. So I claim the first part as the king’s share.”
“The second part is due to me, as I am the strongest and bravest of all”, said the lion.
Again the lion said, “I have my young ones to feed. So I claim the third part for them.”
For the fourth part, the lion challenged each of them to fight and get it by defeating him.
The three followers were angry but they had nothing to do. They dared not to fight the lion. Then they left the forest and went to another forest to get rid of the lion.
Moral: Right is might.
Outline: A thirsty crow found no water……. saw a jar but water too low for its beak……. tried and tried but failed to upset the pot…… saw some stones……threw them into it……… water came up to his mouth.
The Intelligent Crow
On a hot day, a crow felt very thirsty. He wanted to drink water. He, after searching for water here and there, found a jar nearby. It flew to it and looked inside. But there was little water, yet to the bottom. He tried to dip its beak but failed. Then he tried to upturn the jar, but could not. At last, he happened to notice some stones lying near the jar. He began to drop the stones into the jar; the water began to rise up. For some time, he plucked the stones and dropped them into the jar. Eventually, the water rose up within the reach of his beak. He drank water up to his thirst and flew away.
Moral: Some impossible tasks can be done by intelligence.
Outline: A fox passing by a tree……. Saw a crow on the top……. She has a piece of bread in its beak……. The fox praises the voice of the crow…….. Asks it to sing…… the silly bird feels flattered……. Tries to sing….. Loses the bread.
The Cunning Fox and the Foolish Crow
Once, a fox happened to pass by a tree. He saw a crow sitting on the top of the tree. The crow had a piece of bread in his beak. The fox contrived to have the piece of bread for himself. The fox began to flatter the crow by saying, “I have heard from my forefathers that you have a sweet voice. Please, will you sing a song to me?” The crow was puffed off by the flattery of the fox and readily agreed to sing. As she opened her mouth to sing a song, the piece of bread fell to the ground. The fox took it up and ran away with the piece of bread. The poor crow had nothing to do, but repent. She felt very sorry and said to himself, “What a fool I made of myself!”
Moral: None should trust a flatterer.
Outline: A cat in a house……. Killed mice whenever came out of their holes……the mice held a meeting to find some means of safety…….a small mouse’s suggestion: to tie a bell round the cat’s neck was accepted…… one old mouse asked who would bell the cat.
Belling the Cat
Once in a peasant house, there was a cat. He killed the mice of the house whenever they came out of their holes. All the mice were afraid of the cat. So all the mice, one day, held a meeting to find some means of remedy. Some of the mice put forward their suggestions. But one young fellow jumped up and said, “The cat kills us because he chases us suddenly without any warning. If we can bell the cat then we will scot-free of him, whenever he comes, by hearing the ringing of the bell.” His suggestion was liked and accepted by all.
But one old fellow said, “The plan is good; but who will bell the cat?” Everybody became silent. There was none to do that.
Moral: Easy to say; hard to do.
Outline: A lion asked a sheep if he looked ugly…….. the sheep said, and was eaten up……. the same question was asked to a wolf……. he said to the lion that it looked very beautiful….. but was eaten up for flattery….. the fox avoided a reply and said that he could not see without his eye-glass.
The Lion and the Sly Fox
Once there was a lion in a forest. One day, he asked a sheep, “Do I look ugly?” The honest sheep replied, “Yes you are.” The lion is enraged and killed the sheep. Then the lion asked a wolf, “Do I look very ugly?” The wolf that had seen the lion eating the sheep, said, “You are most beautiful.” The lion said, “You have flattered me. I must kill you.” Then the lion killed the wolf and ate it up. Next, the lion asked the same question to a fox. The cunning fox replied, “Lord, excuse me, I cannot see without my eye-glass.” Let me go and have my eyeglass. Saying so, he ran away from becoming the victim of the lion.
Moral: We should learn from experience.
Outline: Two friends travelling through a forest……… a bear coming towards them……… one climbed up a tree……… the other fell flat as dead……. bear smelt his body and left him unhurt………… the first man came down and asked what the bear whispered into the ears of his friend.
Two Friends and a Bear
Once, two friends were travelling through a forest. While they were on their halfway, suddenly a bear appeared. One of the two friends climbed up a tree leaving the other. The other did not know how to climb a tree. He fell flat on the ground like a dead man. The bear came up and smelt his body. As she had stopped his breath the bear thought him dead. So the bear left him unharmed because the bear does not eat the dead body. When the bear left the spot, the other man came down from the tree and asked his friend, “What did the bear say to you whispering into your ears?” Then he replied, “The bear tells me that none should trust a friend who leaves in time of peril.”
Moral: A friend in need is a friend indeed.
Outline: Androcles, a Roman slave hid in a cave…….a lion came…..he saw a thorn in its paw………. He drew it out…… Androcles arrested and thrown before the same lion caught before him……….. The beast proves a friend……..slave set free.
Androcles and the Lion
In ancient Rome, there was a slave by the name of Androcles. Once he committed a crime and escaped to a hilly forest and took shelter in a cave. Soon a lion entered the cave. Androcles was frightened. But the beast put one of his paws forward to Androcles. He noticed that there was a thorn in the paws of the lion. Androcles gently put out the thorn. Since then the lion went out, brought a kill for his benefactor as food. Some days after however, the lion was not returned. Androcles felt so hungry that he came out but as soon as he came out in search of food, he got arrested. As a punishment, Androcles was thrown before a hungry lion. But the lion behaved differently. Like a pet dog, it fawned at his feet. He was surprised that it was the very lion whom he helped. Thus unusual event led the king to set him free.
Moral: Even animals return goodness.
Outline: Three friends found a purse………. while travelling…… wanted to divide it……. felt hungry…….. One bought poisoned food to kill the others and take the whole amount….. The other killed the friend who bought foods for them……… they ate the food and died. …….. the money was taken by a stranger.
The Fate of Greedy Friends
Once, three friends were travelling together. All of a sudden they found a purse full of money. They were overjoyed and wanted to divide the money equally among themselves.
As they walked on they felt hungry. One of them went to bring food to them. He bought food, ate some part of it and then mixed some poison with the rest of the food to kill his two friends in order to get all the money for him.
The other two friends wanted to kill the friend who had gone to bring food in order to engulf his share. When the man came back from the market, the two friends killed him. Then they ate up the food and died from the effect of poison. Thus all three friends died. In the meantime, a stranger came that way and took the purse.
Moral: Greed is the cause of ruin.
Outline: An old man had three sons—always quarreled among themselves—the father was worried—asked a servant to bring a bundle of sticks—asked each of his sons to break the bundle—none could do—each of them broke a single stick easily—the father’s advice.
The Old Man and His Sons
Once there was an old man. He had three sons. They quarreled among themselves. The old man became worried and to teach them a lesson, he ordered his servant to bring a bundle of sticks. Then he called all his three sons and said to them, “My dear sons, this is a bundle of sticks. Can anyone of you break it?”
Each of the three sons tried to break it. But none could do it.
Then the old man untied the bundle and gave each a single stick. Then they broke the stick easily.
The old man said that the stick remained strong enough when they were kept in a bundle. So if you all keep together then you would possess great strength.
Since then the three sons realized their foolishness and promised to keep united and lived ever peacefully.
Moral: United we stand and divided we fall.
Outline: A miser buried a lump of gold in his garden—servant ran away with it—miser wept bitterly—a neighbor advised him to put a piece of stone in that place—it was as good as his gold.
The Miser and His Gold
Once there was a miser. He became very rich. He did not like to enjoy his wealth. So he sold all his wealth and bought a lump of gold and buried it in his garden. Every day he used to dig the lump of gold and touched it and again put it under the earth.
One night the servant found the lump of gold out and ran away with it. Then the miser began to make a loud outcry with grief. His neighbours came. One of his neighbours consoled him and advised him to put a piece of stone in that empty hole and touch and look at it every day. He said, “It will be as good as a lump of your gold.”
Moral: A thing not used is meaningless.
Outline: King Solomon—wisest of all kings—the Queen of Sheba came to his court with two garlands of flowers—one of the natural flowers and the other of artificial flowers— Solomon a bit puzzled at first—opened a window—bees entered and sat upon the real garland— his wisdom tasted.
The Wisdom of King Solomon
Many years ago, there was a king whose name was Solomon. His fame as the wisest king spread far and wide. People spoke of his wisdom and learning everywhere.
Hearing of Solomon’s wisdom, the Queen of the Land of Sheba, wanted to justify his wisdom. One day she arrived at the court of Solomon. She brought with her two garlands of flowers. One was of real flowers and the other was of artificial flowers. She asked the king to take up the garland of real flowers. Both the garlands were excellent and full of artistry. They looked alike. The king felt puzzled. Suddenly a means of proving the real garland came into his mind. He opened the window of his palace. Then some bees flew in and fall on the garland made of real flowers. The paradox was solved. The Queen of Sheba was surprised at Solomon’s wisdom and intelligence.
Moral: Intelligence is power.
Outline: A beggar pretended to be dumped—he approached a gentleman for money—another beggar came and told the gentleman that the first beggar is not dumb—the first beggar got angry and called the other beggar a liar—the truth came out.
Tit for Tat
Once there were two beggars who begged from door to door and earned a living. To draw more sympathy from people, one of the two beggars pretended to be dumb. Being feigned as dumb, the beggar approached a gentleman and asked for alms. The gentleman took pity on him for his dumbness and gave him some more money as alms. Seeing this, the second beggar became jealous of him and told the gentleman that the first beggar was not really dumb. He pretended to be dumb to draw people’s sympathy and thus got more money. Hearing this, the first beggar began to abuse him loudly. Now the truth came out.
The gentleman approached the first beggar and kicked him with disdain.
Moral: Pretence is always bad.
Outline: A fox fell into a well—could not get out—a thirsty goat passed that way—the fox insisted on the goat to drink water—the goat jumped into the well—the fox got out by placing his legs on the horns of the goat—the foolish goat was drowned.
The Shrewd Fox and the Foolish Goat
One day a fox fell into a well. He tried hard but could not get out of the well. In the meantime, a thirsty goat was passing by. The fox took the chance to lure the goat and told him that the water of the well is very sweet and cold to drink. The fox insisted on the goat to drink such sweet water. Then the goat, being allured by the fox, jumped into the well.
The fox took the chance and placing his legs on the horns of the goat got out of the well. The goat drowned and died.
Moral: None should be allured by sweet words.
Outline: A fox saw a bunch of grapes—tried to get but could not—went away saying, “The grapes are sour.”
A Hungry Fox
One day a hungry fox was roaming here and there in search of food. Suddenly he saw a garden of grapes. The grapes were ripe but the grapes were upon a tall tree. The fox felt joy and thought that he would eat the grapes up to his throat. But he could not get at them. He jumped up gaping up his mouth for hours. He got tired. He could not reach the grapes anyway.
At last, being frustrated, he went away saying, “The grapes are sour.”
Moral: The things that cannot be had are bad.
Outline: A woodcutter cutting down trees beside a river— let slip his axe—felt sad at the loss of his axe—crying—the water-god took pity on him—dived into the water—brought a gold axe—a silver axe— the honest wood-cutter refused to take them— they were not his— the god brought his own axe— gave him both the gold and silver axe—.
The Honest Wood-cutter
Once there was a wood-cutter. He was very poor but honest. He earned his livelihood by cutting wood beside a river. One day, while he was cutting wood, suddenly his axe slipped off his hand and fell down the river. He felt sad and began to cry. Seeing the poor wood-cutter sad and crying, the water god took pity on him and appeared before him. He consoled the wood-cutter saying, “O brother why are you crying?” Saying so, the god dived into the river and brought a gold axe and asked him to take it. But the wood-cutter did not receive that axe. Then the god dived into the river again and brought a silver axe and gave it to the wood-cutter. But the wood-cutter said, “It is not mine. I cannot take it.” Then the water-god dived into the river for the third time and brought the axe made of iron. Then the wood-cutter received the axe being felt happy. The water-god was pleased with the honesty of the poor wood-cutter and as a reward, the god gave him all the axes.
Moral: Honesty has its own reward.
Outline: A lion was sleeping—a mouse ran over him— the lion was about to kill it— the mouse begged for forgiveness— said that he would help him someday— the lion laughed and let it go— the lion caught in a net (snare)— the mouse gnawed its strings and freed the lion.
The Lion and the Mouse
One summer noon a lion was sleeping under the shade of a tree. In the meantime, a mouse came out of the bush and suddenly ran over the lion. Being disturbed by the mouse, the lion became engraged and was about to kill it. The mouse begged for forgiveness and said, “Sir do not kill me. Someday I will help you.” The lion laughed and said, “You are so little to help me.” Saying so, the lion took pity on the mouse and let it go.
After some days, the same lion was caught in a snare. The strings of the snare were made of strong ropes. The lion tried utmost to come from the snare. But he could not. He thought that he would die. In the nick of time, the mouse appeared before the lion and gnawed the strings of the net and freed the lion.
Moral: Sometimes a little thing can do great help.
Outline: A mother went to Lord Buddha— requested him to give life to her only son who died— Lord Buddha asked her to bring handful of mustard seeds— where nobody died— ran and ran—no such home found— returned to Buddha— taught her the lesson.
Lord Buddha and a Woman
One day a mother came to Lord Buddha and told that her only son had died. She prayed to him to make her son alive. Lord Buddha gently asked her to bring a handful of mustard seeds from a house where none died.
The mother went to the nearby villages and asked people for a handful of mustard seeds in every house. But she found not a single house where none had died before.
Then the mother went back to Buddha and reported that she had not found such a house. Lord Buddha then taught her the lesson that everybody must die. He also must die someday. The mother then felt consoled and went home.
Moral: Everybody must resing to death.
Outline: A car hits an old man and escapes …….. he is injured badly…………………. crowd gather on the spot ………………. only show sympathy ………………… they speak about the evil of rash driving ……….. nobody comes forward to help the injured man …………. two schoolboys arrive ……………… feel sorry for the old man …………. take to the hospital.
An Injured Old Man and Two Boys
The other day an old man, while he was walking to the market, suddenly a car with full speed hit him and escaped the car instantly without being noticed by the people around. The old man was injured badly. His knees were broken. He was bleeding also. People around came and gathered. Everybody began to sympathize with the old man. Many people began to speak about the danger of rash driving. But there was none to come forward to help the injured man. All seemed to be spectators of the accident. At the meantime, two schoolboys happened to walk on by the road. They came near the injured man, gave him primary treatment and carried him to the nearest civil hospital.
Moral: We should have fellow-feeling.
Outline: One day twelve fools start on a journey ——— cross a river ——— count themselves ———— each one not counting himself ————— each time counts eleven —————— a passerby offers to produce the twelfth man ————— pays each fool a blow —————— counts twelve.
The Twelve Fools and A Wise Man
One day a company of twelve fools started on a journey to a far-off land. On their way, they crossed a river and count themselves. The first one of them counts their number. But he found them eleven. Then another man counts them. But alas! he also found them eleven. Likewise, everyone counts them and found them to be eleven. Then they offered a passerby to produce the twelfth man. He paid each fool a blow on the head and counted twelve. The mystery was that each one counts them without counting himself.
Moral: Fools are always to suffer
Outline: The lion, king of beasts — kills many animals — all animals — hold a meeting — decide to send one animal to the lion every day — lion agrees — the turn of the hare — arrives late — tells there is another lion in the forest — wanted to seize and kill him — hare takes the lion to the deep well — the lion sees his reflection — thinks there is another lion in the well — jump in.
The Clever Hare and the Foolish Lion
Once there was a lion in a forest. It was very ferocious and cruel and claimed himself to be the king of the beasts. It used to kill all other animals in large numbers to satiate his hunger. As a result, the number of other animals began to decrease day by day. The lion became a source of terror for all other animals. So one day, all the animals held a meeting and decided that the animals would send one animal to the lion per day. The lion agreed to their proposal and ceased to kill animals randomly. From the day onwards an animal began to be sent to the lion as the lion’s daily meal. Thus the days were passing on. But one day the turn came to a hare. The hare was very intelligent and shrewd. He made a plan to arrive at the appointed spot very late. On the other hand, the lion was waiting for the hare eagerly. At last, after too much late, the hare came to the lion as his prey. The lion made a loud roar and said to the hare, ”Why are you too late?” The hare said, ‘ Sir, I am late because in the same forest there is another lion who stood in my way and wanted to eat me.”
Hearing this, the lion became very angry and envious of the other lion. He said to the hare, ‘’Show me the lion. Where is that?” The hare ushered the lion to a deep well. The lion stood on the brink of the well and saw its reflection in the water. Then the lion made a loud roar and jumped down to kill the other lion. As soon as the lion jumped down, it fell down the well and died pathetically.
Since then the other animals of the forest got rid of the ferocious lion and lived ever after happily.
Moral: Intelligence is superior to physical strength.
Outline: A king has a wise minister who has deep faith in god …………… often says, ‘It is all for the best” ………………. the king gets a boil on his thumb ………… the surgeon cuts the thumb……….. the minister says, ” It is all for the best.” …………. the king throws him in jail………………… the king goes to the forest for hunting ………………. is caught by tribals ………………… they decide to sacrifice him to their goddess ………………… the cut fingers saves him …………………… comes back and set the minister free…………… begs his pardon.
It is All For the Best
Once a king who was very whimsical ruled over a small state of central India. He had a minister who was wise and experienced with a deep faith in God and often used to say, ” It is all for the best.” The king also had respect for his wise minister and often sought his advice on different administrative matters. Everything was going on smoothly between the king and his minister. But suddenly this relationship took a turn for the worst after an incident.
The king got a boil on the thumb of his right hand. It was very painful and started swelling very badly. It became very difficult for him to perform his day-to-day activities. His doctor also could not cure this disease even after they had tried many good herbal medicines. The king found it impossible to bear this severe pain and got frustrated. At last, the surgeons discussed among themselves and decided to cut the thumb as they had no other options.
After the operation, the minister came to see the king in the royal hospital. He greeted the king saying, ” It is all for the best, your highness.” The king had been already upset about the loss of his thumb. Now when the minister uttered this, he got furious. ” How dare you say such things at this moment? You foolish minster!” Saying this he immediately sent for the guards and ordered them to arrest the minister and send him to prison. While leaving for prison, the minister once again said, ” It is all for the best. Thank you, my lord.”
Days passed by. The king overcame the sadness of losing his thumb. In order to spend a summer afternoon amidst nature, he went to a remote jungle for a hunt. Usually, the minister, now a prisoner, used to go with the king on such adventurous outings. The king alone ventured out this time. Unfortunately, he lost the way home and was trapped in the deep forest. The night was approaching. The king got scared and to his misfortune, he was about to fall a victim to the tribals of that forest. They caught him and decided to sacrifice him before their goddess. For this, they inspected if there was any wound in the king’s body because a wounded human could not be sacrificed. To their despair, they discovered that the right thumb of the king was missing. They had to abandon the idea and set the king free. The king rushed to the palace with the help of two kind-heart tribals. He immediately went to the prison and set the minister free. He hugged him and begged his pardon for committing such a blunder. The minister then replied, “It is all for the best, my lord. If I had been with you today in the jungle, they would have sacrificed me instead of you.”
Moral: We should not take any decision when we are angry.
Outline: A man buys a birthday cake ……………. the confectioner gives him a little less weight than required ………… the man complains ……………… the salesman says, ” Don’t worry, you will have less to carry.” Clever man pays less money ………………. the salesman complains ……….. the man says, “Don’t worry, you will have less to count.”
The Clever Man
A man went to a confectioner to buy a birthday cake for his son’s birthday. He chose a beautiful cake and asked the salesman its price. He didn’t weigh the cake and promptly said that it was one kilogram and it cost Rs 400. The man asked him to pack the cake. When he took it from the salesman, he found its weight was less than a kilogram. He requested the salesman to weigh the cake before him. The salesman unwillingly took the cake and placed it on the weighing machine. The display screen showed that it was less than one kilogram. The man was very unhappy at such a dishonest trick of the salesman. He asked, “Why did you say it was one kilogram?” The salesman replied, “Don’t worry, you will have less to carry now.” The man did not argue further but decided to teach him a lesson. He smiled and paid Rs 300. The salesman got irritated and rudely asked the man, ” I told you it is Rs 400. Have you forgotten?” The man calmly replied, “Don’t worry, you will have less to count now.” The salesman realized his stupidity. He felt ashamed of such misbehaviour.
Moral: Tit for Tat
Outline: Two women quarrel over a child ………… each claims the child to be hers ………….. come to court ………… judge orders to cut the child into two…………….. one gives up her claim and says, “Don’t cut the child.” …………. the other remains silent …………… judge decides.
The Wise Judge
Once in town, a woman with a child on her lap was sitting under a tree beside the Market Hall. The woman was feeding the child a cake. Suddenly another woman came up to the first woman. She seemed very tired and travel-stricken. She looked at the child on the lap of the first woman. He looked well and said, ”This is my child. Give me my child.” The first woman seemed to be furious and said, ”He is my child.” The second woman said, ”No, you are lying. He is my child. You are a kidnapper.” Thus the women began to quarrel between themselves. Hearing their loud voices, the nearby people come up to them. They could not decide as each of the women claimed the child to be hers.
Then an old man came to the spot and he suggested both the women to go to the local judge. Accordingly, they went there. In the court of the judge, both placed their claim. The judge seemed to be at a loss.
Then after a pause, the judge made out a plan and ordered the servant to bring a sword. Accordingly, a sword was brought in. Then the judge ordered his servant to cut the child into two pieces. The servant came near the child with the sword in his hand. Then the second woman went up to the judge and said, ”You honor, please do not cut the child. Let him live. I have given up my claim.”
The truth came out. The Judge declared that the second woman is the rightful mother of the child and handed over the child to the woman. The first woman was accused of kidnapping and was sent to jail.
Moral: No mother wants her child to be killed. 0 0 0
Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:
- Advertisement Writing
- Amplification Writing
- Note Making
- Paragraph Writing
- Notice Writing
- Passage Comprehension
- The Art of Poster Writing
- The Art of Letter Writing
- Report Writing
- Story Writing
- Substance Writing
- School Essays Part-I
- School Essays Part-II
- School English Grammar Part-I
- School English Grammar Part-II..