School English Grammar Part-II

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School English Grammar Part-II

School English Grammar Part-II

 

School English Grammar Part-II

Word  Study

 
 
 
Menonim Menonimus
 
 
 

 

Contents

 

Part-II 

Word Study

Chap.Titles

1. Synonyms

2. Homonyms and Paronyms

3. Antonyms

4. One-Word Substitution

5. Diminutives

6. Some Foreign Words and Phrases

7. Distinction Between Groups of Synonyms

8. Formation of Parts of speech

9. Formation of Compound Words

10. Word Order

11. The Same Word Used as Different Parts of Speech

12. Use of Prefixes & Suffixes

13. Spelling Direction

14. List of Collective Nouns

15. Some commonly used Similes (Comparison)

.

School English Grammar Part-I I

  Chapter-1

SYNONYMS

 

Synonyms are words that are commonly supposed to have the same meaning, but in reality, they have a fine difference in meaning

A list of Synonyms with illustrations is given below:

1. Alter (partial change/modification): The teacher made some alterations while he checked my notebook.

Change ( to be entirely different): Raja changed his car.

2.  Allow (absence of restraint; it is negative in sense): It seems that his parents allow him to make a quarrel.

Permit (to give permission after definite agreement): We wanted to use the leisure room as our library and the principal permitted.

3.  Answer (answer is to a question): Answer the questions in brief.

Reply (it is to a charge): He charged me of stealing and I gave a legal reply.

4.  Ancient (not modern): Ancient Indian history is full of pride and glory.

5. Abdicate (spoken only of a king giving up his throne): King Edward abdicated his throne because of his love to a girl.

Resign (to give up any post high or low): The secretary had resigned his post.

6. Admit (to acknowledge some fact): Namita admitted that she had bought the book.

Confess (to accept responsibility for some crime): The boy confessed that he stole the bicycle.

7. Amusement (something done to occupy the vacant mind): Watching outdoor games is my amusement.

Recreation (Something done to refresh the mind after hard work): I take a long walk in the evening for my recreation.

Diversion (Something that turns the mind away from thought or work): The arrival of the president became a source of diversion for the students.

8. Abstain (to keep away from a thing): We should abstain from wine.

Refrain (to keep away from some action): We should refrain from gambling.

9. Accustomed (to) (used to a thing or habit): In my boyhood, I was accustomed to early rising.

Addicted to (to be habituated to something undesirable): Kanak is addicted to wine.

10. Accept (to agree to some request, invitation etc.): I have accepted Kamala’s invitation and went there.

Acknowledge (to recognise the claims of others): He acknowledged that Ram is the real heir of the kingdom.

11. Act (something done): We should act upon the advice of our parents.

Feat (an act of skill): She showed her feat in doing the work.

12. Absolute (without any check, restraint, or condition): He became the absolute ruler of the land.

Autocratic (to rule without caring for any rules and regulations): The kings of  Nepal were autocratic.

Despotic (tyrannical/oppressive): Chenghis Khan was a despotic leader of the Mongols.

13. Apprehend (to understand a little): I  apprehend only the general sense of what he says.

Comprehend (to understand fully): I comprehended what he said.

14. Accident (an unwelcome event): He died in an accident.

Incident (an event, occurrence): Our history is full of remarkable incidents.

15. Avocation ( any work taken up for the sake of pleasure, not primarily with the intention of earning money): Writing is my avocation.

Vocation ( the main business or profession through which one earns one’s livelihood): Writing of educational books is my vocation.

16. Avenge (to inflict just punishment privately for a wrong done to another; it does not imply satisfaction of any personal grudge): In ancient Arab hostilities continued for generations and the wrong done to the father were often avenged by the sons.

Revenge ( to inflict punishment for wrongs done to one’s own self, the purpose being to gratify personal grudge):  Ram is ready to take revenge for the wrong done to him.

17. Anticipate ( to expect some trouble or difficulty in future):  I have anticipated that he would forbid me to visit Pakistan.

Forestall ( to take steps to prevent some future trouble ): Our Government had forestalled many soldiers in the India- Pakistan Border during the Kargil War.

18. Astonishment (unpleasant surprise ): I am astonished that he has become my friend.

Wonder ( surprise mingled with praise):  We wondered at his sudden success. 

19. Beautiful (used for a woman or for a thing considered feminine):  Sita is a beautiful girl. 

Handsome (used for man or object considered masculine):  Rakib is a handsome boy. 

20. Battle (an armed fight between two armies): The Battle of Sharaighat took place between the Ahoms and the Mughals. 

War (war consists of a series of battle ): In the Second World War some millions of people were killed intentionally.

21. Fight ( a fight is usually between two or more persons and not between armies): Ramanon was badly wounded in the fight.

Duel (an armed fight between two persons ): The duel is no longer in fashion. 

22. Busy ( actually doing some work):  We are very busy now with our mission. 

Diligent (a person of hard-working habits): Habib is a diligent young boy.

23. Discover (to find out something which already existed but was unknown to men ): Columbus discovered America. 

Invent (to find out or make something new): Marconi invented wireless.

24. Begin (it is a general word and can be used in reference to any action ): I began to read at 12 o’clock yesterday.

Commence (used for beginning something important): Our Annual Sports will commence on 3rd February.

 Start ( used only for physical movement ):  The bus started at 4 O’clock.

25. Crime ( to do something against the law of a country): Bribery is a crime. 

Vice  (something against the law of morality): Drinking is said to be a vice. 

Sin (Something against the law of religion): Telling a lie is a sin. 

26. Character ( A man’s qualities which make him good or bad): Rakesh is respected by all because of his good and ideal character.

Reputation (praise received for some noble action): He earned a reputation by dint of welfare deeds to the masses.

27. Custom (refers to the habitual actions of a society): Taking veils even in young age is a custom in Arabian society.

Habit (it refers to the usual practice of an individual): My habit is to take a banana with milk.

28. Cite (used for reference to both person or thing): The subject of the letter to the minister is cited above.

Quote (used for passage from a book): Quote a line from Shakespeare in support of your comment.

29. Ceiling (the inner part of the covering of a house):  The ceiling of the house is made of plastic pieces.

Roof (Outer part of the covering of a house): The roof of the house is made of straw.

30. Common (that which two or more persons share or are interested in): Book reading is a common habit of my friends.

Mutual (that which is reciprocal or is interchanged): Ram and Shaym agreed to mutual help.

31. Comply (to obey a wish or order): The boy complied with my order.

Conform (to follow rules and regulations): Kanak agreed to conform with the discipline of the institute.

32.  Command (it implies an order of a superior officer as-king, queen, military officer etc. to lower persons): The General commanded the army to march forward.

Order (an order is for particular acts): The host ordered the servant to close the gate.

Injunction (a direction from a superior authority like law courts regarding general conduct): The Magistrate sent an injunction to Ramen to attend the court.

33. Credible (believable): Your story is quite credible.

Credulous (a person who easily believes others):  Nabin is often cheated by others because of his credulous nature.

34.  Contagious (a disease that is easily caught by touch alone): Smallpox is a contagious disease.

35.  Infection (a disease that spreads through air and water even without touch): Cholera is an infectious disease.

36.  Contentment (satisfaction of mind of a person whose desires are limited): After getting the job as a clerk Ramen felt full contentment.

Satisfaction (the gratification of one’s desire): His company gives me satisfaction.

37. Compulsion (to be compelled to do something by the pressure of circumstance): Babul had left the village under the compulsion of poverty.

Obligation (it implies a moral duty that a person must perform): We are under an obligation to respect our elders.

38.  Drown (used only for animals and human beings): Kalam drowned in the river and died.

Sink (used only for lifeless things): The boat sank in the pond.

39.  Deny (used with reference to some facts): She denied that she had committed the sin.

Refuse (used with reference to a request): He refused to help me.

40. Delightful (that which gives pleasure to the mind and senses): Football is a delightful game for me.

Delicious (used only with reference to the sense of taste): The supper last night was very delicious.

41. Distinguish (to recognise broad differences): Please distinguish the achievements of Akbar and Shahjahan.

Discriminate (to point out the minute difference): Only a perfect critic can discriminate the difference between Socialism and communism.

42.  Doubt (used with reference to some fact or statement and implies that what is doubted is wrong): I have doubted his success.

Suspect (it is used with reference to persons only and implies what is suspected is true): I suspect Hari to be a dishonourable man.

43. Efficacious (producing the desired result): The medicine given to you is proved very efficacious.

Efficient (competent): Naliniwala was an efficient poetess of Assam.

44. Effective (having the desired effect):  Effective measures have been taken to control the terrorists.

Effectual (that which serves the desired purposefully): His advice proved effectual.

45. Envy (ill-will or discontentment at some superiority enjoyed by others): Ranin is envious of his friend’s prosperity.

Jealous (anxiously careful of, or concerned for something or someone) Nanak is a jealous advocate of modern poetry.

47. Error (a slight fault of judgment): There may have some errors in the book.

Mistake (to take one thing or person for another): I mistake him for a doctor.

Blunder (mistake of a serious kind): Even some teachers commit a serious blunder in solving such a calculation.

47.  Enough (refers to the quantity of something which a person desires): He has earned enough black money.

Sufficient (refers to the actual needs of a person): I am still unable to earn sufficient money to support my family.

48. Famous (used in a good sense): Navakanta Baruah is a famous Assamese poet.

Notorious (used in a bad sense): Usama Bin Laden is said to be a notorious terrorist.

49.  Forgiveness (related to the matter of a serious nature): He stole the chest and asked for forgiveness.

Pardon (used only for matters of less importance): please pardon me as I can not meet you.

50.  Falsehood (telling something wrong but without the intention of deceiving anybody): It is a falsehood to tell that we can live in the jungle.

Lie (telling something wrong with the intention of deceiving others): I generally do not tell a lie.

51. Grateful (used for conduct to anybody for a favour done to us): I am very grateful to the publisher for rendering me a helping hand.

Thankful ( it is a state of a person’s mind): I am thankful to all my colleagues for their help rendered to me.

52. General (not special or particular): A general meeting was called for the purpose of raising money.

Universal (all-inclusive): In the sonnets by William Shakespeare there is a universal appeal of love.

53. House (the four walls within which one lives): We live in an  Assam-type house.

Home (a house with its belongings): charity begins at home.

54. Haste (quickness in doing something): Make haste, otherwise we will miss the train.

Hurry (quickness with confusion): We left the luggage in a hurry.

55.  Idle (not busy; without work): I am sitting idleLazy (it is used for habit): Kamala is lazy and she cannot succeed.

56.  Imminent (about to happen): Our examination is imminent.

Immanent (all-pervading): God is immanent.

57.  Instigate (to urge a person to do some evil): The political leaders are seen to remain under the screen in the acts of instigating communal riots.

Incite (inspire a person to some action): My dear students incited me to compose the book.

58.  Justice (it is based on the law of a country): Justice was given him in spite of opposition.

Equity (it is something moral and refers to our sense of right and wrong): It is our demand to get equity in all economic matters.

59.  Keep (to put something safely for a long time): Keep the purse in the table.

place (to put for the time being): please place the bucket on the floor.

60. Kill (cause to death): Nabin was killed in the last battle.

Murder (to put someone to death intentionally): Chandra was murdered by his enemy.

61. Liberal (not miserly): He is liberal in all matters.

Generous (it refers to the nobleness of feeling): Mahatmaji was generous to the poor.

62. Libel (to defame through something written or printed): The young writer was punished for libeling the minister.

Slander (to defame through spoken words): He was brought to book for slandering his neighbour.

63.  Loyalty (faithfulness to a person, party or cause): Kamala’s loyalty to the party is praiseworthy.

Allegiance (duty to one’s king or ruler): The allegiance of the foreigners to India is doubtful.

64.  Misfortune (it is individual or personal ill-luck): His failure in the examination is said to be his misfortune.

Calamity (it is widespread ill-luck): During summer the people of Assam meet an unbearable calamity.

65.  Probable (that which is expected to happen): It is probable that the Chinese may attack India.

Possible (that which can take place in the course of time): It is possible for us to travel the world in a day.

66. Protect (to try to save from future danger): We should protect our environment.

Defend (to try to save from present danger): A garrison was placed there to defend the frontiers.

67. Part (it is a general term): The left part of the house was decorated by his parents.

Portion (it refers to the part set aside for a special purpose): The portion of the property was set aside to distribute among the poor.

68. Rural (pertaining to the villages): Rural life is peaceful.

Rustic (uncultured): The rustic villagers made an uproar.

69.  Redress (to do justice to one who has been wronged):  At last he was redressed from the charge of stealing.

Relief (it is an act of kindness): The N.G.O. raised a relief fund for the poor.

70.  Recollect (to call to mind what one has forgotten): I failed to recollect the name of the newcomer.

Remember (to call to mind without any difficulty): I remember your name forever.

71.  Replace (it means to take away something old and put a new thing in its place): Please replace the pen with a new one.

Substitute (to put one thing for another): There is no substitute for water.

72. Strict (it is used for one who sticks to certain rules and regulations): Our principal is a strict disciplinarian.

Severe (one who punishes for the least violation of rules and regulations): We were severely punished for breaking discipline.

73.  Social (related to society): We are social beings.

Sociable (fitted for society): We like Ramen for his sociable nature.

74.  Stop (not to move): The bus stops here for five minutes. 

Stay (to remain with someone for some time): The child now stays with his grandmother.

75.  Simulate: (to pretend to be what one is not): He simulated to be a nobleman and cheated my friend.

Dissimulate (to hide what one really is): Kanak dissimulated and said that he was a doctor.

76.  Sensitive (quick to take an impression from external objects): Karim is very sensitive to any melody.

Sensible (wise): We can rely on a sensible man.

77.  Trade (it is a general term and can be used to denote either small-scale or large-scale business): Ramesh trades in tea.

Commerce (it is always on a large scale and with foreign countries): Indian commerce with foreign countries has been increasing day by day.

78.  Temporary (that which lasts only for a short time): He is a temporary employee in this industry.

Temporal (worldly): Along with our temporal life we should practise the spiritual side of life.

79.  Truce (Stoppage of hostility for a short time): The two parties come to a truce to stop their hostilities for two days.

Treaty (an agreement that indicates the end of a war): The Treaty of  Versailles was illegal.

80. Visitor (one who visits a place or anybody): The two visitors gave me much trouble asking about my private matters.

Visitant (used only for one who comes from another world as an angel, ghosts etc): William Blake, an English poet demanded that he met a visitant while he was playing in the open field.

81. Vacant (not filled at the present moment, but previously occupied): Ranin was given temporary employment in the vacant post of a teacher.

Empty (having nothing): Please fill the empty vessel with milk.

82.  Wages (money paid to servants, labourers usually daily or weekly): I pay 200/- daily to the ward-boy as his wages.

Salary (money paid to highly placed persons; it is monthly or yearly): His salary as a teacher is more than 30,000.00 per month. 0 0 0

School English Grammar Part-II

Chapter-2

HOMONYMS AND PARONYMS

 

Homonyms are words which are similar in sound but different in meaning.

Paronyms are words which are similar in forms or origin but different in meaning.

A list of some Homonyms and Paronyms are given below with illustrations.

 

1.  Altar (the place of worship in a temple): There is a statue of Laxmidevi on the altar of the temple.

Alter (to change): He altered the order of words in the sentence.

2. Affect (to be influenced by; to act up): His speech affected the mind of the mob.

Effect (result): The effect of the Non-cooperation of Mahatma Gandhi was far-reaching.

3. Assent (consent): I can not give my assent to your decision.

Ascend (going up):  We ascended the hill with much difficulty.

4. Allusion (a reference to):  The new leader makes an allusion of Pandit Nehru in his lectures.

Illusion (deception ): Everybody of us had an illusion of water while crossing the desert.

5. Abstract (substance): The student could make an abstract of the lecture given on  Mahatma Gandhi.

6. Acceptance (consent): He sent his acceptance of my invitation.

Acceptation (recognised interpretation): There are many acceptations of the motto.

7. Access (approach): We have easy access to our president.

Excess (to be more than enough): Nepon took some excess money.

8. Alternate (every other): Take the medicine every alternate day.

Alternative (choice between two or more things): There is no alternative to physical labour.

9. Admittance (physical entrance): No admittance is allowed in the room as the doctor keeps himself busy in his private matters.

Admission (admitted to some society or class ): His admission to the new society was highly praised.

10.  Accede (agree to): He acceded to her brother’s request.

Exceed (to go beyond the limit): our annual income does not exceed to twenty thousand rupees.

11.  Accept (to receive): She accepted my invitation.

Except (excluding): Everybody was present in the invitation except Ashok.

12.  Adapt (to become suitable): He adapts himself to the new society.

Adept (skillful): My uncle is adept in music.

13.  Assay (attempt): She assayed the utmost to win the match.

Essay (a narrative prose writing on a single topic): Write an essay on humanism.

14.  Antics (tricks): Everybody dislikes him for his antics.

Antique (ancient): We meet a traveller who came from an antique land.

15.  Apposite (proper): The leader made some apposite references to his arguments.

Opposite (of a contrary kind): Your behaviour is opposite to your speech.

16.  Artist ( one who follows some arts): Ravana is a good artist.

Artiste (a singer, dancer, actor, etc.): Bupen Hazarika is a reputed artiste.

Artisan (skilled worker): Babul is a good artisan in the cane industry.

17.  Artful ( cunning): Kamala is an artful girl, so I dislike her.

Artistic (beautiful): Her paintings are very artistic.

Artificial (unnatural): We are accustomed to an artificial lifestyle.

18.  Affectation (artificial or feigned display): We hate Ripom, because of his affectation.

Affection (a passion of love): We have affection to our children.

19.  Auspicious (favourable): His auspicious assistance proved effective.

Auspices (under the patronage of): The seminar was held under the auspices of Lions Club, Howly.

20.  Birth (to be born): The birth date of Mahatma  Gandhi was  October 2, 1869.

Berth (seat):  He looks for a reserved berth in the Rajdhani Express.

21.  Bear (to endure): I can not bear your insult.

Bare (naked, uncovered): I always take my morning walk on barefoot.

22.  Bail (security): The thief was released on bail.

Bale (a package, a parcel): The shopkeeper sent the goods in a bale.

23.  Beneficial (useful): Milk is beneficial to health.

Beneficient (kind): Ramenda is beneficent to the poor.

24.  Bad (not good, wicked): It is better to be alone than bad company.

Bed (couch): I take my bed at 1 a. m.

25.  Barbarity (cruelty): The barbarity of the terrorists is hated by all.

Barbarism (uncivilized condition): Barbarism is common in poor African villages.

26.  Beach (sea-shore): I spent the night on the beach with my friends.

Beech (a kind of tree): There are many beech trees in the valley. 

27.  Born (taking birth): He was born on the first of January 1972.

Borne (carried): The wallet was borne by the servant.

28.  Bridal (of the bride): The bridal ceremony of Miss Savitri was postponed.

Bridle (rein): Bridle is necessary to keep a horse under control.

29.  Bough (branch of a tree): The bird is singing on the bough.

Bow (to bend down): We should bow down to our parents.

30.  Borrow (to take on loan): I borrowed the book from my friend.

Burrow (a hole): The hare lives in the burrow.

31.  Barren (unfertile): Barren land is not suited to crops.

Baron (landlord):  In the middle ages the Barons were the owner of lands.

32.  Counsel (advice): I am much helped by the counsel of the jury.

Council (an assembly): The proposition of the Red Bill is under discussion in the Legislative Council.

33.  Current (torrent): The river Brahmaputra flows with an undercurrent.

Currant (dried grapes): The Currant of Afghanistan is very costly.

34. Compliment (word of praise): He received a warm compliment from his friends for honesty.

Complement (that which completes): A complementary chapter on Verbs has been added to the book.

35.  Cannon (big gun): Samrat  Babar used cannon in India for the first time.

Canon (rule; a principle): We should obey the canons of religion. 

36.  Canvas (a rough cloth): Sita paints on a canvas.

canvass (to ask for votes): The leaders canvass during the election.

37.  Cast (to throw):  Please do not cast the stones at the wall.

Caste (a human community with particular creeds):  There is still a caste system in Indian Hindu society.

38.  Casual (occasional): He took a casual visit to us.

Causal (relating to the cause): We have a causal relationship as we practise some mutual habits.

39.  Confident (to be sure of): I am confident of success in the examination.

Confidant (trustworthy): Ram is a confidant person.

40.  Censure (to criticise): The new law concerning child labour is censured by some intellectualists.

Censer (a vessel in which incense is placed): Please put the incense on the censer.

41.  Cite (to quote): Please cite some examples to prove your standpoint.

Site (place; situation): This is the site for the college.

42.  Complacent (self-satisfied): We felt complacent for being successful against the terrorists.

Complaisant (polite): Complaisant boys are loved by all.

43.  Contagious (a disease spread by touch): Cholera is a contagious disease.

Contiguous (adjoining): The temple is contiguous to our library.

44.  Cord (string): Please tie the bundle with a cord.

chord (a string of a musical instrument): I need a piece of new chord for my violin.

45.  Course (line of action): We pursued a long course to chase the terrorists.

Coarse (rough): I usually use coarse clothes.

46.  Queue (line of people waiting for something): There is a long queue at the shop for rations.

Cue (a hint): The police could not find any cue of the culprit.

47.  Cell (a small room):  The doctor is in his cell.

Sale (an act of selling): The book gets a good sale.

48.  Coma (to be unconscious): Ravana is in a state of coma for being caught by high fever.

Comma (a mark of punctuation): He often mistakes in using a comma.

49.  Corpse (a dead body): The corpse was honourably buried in the grave.

Corps (a body or group): A corps of soldiers went there to subdue the violent mob.

50.  Cease (to stop): Please cease to beat the thief.

Seize (to catch): He seized my watch and ran away.

51.  Collision (striking against each other): He was wounded badly in a collision between a truck and a bus.

Collusion (secret understanding for an evil purpose): They did the thing by collusion with the police.

52. Credible (believable): The tale told by my grandmother is still credible.

Creditable (praiseworthy): Your attempt is creditable.

53.  Cereal (a food grain): Paddy is a kind of cereal.

Serial (of a series): The novel of Radhakanta was published in the magazine in serial.

54.  Continuous (to continue without any break): It has been raining continuously for the whole day.

Continuation (carrying on some course of action): The continuation of my study depends upon the financial condition of my parents.

55.  Considerable (enough; much): He earns considerable money through painting.

Considerate (wise; thoughtful to others): Ramen is considerate to the poor.

56.  Comprehensive (vast; all-inclusive):  This new book is comprehensive of all the basic rules of grammar.

Comprehensible (which can be understood): Your lecture was comprehensible to all.

57.  Contemptible (deserving contempt): Your manner of treating people is contemptible.

Contemptuous (showing hatred): Who can bear your contemptuous behaviour?

58.  Ceremonious (excess of formality):  I do not like his ceremonious attitude all the time.

Ceremonial (relating to rites and ceremonies): He was welcomed on a high ceremonial occasion.

59.  Cession (to allow to separate):  Our constitution does not allow any cession of our states from the federation.

Session (in an activity): The Legislative council is in session.

60.  Corporal (physical): He got corporal punishment for committing the sin.

Corporeal (having a body; material): We have been bestowed corporeal existence by Nature.

61.  Childlike (innocent like a child; it is used in a good sense): We like  Radha because of her child-like behaviour.

Childish (foolish like a child;  it is used in a bad sense): We hate Karim because of his childish behaviour.

62.  Decease (death): The decease of Kalita followed the decease of his father.

Disease:  Cholera is a contagious disease.

63.  Deference (respect): We should treat our parents with deference.

Difference: There is no difference between Ram and Raj.

64.  Dependent (depending upon): Karim is dependent on his brother.

Dependant (person who depends upon others): We have ten dependants to provide with food and lodging.

65.  Defy (to challenge): Who is there to defy the courage of the wrestler?

Deify (to worship like a god): There are many who like to deify Mahatma Gandhi.

66.  Desert (vast unfertile sandy region): In India, there is a desert called ‘Thar’.

Dessert (fruits served after a meal): The dessert they served for supper was very costly.

67.  Dissent (disagreement): We have no dissent regarding the resolution.

Decent (fine; gentle): All are not suited to a decent society.

Descent (coming down): The descent from a hill is difficult.

68.  Device (a plan): We found, after much search, a new device to catch the thief.

Devise (to make a plan): Please devise a way to get free.

69.  Due (owing to): (i) Please pay your due. (ii) He could not attend the meeting due to his illness.

Dew: Dew falls at night in winter.

70. Dual (double): I am in need of a mobile handset with dual sims.

Duel (armed fight between two persons): Duel is not legal nowadays,

71. Draft (a rough copy):  Please make a draft of the application.

Drought (want of rain):  Many lands are lying uncultivated because of drought.

Draught (current of air): We feel cool because of draught.

72. Depositary (a person with whom something is deposited): Rajesh acts as my depositary.

Depository (a godown): I can not keep my things in your depository.

73. Definite (certain): Your failure is definite because you have not done your duty.

Definitive (decisive, final ): He made his definitive comments.

74. Doze (to feel sleepy): He dozed in class.

Dose (amount of medicine to be taken every day): Don’t forget to give the dose of medicine to the patient in time.

75. Dam (a large vessel): There are many dams in India.

Damn (be condemned to hell): The sinners are damned to hell.

76. Eminent (famous): Nabakanta Baruah is an eminent poet of  Assam.

Imminent (approaching): Our final examination is imminent.

77. Elicit (to find out or draw out): The truth was elicited after asking many questions.

Illicit (unlawful): Bribery is illicit.

78. Eligible (fit for some post):  Kanak is eligible for the post of a constable.

Illegible (not clear to understand): I am unable to read his illegible handwriting.

79. Economic (material needs of a man): I am here to cease my course of studies for my poor economic condition.

Economical (thrifty): Dev is economical in his daily needs.

80. Emigrate (to go out of one’s own country to some other country for a living): Many Assamese have emigrated to America.

Immigrate (to come into a country with the purpose of living there): Many Burmese have immigrated to India.

81. Emerge (to come out): The rills emerge from the Himalayas.

Immerge  (to go down into): I saw him immerging into the water.

82. Erupt (to burst out): Suddenly the volcano erupted and caused many devastations.

Irruption (entering into all of a sudden): The irruption of the terrorists in Assam is very dangerous.

83. Elusive (that which can not be grasped or understood): Some odes by John Keats are elusive to me.

Illusive (deceptive): The world is illusive.

84. Efficacious (useful): Milk is efficacious for health.

Efficient (skilled, capable): Robin is an efficient painter.

85. Exhausting (that which makes a man tired): Digging the earth is exhausting.

Exhaustive (thorough; including all aspects): The New Millennium English Grammar is a grammar of exhaustive kind.

86. Envelope (a cover): Please put the letter in an envelope.

Envelop (to cover on all sides): The room was enveloped with paintings.

87. Egotist (a self-centered person): Most humans are egotists.

Egoist (one who thinks that man is by nature selfish): We are all egoists.

88. Exceptional (rare, uncommon): There are some exceptional qualities in Ramen.

Exceptionable (objectionable): His comment on the rising price of necessary goods is exceptionable.

89. Elemental (primary): The students are deprived of even elementary knowledge of religion in schools.

90. Fair (beautiful): Rabina is a fair lady.

Fare: What is the train fare from Guwahati to Delhi?

91. Floor: The floor of the house is painted with blue colour.

Flour (powder of wheat used as food): We made bread with flour.

92. Fatal (deadly): Rajesh has got a fatal wound in his leg.

Fateful (decisive; important): The battle of Sharaighat was a  fateful event in the history of Assam.

93. Feign (pretend): He feigned to be sick of a fever.

Fine (good, well): I am fine now.

94. Foul (dishonest): The Indian politicians earn money by foul means.

Fowl (a kind of bird): Nowadays fowls are rare of seeing.

95. Faint (to swoon): He fainted as he was much tired.

Feint (a trick to deceive an enemy): During World War-II, the Russians took feint means to bewilder the enemy.

96. Festive (joyous; mirthful): Now you seem to be in a festive mood.

Festal (pertaining to a feast): We enjoyed a festal holiday on the day of Kati-Bihu.

97. Forceful (impressive): Our principal delivered a forceful lecture on the occasion of Id-ul-Fitr.

Forcible (by the use of force): The terrorists have been driven away from the village forcibly.

98. Felicity (happiness): The felicity of life depends upon how we live.

Facility (ease or comfort): We got a little facility during our childhood.

99. Fragrant (sweet-smelling): The garden is full of fragrant flowers.

Flagrant (glaring): It was a flagrant case that proved to be illegal.

100. Forward (to proceed): The police superintendent ordered the constables to go forward.

Foreword (preface): Generally every book contains a foreword.

101. Gait (manner of walking): The gait of the boy is oblique.

Gate (wide door): please stand up at the gate.

102. Gild (to apply golden paint): The door of the masjid was gilded in the 17th century.

Guild (a union of workers): The guild of the workers struck for more salary.

103. Goal (aim): What is your goal in life?

Gaol (jail): The culprit was put in a gaol.

104. Graceful (charming): His attitude towards his parents is graceful.

Gracious (kind, merciful): God is all gracious.

105. Ghastly (like a dead body; pale): He looked ghastly because of his constant fever.

Ghostly (like a ghost): He looks ghostly in his white dress.

106.  Herd (a group of animals): A  herd of oxen is grazing in the field.

Heard (past form of the verb ‘hear’): I have heard your call.

107. Hart (male deer): There are many harts in the zoo of Guwahati.

Heart: Ram fainted because of heart pain.

108. Hoard (to store): He has hoarded a good deal of rice.

Horde (a group; a gang): A horde of terrorists gathered there.

109. Hew (to cut down): Please hew the tree soon.

Hue (colour): The hue of his painting is reddish-brown.

110. Hale (healthy): Renuka is hale and healthy

Hail (rain with storm and hill): Yester-night a mighty hail storm destroyed our crops.

111. Heir (successor): After the death of Humayan, his child Akbar became the heir of the Mughal Empire.

Hare (an animal): Hares are generally very mild.

112. Healthy ( with good health): Ramen is healthy.

Healthful (useful for health): A morning walk is healthful.

113. Historic (relating to history): The Red Fort of Delhi is a historic building.

Historical (based on history): Rajanikanta wrote many historical novels.

114. Human (belonging to mankind): To err is human.

Humane (kind): Renin bears a humane heart.

115. Honourable (worthy of respect): Our principal is an honourable person.

Honorary (a post without salary): He is our honorary principal.

116. Humility (modest): Rehman’s humility is worth praising.

Humiliation (insult): What humiliation he faced!

117. Imaginary (unreal): During my childhood, I had been living in an imaginary world of my own.

Imaginative (given to imagining): John Keats was a highly imaginative poet.

118. Imperial (relating to an empire): The imperial court of  China was full of paintings.

Imperative (urgent): Your advice becomes imperative for me to act upon.

119. Incite (to provoke): Kanak incited Babar to insult the portman.

Insight (an understanding of): I got ample insight of the book after discussion with you.

120. Industrial (relating to some industry): Kolkata is an industrial city.

Industrious (labourious): Renin is an industrious student.

121. Ingenious (clever): He is ingenious in speaking about his own matters.

Ingenuous (frank and innocent): We like Babloo because of his ingenuous nature.

122. Indict (to accuse): The magistrate indicted Chandradhar for stealing the watch.

Indite (to write): please indite what I say.

123. Inflammatory (exciting): His speech is inflammatory.

Inflammable (that which burns easily): Petrol is highly inflammable.

124. Impassable (that which can not be crossed): The great wall of China is generally impassable.

Impossible (not possible): It is impossible for me to act upon your order.

125. Inculcate (to admonish): The teacher inculcated him to turn into the right course.

Inoculate (protect against disease with vaccine): The children should be inoculated in due time.

126. Judicial (relating to a law court): The solution to a dispute is a judicial matter.

Judicious (wise): Our principal is a judicious person.

127. Knotty (having knots, difficult): The problem was very knotty to be solved.

Naughty (wicked): Ramananda was a naughty boy.

128. Knave (wicked person): Latika is a knave girl. 

Nave (the hub of a wheel): There is a nave in every wheel.

129. Lose: He has lost the key.

Loose: Tight the loose screw.

130. Lovely (beautiful): Nalini is a lovely girl.

Loveable (worthy of being loved): Sridevi is a loveable girl.

131. Lessen (to reduce): We should try to lessen our burden.

Lesson: Prepare your lesson on time.

132. Loath (unwilling): I am loath to accept his present.

Loathe (hate): Why do you loathe the poor?

133. Laudable (worthy or being praised): His speech is highly laudable.

Laudatory (full of praise): His laudatory lecture is worth quoting.

134. Luxurious (given to luxury): I hate luxurious life.

Luxuriant (rich in growth): The bamboo is very luxuriant in the spring season.

135. Lightning (sudden light from the cloud): There seems lightning and a hail storm may come soon.

Lightening (to make light): Thank you for lightening my room.

136. Licence (misuse of liberty): Who has allowed you to licence your responsibility?

License (permission to keep or sell a thing): The government has given us the license of a wine shop.

137. Limit (boundary): There is a limit of our comforts.

Limitation (shortcomings): Even a prophet has his limitations.

138. Main (chief): Ram is the main guide of our team.

Mane (long hair on the neck of a lion): The lion has a beautiful mane.

139. Maze (a wreath of lanes): There are many mazes in the city.

Maize (a kind of corn): Maize grows in Rajasthan.

140. Magnet: Magnet draws iron towards it.

Magnate  (a big businessman): Dhirubhai Ambani was a magnate of India.

141. Mantle (cloak, loose coat): Mantle is the uniform of the Russians.

Mantel (a self over a fireplace): The tinsel was kept in the mantel.

142. Meddle (to interfere): I hate those who meddle with others.

Medal  (a badge of honour): I had been given a medal for showing a glorious result.

143. Metal: Copper is a metal.

Mettle (courage): He bears the mettle to face the enemy.

144. Meter (measure): I need 2.5-meter clothes to make my coat.

Metre (a measure in verse): In modern poetry, no metre is used.

145. Momentary (short-lived): The pride of life is momentary.

Momentous (of great importance): He came to a momentous decision.

146. Monetary (relating to money): He works hard for monetary purposes.

Monitory (giving advice): We acted upon the monitory advice of our principal.

147. Memorable (worth remembering): The arrival of the Prime Minister of India in our town is a memorable event for us.

Memorial (in the memory of): Alfred Tennyson wrote some poems as memorials of his friend Arthur.

148. Marshal (military official): The chief Marshal of India was invited to the meeting.

Martial (relating to military): The Mongols are martial people.

149. Mead (meadow): We took a walk on the mead at noon.

Meed (reward): He was given a meed for showing good skill in dancing.

150. Minor (a person under the age of eighteen): No minor is allowed to view the cinema.

Miner (a worker in mine): The miners are on a strike for accommodation.

151. Moat (a ditch usually round a fort): The Red Fort is surrounded by a moat.

Mote (a particle):  There are many motes of dust flying in the air.

152. Moral (pertaining to morality): He was a man of good moral character.

Morale (spirit; courage): The Soldiers showed good morale in the battle.

153. Naught (nothing): His efforts came into naught.

Nought (Zero): One and a naught makes ten.

154. Necessaries (things without which life is not possible): Food, clothing and shelter are our fundamental necessities.

Necessities ( urgent needs): The necessities of his problems need urgent solutions.

155. Negligent ( careless): Ramen is negligent of his duty.

Negligible (not of much value): His view is negligible in this regard.

156. Notable (worth noting): She delivered a notable lecture.

Noticeable (that which can be seen easily): There seems a noticeable improvement in his studies.

157. Oar (poles for rowing): An oar is a necessary thing in rowing.

Ore (raw metal): There is some ore of gold in the coal mines.

158. Observance (performance of some rites or ceremonies): The observance of Durga Puja is being criticized as pompous.

Observation (that which is watched carefully): The observation of the moon was first done by the Greeks.

159. Ordnance (a place where weapons are manufactured): India has many ordanances these days.

Ordinance (an order by special authority): The court gave an ordinance to postpone the meeting.

160. Official ( connected to some official matter): It is an official deed.

Officious (interfering): We dislike him because of his officious nature.

161. Patrol (a party of soldiers or guards): A patrol of soldiers was sent to protect the fort.

Petrol (oil): Petrol is called liquid gold.

162. Principal (chief of an educational institute): The principal of our college is a man of few words.

Principle (rules): We have to follow some principles in life.

163. Pray (to worship): We pray in the temples.

Prey (victim): The deer often becomes the prey of the tiger.

164. Pour (to drop into): Pour the water into the bottle.

Pore (minute hole): In every pore of our body there is hair.

165. Practice ( attempt to bring some habits under control): Practice makes a man perfect.

Practise (verb): We should practise our lessons on time.

166. Persecute (to oppress): The Hindu rulers persecuted foreigners in the middle ages.

Prosecute (to bring to a lawsuit against): He was prosecuted for cheating the customers.

167. Prescribe (to give direction): The doctor prescribed him to take the tablets every alternative day.

Proscribe (to prohibit the sale of some book): Walt Whitman’s  “The Leaves of Grass” was proscribed in America.

168. Physic (medicine): The physic prescribed by the doctor was out of date.

Physique (bodily health): He bears a good physique.

169. Precede (to go before):  pleasure precedes pain.

Proceed (to go on): proceed with your effort to win the game.

170. Pair (a group of two): A  pair of pens were red which she purchased.

Pare (to cut): Pare your nails once a week.

171. Provident (wise): Raj is very provident in his own affairs.

Providential ( an act of God): His cure was providential.

172. Prophet ( a messenger of God): Hazrat Mohammad (peace be upon him) was a prophet.

Prophecy (noun-that which is foretold): Prophecy was generally made by the sophists in the middle ages.

Prophesy (verb – to foretell): Sankar prophesied that there would be drought.

173. President (one who presides): Devdas was the president of our club.

Precedent (previous example): I find no precedent of such a calamity in Indian history.

174. Quite (entirely): He is quite well nowadays.

Quiet (silence): Please keep quiet.

175. Rite (ceremony): We have to observe many rites during Bahag Bihu.

Wright (Playwright): Shakespeare was a playwright of the Elizabethan age.

176. Rest (repose): We take rest at night.

Wrest (to take away by force): Kamala wrested the book from me.

177. Reign (to rule): Muammar -al-Gaddafi enjoyed a reign of forty-two years.

Rein (bridle): Rein is used to keep a horse under control.

178. Route ( way): We reached there through a short-cut route.

Rout (completely defeated): The Pakistan armies were routed in 1972 at the hand of the Indian armies.

179. Raise (to lift up): He raised the proposal in the meeting.

Raze (to destroy): The fort was razed by the Mongols.

180. Regretful (full of sorrow): I am regretful for my wrongs.

Regrettable (that which causes sorrow): My past days were somewhat regrettable.

181. Reverend (worthy of respect): First my respect goes to your reverend grandfather and then to your mother.

Reverent (showing respect): His reverent speech comforts us.

182. Recover (to regain): Humayun recovered his realm with much difficulty.

Re-cover (to cover again): The child was re-covered with a blanket to protect from the cold wind.

183. Seer (one who can foresee into the future): The Indian sages are said to be seers.

Sere (fade): The leaves of trees sere in winter.

184. Slight (trivial): We should not quarrel over slight things.

Sleight (clever act): The jugglers are skilled in sleight of hand.

185. Soar (to rise high): The eagle soars so high.

Sore ( to feel injured): He has been suffering from sore on the knee.

186. Scene (a view): The scene was enjoyable.

Seen ( which we see): We have seen the Rang Ghar.

187. Sent (past form of the verb ‘send’): He has sent a message to me.

Scent (fragrance): The scent of red rose is sweet.

188. Sooth (truth): In sooth, he must give away.

Soothe (to comfort): Who is there to soothe him in distress?

189. Story ( a tale): My grandmother told us a story yesterday.

Storey (of a building): He lives in the third storey.

190. Suit ( a set of clothes;  a law case):  (i) Father has given me a new suit. (ii) He must face suit in the law court in  May.

Suite (a set of rooms in a building): There are seven suites in the building.

191. Stationary (motionless): The Earth was thought to be stationary.

Stationery ( writing materials): Rakesh has set up a stationery shop.

192. Straight (direct): Go straight and you will get at the post office.

Strait (narrow water passage): The isle falls in the strait between England and France.

193. Stimulant ( alcoholic drinks): Tea is a mild stimulant drink.

Stimulus ( that which inspires): Your encouragement acts upon me as a stimulus.

194. Spiritual ( pertaining to the soul): We should emphasise on the spiritual side of life.

Spirituous (having spirits): Wine is a highly spirituous drink.

195. Sculptor (a person who makes statues out of stone): Manorama is a great sculptor of our state.

Sculpture (A figure made out of stone): I have no weakness for sculptures made by ancient Indian sculptors.

196. Statute ( a law):  The statute passed by the Parliament on Child Labour is criticised by some editors.

Statue ( a figure made out of stone): The statue was made out of stone by Nashibur Rahman.

197. Shade ( a place sheltered from the sun): We have planted some trees to get shade in summer.

Shadow (the dark spot cast by a body): Plato said, “ Light is the shadow of God.”

198. Sensual (one who is given to the pleasure of the body; lustful): There are some people whose outlooks toward life are sensual.

Sensuous (one who enjoys beauty through the senses): The English poet John Keats’ poems are mostly sensuous.

199. Sensible (wise; reasonable ): My friend Shusmita is a very sensible lady.

Sensitive ( easily moved or affected): Kamala is very sensitive to the misfortune of the poor.

200. Tale (a story): My grandfather told me a tale last night.

Tail (of an animal): Almost all animals have tails.

201. Tears ( drops of water from the eyes): Hearing the sad news his eyes filled with tears.

Tier ( row; line upon line): There were many tiers in the gallery.

202. Team (a group of workers or players): We belong to Rashi’s team.

Teem ( to be full of): The river seems to have teemed with fishes.

203. Tenor ( trend; purpose): I do not know the tenor of your activities.

Tenure (period of holding some office or property): The Prime Minister holds the office for a tenure of five years.

204. Trivial ( worthless; mean): His speech is proved to be trivial.

Trifling ( thing of small importance): They are quarreling over trifling.

205. Transient (short-lived): Human life on the earth is transient.

Transitory (that which soon passes away): Earthly glory is transitory.

206. Temporary (of short duration): He is a temporary member of our club.

Temporal ( worldly): Socrates never desired temporal glory.

207. Temperance ( moderation): We should maintain temperance in our food habits.

Temperament ( nature): Habib is a man of complex temperament.

208. Union (coming together of different things): Our Great India is a union of many states.

Unity ( oneness): It is said that unity is a strength.

209. Unqualified ( not having sufficient qualifications): Rasis is unqualified for the post.

Disqualified ( to degrade in qualification): Farhad was disqualified for taking unfair means in the interview.

210. Empire ( a kingdom): Akbar built a vast empire.

umpire ( arbitrator; referee): There are generally two umpires in a cricket match.

211. Vain ( conceited): his glory seems to be vain.

Vein ( blood vessel): We have some thousand veins in our body.

Vane ( weathercock): Vane is used to learn the direction of the wind.

212. Vale ( valley): We live in the Brahmaputra vale.

Veil : ( a covering for the face): All the Arabian ladies take veils.

Wail ( to weep): The old lady,  hearing the news,  begins to wail.

213. Verbal ( oral): He made a verbal protest.

Verbose ( having more words than necessary): The Elizabethan plays seem to be verbose.

214. Veracity ( to be truthful): I like Ram most because of his veracity.

Voracity ( greediness ): Your voracity makes you unpopular among your friends.

215. Wander ( to move about aimlessly): Last night I wasted my hours wandering here and there.

Wonder (to be surprised): He wonders at your odd dress.

216. Waste ( to lose for negligence): I do not like to waste my time.

Waist ( human limb): He was wounded on the waist.

217. Wait: I am waiting for his arrival. 

Weight ( burden): I am unable to lift so much weight.

218. Weather: The weather is very hot today.

Whether ( if ): I do not know whether he will come or not. 

219. Wet ( to be moist ): Do not wet the coat.

Whet (to sharpen ): He was asked to whet the knife.

220. Week (a period of seven days): Seven days make a week.

Weak ( not strong): He is too weak to walk.

221. Wave ( current of water): The wave of the ocean is very gigantic.

Waive ( to give up): We should waive our bad habits.

222. Womanly ( proper for a woman)  Her dress is womanly.

Womanish ( having the weakness of a woman): Nowadays almost all young boys seem to be womanish.

223. Wreath ( garland): The grave was decorated with wreaths.

Wreathe ( to be full of; encircle): The spot was wreathed with flowers.

224. Whither ( to what place): Whither is Indian Science?

Wither ( to fade): The flowers have withered.

225. Yolk ( the yellow part of an egg): The yolk of an egg is nutrient.

Yoke ( A frame put on the neck of an animal): The bull was put to the yoke.

226. Yearn ( to desire a thing): He yearns for a new car.

Yarn ( thread): They are yarning threads of cotton.  0 0 0

 

Chapter-3

ANTONYMS

 

Antonym is a word which is opposite in meaning to another word in the same language. Antonyms are formed in different ways as :

1. By substituting a different word, as –

Words —– Opposite words

After ——- before

Above——- below

Begin——- end

Black——- white

Buy——- sell

Cheap——- dear

Coarse——- fine

Dark——- bright

Dawn——- dusk

Day——- night

Dead——- alive

Deny——- admit

Dull——- keen/sharp

Dwarf——- giant

Easy——- ——- difficult

Ever ——- never

Failure——- success

False——- true

Far——- near

First——- last

Forget——- remember

Gain——- lose/loss

Guilty——- innocent

Hard——- soft

Heaven——- hell

High——- low

Hope——- despair

Ill——- well

In——- out

Junior——- senior

Kind——- cruel

Knowledge——- ignorance

Lend——- borrow

Little——- big/much

Life——- death

Open——- shut

Optional——- compulsory

Peace——- war

Present——- absent

Proud——- humble

Rain——- sunshine

Rich——- poor

Rise——- fall

Right——- wrong/left

Rough——- smooth

Simple——- complex

Slow——- fast

Start——- stop

Strong——- weak

Sweet——- bitter

Short——- tall

Thick——- thin

Vague——- clear

Vex——- please

Virtue——- vice

Wet——- dry

Young——- old

Win——- lose

2. By adding a prefix, as:

Words ——-Opposite words

Agree——- disagree

Normal——- abnormal

Plot——- counter plot

Advantage——- disadvantage

Ordinary——- extra-ordinary

Noble——- ignoble

Legible——- illegible

Moral——- immoral

Perfect——- imperfect

Proper——- improper

Seen——- unseen

Known——- unknown

Deed——- misdeed

Violence——- non-violence

Manage——- mismanage

Practice——- malpractice

Treat——- mal-treat

Regular——- irregular

National——- international

Discipline——- indiscipline

Visible——- invisible

3. A list of Miscellaneous Antonyms:

Word——- Opposite words

Absolute——- relative

Accept——- reject

Abstract ——- concrete

Acquit——- convict

Active——- inactive/passive

Addmittance ——- quaittance

Adversity——- prosperity

Affirm——- deny

Afraid——- bold

Ample——- scanty

Angel——- devil

Arrive——- depart

Back——- front

Backward—– forward

Barren——- fertile

Base——- top

Beneficial——- harmful

Blunt——- sharp

Calm——- boisterous

Care——- uncare

Close——- open

Competent——- incompetent

Condemn——- Praise / approve

Confidence——- diffidence

Conscious——- unconscious

Contract——- expand

Credit——- debit/discredit

Decent——- indecent

Defect——- merit

Defend——- offend

Delay——- haste

Descend——- ascend

Empty——- full

Encourage ——- discourage

Enthusiasm ——- indifference

Entrance——- exit

Eternal——- transitory

Exterior——- interior

Extravagant——- economical

Even——- uneven

Fact——- fiction

Faithful——- faithless

Fallible——- infallible

Female——- male

Fickle——- steady

Finite ——- infinite

Fit——- unfit

Bad——- good

Beautiful——- ugly

Broad——- narrow

Defeat——- victory

Early——- late

Famous——- notorious

Foolish ——- wise

Freedom ——- slavery

Full ——- empty

Genuine—– spurious

Happy ——- sorry

Honour ——- shame

Increase ——- decrease

Optimism ——- pessimism

Oral ——- written

Particular ——- general

Present ——- absent

Punish ——- reward

Pure ——- impure

Rise ——- fall

Long ——- short

Modern ——- ancient

Natural ——- artificial

Safe ——- dangerous

Unity ——- diversity

Violent ——- gentle

Weal ——- woe. 0 0 0

 

Chapter-4

ONE WORD SUBSTITUTION

 

One-word substitution is the art of using a single word for many. There are many phrases and clauses for which only one word can be used. The use of a single word for many imparts exactness and precision to speaking and writing. A list of one-word substitutions is given below :

1. A tank for water plants and fish ___ Aquarium

2. A place where birds are kept ___ Avary

3. One who wants to destroy all law and government ___Anarchist

4. Money given to a wife by her husband after legal separation ___Alimony

5. That which happen once in a year ___Annual

6. One who practices some art for pleasure___Amateure

7. One who lives on vegetables ___Vegetarian

8. A medicine which removes the effect of some poison or previous medicine ___Antidote

9. That which can not be understood ___Unintelligible.

10. An office with salary but without work ___Sinecure

11. Fit to be eaten ___Edible

12. Something likely to cause death ___Fatal/Deadly.

13. An animal that lives on flesh___ Carnivorous

14. One who eats the flesh of its own kind ___Cannibal

15. That which can not be put into practice ___Impracticable

16. A book that does not bear the name of the writer ___Anonymous

17. That which can not be heard___Inaudible

18. A speech made for the first time___ Maiden

19. A book written by hand___ Manuscript

20. One who works for money___ Mercenary

21. A word no longer in use ___ Obsolete

22. A child born after the death of his father ___ Posthumous

23. A book published after the death of its author ___Posthumous

24. A prize awarded after the death of its winner___ Posthumous

25. An office with work but no salary ___ Honorary

26. A medicine which can cure all disease ___ Panacea

27. A place where an artist works ___ Studio

28. Houses in which soldiers live ___ Barrack

29. A place where coins are made ___ Mint

30. A place where medicines are dispensed___ Dispensary

31. A word with opposite meaning ___ Antonym

32. An institute for higher learning___ University

33. A disease caught by touch___ Contagious

34. A man who is not married ___Bachelor

35. Life story written by one’s own self___ Autobiography

36. A sound that can be heard ___ Audible

37. A word or custom which was used in old times ___Archaic

38. One who can neither read nor write ___ Illiterate

39. The custom of having only one wife ___ Monogamy.

40. That which ends only in death ___ Fatal.

41. A hater of womankind ___ Misogynist.

42. One who hates mankind ___ Misanthropist.

43. Money paid to a woman for her personal expenses ___ Pin money.

44. An instrument used by both eyes to see distant objects ___ Binocular.

45. An instrument which magnifies small objects  ___Microscope.

46. An instrument which measures temperature ___Thermometer.

47. An instrument which foretells weather change ___Barometer.

48. An instrument which transmits sounds more loudly ___ Microphone.

49. An instrument which is used by doctors to examine the chest ___ Stethoscope.

50. An instrument that carries the voice to a  distance ___ Megaphone.

51. An instrument that sends messages to long-distance ___ Telegraph.

52. An instrument that transmits spoken words to long distance ___ Telephone.

53. An instrument which guides sailors on the ocean___ Compass.

54. An instrument which takes photographs ___Camera.

55. To give up one’s claim to the kingship of a country ___ Abdicate.

56. One who easily believes what others say ___ Credulous.

57. Something through which one can easily see ___Transparent.

58. A man who loves mankind ___ philanthropist.

59. Persons who live in the same age ___ Contemporary.

60. A man who loves the whole world as his won country ___ Cosmopolitan.

61. A match which remains undecided___ Drawn.

62. A man who behaves like a woman ___ Effeminate.

63. Men going out of a country ___Emigrant.

64. Goods sent out to another country ___ Exports.

65. A speech delivered without preparation. ___Extempore.

66. The killing of a brother___ Fratricide.

67. The killing of a man ___ Homicide.

68. That which is against law___ Illegal.

69. An ink which can not be effaced ___Indelible.

70. One who can not be corrected ___Incorrigible.

71. A place where a blacksmith works ___ Smithy.

72. A book where photographs or autographs are kept. ___Album.

73. A book which gives information on all subjects ___Encyclopaedia.

74. A list of book ___ Catalogue.

75. A book which tells dates and days ___ Calendar.

76. A book which contains telephone addresses ___ Directory.

77. A thing that can be seen ___Visible.

78. The killing of a king___ Regicide.

79. The killing of oneself___ Suicide.

80. The killing of one’s parents___ Patricide.

81. An animal or plant that lives upon the body of another___ Parasite.

82. The custom of marrying two wives ___Bigamy.

83. The custom of having a number of wives ___ Polygamy.

84. The custom of having more than one husband ___Polygandry.

85. Anything through which one can not see ___ Opaque.

86. A man who knows many languages ___ Linguist.

87. That which can not be conquered ___ Invincible.

88. A disease that spreads through air ___ Infectious.

89. The killing of an infant ___ Infanticide.

90. A man who can not make a mistake ___ Infallible.

91. A man who can not be appointed ___ Ineligible.

92. A thing that can not be believed ___Incredible.

93. Goods brought into a country ___ Imports

94. Men coming into a country ___ Immigrants

95. A writing that can not be read ___ Illegible

96. That which can not be eaten ___ Inedible

97. That which can not be solved ___ Insoluble

98. A person who can not pay off his debts ___ Insolvent

99. A government carried on by a king ___ Monarchy

100. The government by Lords and nobles ___ Aristocracy

101. The rule of officials ___ Bureaucracy

102. The rule of the rich ___ Plutocracy

103. The rule of the mob ___ Mobocracy

104. The rule of the church official ___Theocracy

105. One who loves his country ___Patriot

106. One who is all-powerful ___ Omnipotent

107. One who is present everywhere ___ Omnipresent

108. One who can see everything ___ Omniscient

109. Animals which live in groups ___ Gregarious

110. Animals which can live both on land and water  ___Amphibious

111. Animals that eat both meat and vegetables ___ Omnivorous

112. Medicine to kill germs, insects, etc.___ Insecticide

113. The killing of one’s own mother ___ Matricide

114. The killing of an entire religious group, class, race, nation, etc___ Genocide

115. Killing on a large scale ___Massacre

116. A book containing an account or description of books ___ Bibliography

117. One who loves books ___ Bibliophile

118. One who loves womankind ___ Philogynist

119. One who does not marry ___ Bachelor

120. One who hates the institution of marriage ___Misoganist

121. One who changes his principles from time to time ___ Opportunist

122. One who takes a gloomy view of the future ___ Pessimist

123. The study of the origin of words ___ Etymology

124. One who is hopeful of the future ___ Optimist

125. The science of gardening ___ Horticulture.

126. The study of the lines on the palm ___ Palmistry.

127. One who breaks idols ___Iconoclast.

128. One who worships idols ___ Idolator.

129. The doctrine of considering everything as a manifestation of god ___Pantheism.

130. One who does not believe in God ___ Atheist.

131. One who reads books eagerly___ Voracious.

132. One who wants peace and total abolition of war. ___ Pacifist.

133. One who is quarrelsome and ever ready to fight. ___Bellicose.

134. Nations at wars ___ Belligerent.

135. One who makes pleasure the chief end of life.___ Hedonist.

136. One who loves only himself ___ Egoist.

137. A man who loves others ___ Altruist.

138. One who hates knowledge ___Misologist.

139. One who lives in another country ___Alien.

140. One who gives up his religion ___Apostate.

141. A soldier who runs away from the army ___Deserter.

142. One who leaves his party and joins another party ___Renegade.

143. One who can use either hand with equal skill ___ Ambidextrous.

144. One who travels on horseback ___ Equestrian.

145. One who walks on foot ___ Pedestrian.

146. A purse carried by a lady ___ Reticule.

147. Medical examination of a dead body ___ Post Mortem.

148. A decision taken with the consent of all ___ Unanimous.

149. A speech or writing too full of words ___ Verbose.

150. Favouring one’s own relatives ___ Nepotism.

151. A state based on one particular religion ___ Theocracy.

152. A state not based on any particular religion ___ secular.

153. An author who steals ideas and passages from another author ___Plagiarist.

154. Those who work in the same office or institution ___ Colleagues.

155. One who works enthusiastically for some noble cause ___Missionary.

156. That can be explained in more than one way ___ Equivocal.

157. That which can not be understood clearly___ Ambiguous.

158. One who gets angry at trifles ___ Irritable.

159. One who is indifferent to pleasure or pain ___stoic.

160. A conversation with one’s own self  ___ Soliloquy.

161. One who can speak in more than one voice ___ Ventriloquist.

162. One who walks in his sleep ___ Somnambulist.

163. One whose favourite recreation is love making ___Philanderer.

164. One who is very rigid in matters of discipline  ___ Martinet.

165. One who advocates the cause of women ___ Feminist.

166. One who is given to the enjoyment of the senses ___ Epicure.

167. One who is proud of his learning ___ Pedant

168. A child born without the marriage of its mother ___ Illegitimate

169. Words engraved on one’s tomb ___ Epitaph

170. A place where clothes are kept ___ Wardrobe

171. One who stands against his own country or king ___ Traitor

172. The act of speaking disrespectfully about God___ Blasphemy

173. The act of violating the sanctity of a place of worship ___ Sacrilege

174. One who shows unreasonable enthusiasm for some cause ___Fanatic

175. One who is particular about the smallest detail ___ Meticulous

176. An umbrella used by a lady ___ Parasol

177. A building where dead bodies are kept ___ Mortuary

178. A list of the dead ___ Obituary

179. One who has a long experience ___ Veteran

180. A woman whose husband is dead ___ Widow

181. A man whose wife is dead ___ Widower

182. That which happens twice a year ___ Biannual

183. Prayers offered in the morning ___ Matin

184. Prayers offered in the evening ___Vesper

185. One who believes in practical observation and experience ___Empirical

186. That which can not be divided ___ Indivisible

187. That which can not be questioned ___ Unquestionable

188. That which can not be avoided ___ Unavoidable

189. That which is liable to be burnt ___ Inflammable

190. A language which is no longer in use ___A  dead language

191. A word which has the same meaning with another ___ Synonym

192. A property inherited from father ___ Patrimony

193. Above all price and value ___ Invaluable

194. Animals living on human flesh ___ Cannibal

195. Beyond the power of nature ___ Supernatural

196. Contrary to nature ___ Unnatural

197. A place where buying and selling of goods are done ___ Market

198. A place where birds and animals are kept for show ___ Zoo

199. A place where clothes are manufactured ___ Cloth Mill

200. A place where goods are manufactured___ Factory

201. A building where goods are stored before sale  ___ Godown

202. A place where lunatics are treated ___ Asylum

203. A house where the Muslims offer prayer ___Mosque

204. A building where objects of historic, scientific and arts are kept ___ Museum

205. A place where people stay for improvement of health ___ Sanitorium

206. The Head-quarter of a Government ___ Capital

207. Where two flowing rivers meet ___ Confluence

208. People who attend meetings to listen to lectures ___ Audience

209. The students who appear in the examination___ Examinee

210. One who composes poem ___Poet

211. One who makes ornaments  ___ Goldsmith

212. One who makes shoes ___ Cobbler

213. Who is famous for delivering lectures ___ Orator

214. One who dies for good cause ___ Martyr. 

215. A line without any curve ___ Straight.

216. A man who is one hundred years old ___ Centenarian.

217. First meal of the day ___ Breakfast.

218. Where a lion lives ___ Den.

219. Where king lives ___ Palace.

220. Where a spider lives ___ Cobweb.

221. Where a horse lives ___ Stable.

222. Where a bird lives ___ Nest.

223. A man of eighty years old ___ Octogenarian.

224. Where any people can take meal ___ Hotel.

225. Where pupils come to read ___ School.

226. Where dead persons are buried ___ Grave.

227. Of no avail ___ Futile. 0 0 0

 

Chapter- 5

DIMINUTIVES

 

Diminutive is a form of word which is used to mean the smallest Shape (form)  of a thing. It is also used to mean affection or contempt.

A. List of some Diminutives:

Words ——- Diminutives

Arm ——- armlet

Art ——- article

Ankle ——- anklet

Animal ——- animalcule

Bird ——- birdie

Book ——- booklet /pamphlet

Brook ——- brooklet

Bull ——- bullock

Cat ——- kitten

Cigar ——- cigarette

City ——- citadel

Cock ——- chicken

Corn ——- Kernel

Change ——- challenging

Dame ——- damsel

Dear ——- darling

Eye ——- eyelet

Flower ——- floweret

Globe ——- globule

Goose ——- gosling

Hill ——- hillock

Hire ——- hireling

Home ——- hamlet

Isle ——- islet

Leaf ——- leaflet

Lamb ——- lambkin

Lance ——- lancet

Lass ——- lassie

Lock ——- locket

Lord ——- lordling

Maid ——- maiden

Man ——- manikin

Mole ——- molecule

Mouth ——- muzzle

Nurse ——- nursling

Pack ——- package

Part ——- particle

River ——- rivulet

Rose ——- rosette

Sack ——- satchel

Scythe ——- sickle

Seat ——- saddle

Seed ——- seedling

Shade ——- shadow

Sign ——- signet

Song ——- sonnet

Star ——- asterisk

Statue ——- statuette

Story ——- storyette

Stream ——- streamlet

Table ——- tablet

Thump ——- thimble

Top ——- tip

Tower ——- torret

Weak ——- weakling

B.  Diminutive forms of some animals:

Words ——- Diminutives 

The young one of a cow —— calf.

The young one of a  goat —– kid

The young one of a cat ——–kitten.

The young one of a buffalo —-calf.

The young one of a dog —— puppy.

The young one of a duck —— duckling.

The young one of a sheep —– lamb

The young one of a lion ——–cub

The young one of a tiger ——- cup.

The young one of a pig ——– piglet.

The young one of a goose —– gosling.

The young one of a bear ——- cub.

The young one of an eagle —— eaglet.

The young one of a horse —— colt, foal.

The young one of a hen ——– chicken.

The young one of a stag ——- fawn. 0 0 0

School English Grammar Part-II 

Chapter-6

SOME FOREIGN WORDS AND PHRASES

 

English is an omnivorous language as it borrows words and phrases from other languages and naturalises them as its own. It has already borrowed many Latin, Greek, French and many European and non-European words and phrases that have passed into everyday speech and writing. Here a list of some foreign words and phrases is given with illustration. However, the learners are suggested to use them when they understand their usage fully and when they face no suitable English equivalent at hand. It should also be borne in mind that when used, such words and phrases should be written in italics.

Ab initio (from the very beginning):  They requested me to take up the story ab initio.

Ab extra (from outside): Ab extra Ram seems to be a gentleman.

Ad hoc (arrangement for some special purpose): An ad hoc committee has been formed to investigate the case.

Ad interim (in the meantime): I went away for some days, ad interim Ram came and made the situation worse.

Ad infinitum (without limit): He treats the public as if his power is ad infinitum.

Ad nauseam (to a disgusting extent): He elaborated the issue of unemployment ad nauseam.

Ad valorem (according to the value of): An ad valorem duty of six per cent was to be paid on all goods during the war.

Agent provocateur (a spy who works secretly and creates trouble): An agent provocateur was employed to incite the public against the terrorists during the battle.

Alma mater (the institution where one has been educated): I am proud of my alma mater, Guwahati University.

Alumni (ex-students): Many alumni were invited, but only a few attended the seminar.

Aide de camp (personal attendant of a high military officer): The martial general marched forward followed by his aide de camp.

Note: ‘camp’ is pronounced as ‘cong’.

Aide memoire (a notebook in which things are noted): I like to keep an aide memoire with me while I am on a journey.

Alter ego (first friend): Mr Shahin, the economist is my alter ego.

Ante meridiem (a. m/between midnight and noon): I always get up at four ante meridiem.

Ano Domini  (A.D./in the year of our Lord, Christ): The World War II began in 1939 Ano Domini.

Annus mirabilis (a year of wonder): The year 1950 is annus mirabilis in the history of independent India.

Apologia (apologetic writing): In Assamese literature, no apologia is found.

Au revoir (goodbye): Au revoir, my friends.

Aqua (water): The other name of aqua is life.

Bona fide (regular): Ramen is the only bona fide student of the academy.

Bona fides (good faith/honesty): The teacher is highly praised for his bona fides.

Billet d’ amour (a love letter): In all my life I have written not a single billet d’ amour.

Bete noire (object of dislike): Mathematics was my bete noire during my student life.

Beau ideal (finest specimen): Mahatma Gandhi is the beau ideal of non-violence.

Bon voyage (happy journey to you): I wish you bon voyage.

Bizarre (fantastic, grotesque): There are some noted elements of bizarre in the novels of  Sir Walter Scott.

Bourgeoisie (the middle class): The bourgeoisie is the sole subject of exploitation in a democracy.

Bonbon (sweetmeat): My child is very fond of bon-bon.

Boulevard (a street shaded with trees): I like to have a walk on the boulevard.

Beau monde (fashionable society): She is not suited to a beau monde.

Canard (a rumour/a false statement): Who is there to believe a canard?

Carte blanche (full authority): Kamala was given carte blanche to deal with the extremists.

Cadre (a list of officers): He found his name enlisted in the cadre.

Cortege (a train of attendants): The General arrived there followed by his cortege.

Cafe (a restaurant): We drank well in the cafe.

Chauffeur (a motor car driver): I am in need of a chauffeur.

Coup d’ etat (a sudden overthrow of an established government or authority): Gaddafi took the charge of governing labia through a coup d’ etat.

Note: “coup d’ etat” is pronounced as “co d’ eta”.

Cliche (hackneyed/much used): Kakati used many cliche policies to win over the terrorists.

Charged d’ affaires (ambassador): I had a liking for the job of a charge d’ affaires.

De facto (in fact though not in law): As long as Saddam Hussain lived he was the de facto king of Iraq.

De jure (in law though not in fact): Sanjeeta is the de jure leader of the party.

De novo (afresh): We urged him to tell the story de novo.

Dei gratia (by the grace of God): I am well dei gratia.

Debacle (complete defeat): Germany and Japan met a debacle in world war II.

Debut (first appearance on the stage): She drew the attention of the mob during her debut.

De profundis (a cry from the depth of sorrow): “In Memorium” is the de profundis of Alfred Tennyson.

Divide at impera (a policy of divide and rule): The British had control over India by divide at impera.

Dramatis personae (characters in a novel or drama): Macbeth is a dramatis personae in the tragedy of the same title by Shakespeare.

Denouement (end): The denouement in a Shakespearean comedy generally happens in the fourth  Act.

En block (in a body): The members of the committee went to the principal en block to protest the act of stealing.

En masse (in a body / together): We met the minister en masse.

En route (on the way): They got off the train en route to  Delhi.

Emigre (an immigrant–one who goes and lives in a new country):  Emigre are many in Assam from Nepal.

Ex officio (in virtue of one’s office): An ex officio member of the newly formed Trade Committee came here to meet people.

Ex parte (one-sided): We protested against the ex parte judgment.

El dorado (a country full of gold and riches): India was regarded as an el dorado in the Middle Ages.

Exempli gratia (e.g. for example): In the room, there are many things exempli gratia – pen, pencil, books.

Exeunt (leave the stage more than one person at a time): All the dancers exeunt while the noise arose.

Exit (leave the stage): Exit the thief with the book.

Elite (gentry): The elite were given warm welcome.

Esprit de corps (the spirit of belonging to the same group or party): The new members of the party are marching ahead with esprit de corps.

En tente (understanding): We must have en tente among ourselves to strengthen the party.

Errata (a list of errors): Almost all the books published by the council needs an errata.

Facade (the front part of a building): We danced in the facade all night.

Fait accompli (something already accomplished): The partition of India was a fait accompli before Mahatma Gandhi could do something.

Fiance (one’s betrothed, especially male): Shakti Kapoor is the fiance of Susmita Sen.

Fiancee (one’s betrothed especially female): Sagarika is the fiancee of my friend Saroj Kumar.

Faus pas (mistake): The single faus pas by the minister may cause great harm to the nation.

Facsimile (an exact copy): We should keep a facsimile of our applications.

Genre (Kind): the short story is a recent genre of literature.

Gendarmes (armed police): A dozen of gendarmes were sent to face the terrorists.

Honoris causa (for the sake of honour): Many prizes and awards were offered to Dr Satyajit Roy honoris causa.

Hauteur (haughtiness of manner): We dislike Mr Das for his hauteur.

In memoriam (in memory of ): The monument of  Delhi was built in memoriam the Sepoy Mutiny.

In toto (completely): I don’t agree with you in toto.

Ipso facto (by that very fact): The assistant teacher behaves like the principal ipso facto that the principal is on a leave.

Inter se (between ourselves): We should discuss the matter inter se.

Inter alia (among other things): We bought some dolls inter alia.

Infra dig (below one’s dignity): The job of a clerk is infra dig for Raja Rao.

In camera (privately): I did it in camera.

Impasse (a deadlock): We must try our best to break the impasse between India and China.

In extenso (at full length): He tried to relate the story in extenso, but failed badly.

Il penseroso (sad person): Kabin Phukan is considered an il perseroso because of his melancholic nature.

Idem or ibid (in the same book or place): I derive much knowledge from the Ramayana and also much inspiration from idem (ibid).

Id est (i.e. – that is to say): Kabita is crazy, id est a mad girl.

Joi de vivre (healthy enjoyment of life): Ramananda had a joi de vivre as long as he was alive.

Jus civil (civil law): Matters of jus civil are often delayed.

Lingua franca (common language): Assamese is the lingua franca of Assam.

Laissez faire (minimum intervention of the government in individual affairs): A policy of laissez faire is unwholesome in a democracy.

Locus standi (legal right): We have locus standi in the internal matters of the college.

Literatur (a literary man): Lakhminath Bezbaruah is a noted litetatur of Assam.

Literatim (word by word): It is not an easy task to translate a poetry literatim.

Malafide (something done in bad faith): I don’t believe Ram because he has acted malafide on several occasions.

Melee (mixed fight): Janaki was badly injured in the melee.

Modus operandi (the way of doing things): Bomb bursting is the modus operandi of the ULFA.

Mutatis mutandis (with necessary changes): They took the same creed of the law mutatis mutandis.

Magnum opas (a great work): The Great Wall of China is a magnum opas of the Chinese.

Mademoiselle (an unmarried woman): Sabita is a mademoiselle of twenty.

Monsieur (Mr. or Shriman): Monsieur Bani Kanta Kakati was an eminent critic of his time.

Materia medica (medicine collectively): The materia medica of ancient India was vast.

Matinee (a performance by day): We enjoyed the matinee show of the cinema.

Mon cher (my dear): Mrs Merina who is my mon cher, has left me forever.

Nota bene (N. B. – Note well): Nota bene that the students should practise only five questions.

Nom De Plume (a pen name/false name used by a writer): “Alpha of the plough” was the nom de plume of A. G. Gardiner.

Non-pariel (matchless): Empress  Meherun Nessa was regarded as non-pariel in beauty.

Obiter dictum (something said by the way): The obiter dictum of Lord Buddha is full of wisdom.

Par excellence (excellent above all): As a playwright, Shakespeare was par excellence.

Parole (the words of honour, especially of a prisoner): Kakati was released on parole.

Post mortem (medical examination after death): The post-mortem report of the dead body has not yet been found.

Prima facie (on the face of ): No prima facie evidence has been detected till now.

Per capita (per head): Rupees 100 has to be paid per capita.

Pari passu (equally): They are good at English pari passu.

Per annum (yearly): Nabin’s income is 40 lakhs per annum.

Per mensem (monthly): What is Rabin’s income per mensem?

Per deim (daily): Now-a-days a carpenter earns Rs. 400 per deim.

Post merediem (P.M. / after mid-day): They will come  at 2 post merediem.

Pro-forma (for the sake of formality): The ex-post master was invited only pro forma.

Precis (summary): Precis writing needs good skills.

Proletarian (the lowest class of society): Karl Marx was an advocate of the proletarian.

Proximo (of the next month): He will arrive on 11th proximo.

Quasi (half): Karim was given a quasi salary because he was appointed for a time being. 

Quod erat demonstrandum (Q.E.D. – which was to be proved has been proved): At the end of the solution of some geometrical problem we generally write quod erat demonstrandum.

Questionnaire (a series of questions): We were examined with a questionnaire.

Resume (summary): He gave a resume of his tour to Paris.

Rapprochment (the establishment of friendly relations once again): We tried to make a rapprochment between the two leaders.

Reichstag (parliament of Germany): During World War II, Hitler was the chief of the reichstag.

Salon (a large reception room): The invitees were welcomed into the salon.

Sin die (for an indefinite period): The meeting was postponed sin die

Sub-judice (under the consideration of a law court): The case of the violent acts done on the last April is now sub- judice.

Summum bonum (highest good): Honesty is the summum bonum of life.

Status quo (the existing position): During the crisis of violence the party tried to keep up its status quo in vain.

Sang froid: (coolness in danger): Mahatma Gandhi could show sang froid during the Second World War.

Suppressio veri (concealment of truth): I hate the idea of supressio veri.

Tempo (speed): The tempo of the modern world is in its climax.

Terra firma (dry soil): While drowning in the river, she struggled hard to reach terra firma.

Tour de force (a feat of strength): Muammar Gaddafi came into power through a tour de force.

Tete-a-tete (a private conversation usually between two): We had a tete a tete for full three hours.

Ultra vires (beyond one’s power): I can not help the party because it is my ultra vires.

Ultimo (of the last month): He went there on the 14th  ultimo.

Ultima thule (the utmost limit): The ultima thule of my life is to become a pacifist.

Via (by the way of): I will travel to the U.K. via Italy.

Via media (middle course): We should take via media in our lifestyle.

Vice Versa (in the reverse order): We love our children and vice versa.

Vox populi vox dei (the voice of the people is the voice of God): In the modern age vox populi vox dei.

Versus (against): The essay written by him on indoor games versus outdoor games won the first prize.

volte face ( complete change of views): We wonder at Ranin’s sudden volte face.

Vide licet (see/refer to): He quoted those lines from Shakespeare’s Macbeth vide licet Act V. Scene iii.

Vide (namely): We bought many fruits vide apples grapes, mangoes, guavas. 0 0 0

 


Chapter-7

DISTINCTION BETWEEN GROUPS OF SYNONYMS

 

1. Able (it is a general term and does not mention any special quality or merit): Pandit Jawaharlal was an able politician.

Capable (it denotes proficiency in doing a particular thing): Hari is capable of riding a horse.

2. About (more or less than): Radha is about thirty-one.

Nearly (a little less than): He is nearly fifty.

Almost (very nearly but not quite): Kabin Phukan is almost to win the race.

3. Aid (to help a person by adding our effort to his own): We aided Rama to set up the business.

Help (to give somebody something that he requires): We helped Rakesh to accomplish the feat.

4. Admit (to acknowledge an ordinary thing or mistake): We should admit our fault.

Confess (to admit guilt or crime): Radha confessed that he had stolen the bicycle.

5. Alone (by oneself, without taking any assistance from others): Ram alone solved the problem.

Only (solely): Srimati Geeta Devi was the only child of her parents who stood first in the field of fine arts.

6. Ancient (not modern, belonging to the long past): ancient India was full of glory.

Old (not new or young): That was an old car.

7. Artist (one who is skilled in arts like music, painting, drawing etc.): Pabita is a good artist.

Artiste (a professional singer, dancer etc.): Dr Bhupen Hazarika was a reputed artiste of India.

Artisan (one who is skilled in handy work like carpentry, weaving etc.): Rubul is a good artisan.

8. Avenge (to pay back a wrong done to the others): Rajesh avenged his father’s murderer.

Revenge (to pay back a wrong done to oneself ): Tara Prashad revenged his opponent by sending him to prison.

9. Authentic (true or trustworthy): It is an authentic biography.

Genuine (correctness of the source): His demand was genuine.

10. Absurd (unreasonable): Your demand for a kilo of gold is absurd.

Impossible (what is against natural law): It is impossible to make a sea of milk.

Impracticable (what is impossible to practise): His plans to turn the desert into a fertile land is impracticable.

11. Amazed (struck with overwhelming wonder): We are amazed at Radha’s successful debut as a singer.

Astonished (that which is great and striking): We were astonished to see him do the work of a mason.

Surprised (that which is new or unexpected ): His sudden appearance surprised us.

12. Among (referring to more than two): Distribute the marbles among the girls.

Between (referring to two): Babul entered between the two boys and worsened the matter.

13. Answer (to response in speech or writing to a question ): The boys answered all the questions.

Reply (to reply to a formal enquiry): She replied why she was absent from the class.

Retort (a short and pointed reply): Geetali retorted his parents face to face that she would not do the work.

14. Allude (to touch indirectly): The book alluded to the folk-tale of ancient India.

Refer to (to mention distinctly ): Rana referred to the Sonnet no. 52 by William Shakespeare.

15. Avarice (excessive desire for wealth): The politicians have avarice for money.

Greed (excessive desire for food): Ram’s greed for sweet meats made him sick.

16. Aware (of) (conscious to one’s surroundings): We should be aware of the degradation of our environment.

Conscious (of) (alive to one’s thoughts and feelings): I am conscious of my ability.

17. Ambiguous (having a double meaning): Geeta made an ambiguous comment on the case.

Equivocal (having a double meaning made often to cheat the person involved): At last it became clear that his comment on the theme was equivocal.

18. Assent (it is a general term and it implies understanding): He gave his assent and we did it without any hesitation.

Consent (refers to the will or feeling of a person): He consented that he is ever ready to help us.

19. Banish (the term is used when a person – a native or a foreigner is forced by the government to leave the country): The  English ambassador was banished from Iraq.

Exile (it is used when a person leaves his country): The Pancha Pandavas were exiled from their land for thirteen years.

20. Beautiful (it is used to mean pretty, the term is feminine in sense): Geetika was a beautiful girl.

Handsome (it is used to refer to fair look, the term is masculine in sense.): Raman is a handsome boy.

21. Bring (to come with): Raja brought a new coat.

Fetch (to go and come back with): Ganesh went to the fair and fetched a pretty leather bag.

22. Bill (draft of a proposed Act): The Loka Sabha passed a Bill pertaining the Juvenile crime.

Act (A Bill that is passed by the legislature): The Act pertaining to the right to vote came into force in most countries in the twentieth century.

23. Beat (to strike again and again with something): The boy was beating the drum.

Strike (to make a blow): The boy struck his friend on the head.

24. Compulsion (refers to physical force): We are under the compulsion to attend the meeting.

Obligation (refers to moral consideration): We have an obligation to help the poor.

25. Command (it is a stronger term and refers to the order from a superior authority like King, Queen, General to an inferior officer): The King commanded his ministers to wage a war against the infidels.

Order (it is a mild term and more informal): The Principal ordered the students to maintain strict discipline.

26. Compare (to show both likeness and difference): Compare Saddam with Muammar Gaddafi.

Contrast (to show differences only): Contrast Akbar with Aurangzeb.

27. Cool (it is a general term and implies less cold): I do not take cool tea.

Cold (chilly): We went there on a cold evening.

28. Corpse (the dead body of a man): The corpse of the missing soldier was found there.

Carcass (dead body f a beast): The vulture is very fond of carcasses.

29. Contagious (a disease spread through physical contact): Smallpox is a contagious disease.

Infectious (a disease spread through air and water): Cholera is an infectious disease.

30. Continuous (that goes on without any break): It had been continuously raining for four hours.

Continual (that goes on with occasional break): There was a continual hail storm last month.

31. Courageous (it denotes a spirit that is inward and above fear): Our students are courageous enough to face any competition.

Brave (it indicates the lack of fear in a difficult situation): Rina is a brave girl to overcome the adverse situation.

32. Contented (a man is said to be contented when he does not hanker after more): I live a contented life.

Satisfied (a man is said to be satisfied when he meets all of his desires): A man can hardly be satisfied.

33. Canal (it implies an artificial or man-made passage of water): In ancient India, some monarchs made some canals to supply water to cornfield.

Channel (natural passage for water): It is not easy to swim across the Pak Channel.

34. Crime (it is used with reference to the breaking of the law of a country): Exploitation is a crime in India.

Vice (it is used to refer to breaking a moral law): Telling lies is a vice.

Sin (breaking the command of religion): Adultery is a sin.

35. Custom (a traditional act of doing things): To bury the dead is an Islamic custom.

Habit (an individual action formed after practice): Having a cool bath in the morning is my habit.

36. Cheat (to defraud a person of a thing): They cheated the labourers of their wages.

Deceive (to give one false information,  to make a person believe what is not true): Raja often deceives his friends.

37. Caution (to put a person on guard against doing something): He cautioned us not to do things in haste.

Warn (make aware of something coming): The Government warned us to take safe shelter in the flood.

38. Certainly (surely, without a doubt): It seems that the boy will certainly shine in life.

Of course (naturally, admittedly): Of course, Rama is capable of doing this.

39. Cause (what produces an effect): Every action has a cause behind it.

Reason (that which justifies a result): Explain the reason for your negligence in doing it.

40. Common (which is shared alike by all): The feeling of love is common to all.

Mutual (done something by each to the other): We help mutually during our hard times.

Reciprocal (common to each other): Kindness is generally reciprocal

41. Cure (to remedy): There is a cure for all diseases.

Heal (to restore something to soundness): This balm may heal you of your back pain.

42. Conquer (to conquer a territory, an enemy): Ashoka conquered Kalinga.

Subdue (it refers to curbing down one’s passion): We should subdue our passions.

43. Deny (to deny a statement): He denied that he did the work.

Refuse (to refuse to do things): Rekha refused to go there.

44. Drown (refers to animate objects): The baby drowned in the pond.

Sink (refers to inanimate things): The ship sank in the sea.

45. Delusion (a false belief): He works here under the delusion that he will be upgraded to a higher post.

Illusion (a false appearance): Water in the desert is an illusion.

46. Eternal (that which has neither a beginning nor an end): The existence of God is eternal.

Everlasting (that which has a beginning but no end): Gold is an everlasting metal.

47. Epidemic (that suddenly and rapidly spreads in a particular area): Cholera is an epidemic disease.

Endemic (that which is regularly found among a specified people or area): Plague was an endemic disease in France during the middle ages.

48. Famous (noted — used in good sense): Rabindranath Tagore is a famous Bengali Poet.

Notorious (noted–used in a bad sense): Charles Shuvaraj was a notorious robber.

49. Freedom (it refers to the absence of restraint to the present moment,): India got freedom in 1947.

Liberty (it refers to natural right): We are at liberty to take up any job.

50. Forgive (forgive a wrong done to ourselves): I am in the wrong; please forgive me.

Excuse (excuse a fault that is not grave): Please excuse me for my absence.

Pardon (the term refers to great fault or crime): The murderer of the leader begged the pardon of his family.

51. Fancy (a mental faculty of forming images of things not present at the moment): It is his fancy to see a bird here.

Imagination (it refers to the creative power of the mind): Every great art is the product of fertile imagination.

52. Incident (a minor event): Let the incident of losing Raja’s pen be passed. 

Event (an important occurrence or happening): The assassination of Mahatma Gandhi is a big event in the history of Free India.

53. Illusive (deceptive): Your promise is illusive.

Illusory (unreal): Our dreams are illusory.

54. Oral (spoken, by way of the mouth): We have to face an oral test tomorrow.

Verbal (of words): He made a verbal promise that he would not pursue the task.

55. Part (it is a general term referring to some whole of things): The first and last part of the wood is donated to the temple.

Portion (it refers to the detached part of a thing): Let us have our portions and use them as we like.

56. Protect (it refers to the evil of danger in the future): We should protect our freedom ourselves.

Defend (it refers to the evil of danger at the present time.): We must defend our property from being theft.

57. Replace (to take the place of ): Replace the chair with a new one.

Substitute (to fill a place instead of another): Substitute the proper noun with a common noun in the sentence.

58. Pride (a high opinion about oneself ): Rani takes pride in her beauty.

Vanity (the desire of being admired by others): We do not like Diana because of her vanity for beauty.

59. Scarce (not available at a particular place or time): Pure water is scarce to find in the city.

Rare (fewer to find): The Royal Bengal tiger is rare to find in West Bengal nowadays.

60. Snow (it implies to natural freezing of water): In winter huge snow falls in Kashmir.

Ice (it implies artificial freezing of water): We use a refrigerator to turn water into ice.

61. Truth (being true to fact): Always speak the truth.

Veracity (being truthful in doing a thing): The veracity of the minister in matters of doing the welfare job is beyond doubt.

62. Financial (it relates to money in general): We are financially weak.

Monetary (pertaining to money directly): Wahid-Ullah works in Dubai for monetary benefit.

63. Kidnap (to take away a person for demanding a ransom): The son of the Home Minister was kidnapped by the terrorists who demanded some lakhs of money as his ransom.

Abduct (to take away a person unlawfully through fraud): Hiren abducted her uncle’s daughter.

64. Hear (it perceives a sound with the ear): I heard him say so.

Listen (to hear with attention): Listen to what the teacher says.

65. Lovely (beautiful): Lalita is a lovely girl.

Loveable (worthy of love): Geetika is a girl of loveable nature.

66. Need (it refers to the general feeling of lacking something ): I need a better-bound copy of the book.

Necessity ( feeling of lacking a thing which is indispensable or urgent to have): Here we feel the necessity of having hot water. 0 0 0

School English Grammar Part-II 

Chapter-8

FORMATION OF PARTS OF SPEECH (WORD FORMATION)

When a word is formed from another word by adding something either before or after,  subtracting something (letter), or changing a letter (especially vowel) is called Word Formation. For example, we can form :

A. Verbs from Nouns and Adjectives:

Act (n) _____ enact (v)

Glass (n) _____ glaze (v)

Strong (adj) _____ Strengthen (v)

Perpetual (adj) _____ perpetuate (v)

B.Nouns from verbs and  Adjectives, as

Add (v) _____ addition (n)

Choose (v) _____ choice (n)

Brutal (adj) _____ brutality (n).

C.   Adjectives from Nouns, and verbs:

Attend (v) _____ attentive (adj)

Autumn (n) _____ autumnal (adj)

China (n) _____ chinese (adj)

Eat (v) _____ eatable, eadible (adj) etc.

Thus we can make a part of speech (Noun, Verb, Adjective etc.) from other parts of speech. So many words are formed in this way in English and they have enriched the English Vocabulary so much. A list (at random) of words formed thus is given below.

A. FORMATION OF VERBS FROM NOUNS AND ADJECTIVES

In the English language Verbs may be formed or derived from Nouns and Adjectives by adding -by, -en, -be, -em either before or after the Nouns and Adjectives. A list of Verbs formed ——- thus is given below.

(a) Formation of Verbs from Nouns :

Nouns ——- Verbs

Act ——- enact

Advice ——- advise

Author ——- authorise

Apology ——- apologise

Bath ——- bathe

Belief ——- believe

Beauty ——- beautify

Bed ——- embed

Breath ——- breathe

Body ——- embody

Black ——- blacken

Bliss ——- bless

Cross ——- crucify

Character ——- characterise

Cage ——- ——- encage

Custom ——- accustom

Calmbecalm

Center ——- concentrate

Class ——- classify

Cloth ——- clothe

Circle ——- encircle

Company ——- accompany

Courage ——- encourage

Danger ——- endanger

Dew ——- bedew

Death ——- die

Err ——- error

Example ——- exemplify

Economy ——- economise

Electricity ——- electrify

Food ——- feed

Fool ——- befool

Force ——- enforce

Friend ——- befriend

Fraud ——- defraud

Fame ——- defame

Fright ——- frighten

Germ ——- germinate

Glass ——- glassify

Half ——- halve

Habit ——- habituate

Hand ——- handle

Head ——- behead

Heir ——- inherit

Horror ——- horrify

Heart ——- hearten

Haste ——- hasten

Isle ——- isolate

Joy ——- enjoy

Justice ——- justify

Knee ——- kneel

Length ——- lengthen

Life ——- live

Lot ——- allot

Light ——- lighten

Load ——- lade

Memory ——- memorise

Mind ——- remind

Monopoly ——- monopolise

Nation ——- nationalise

Number ——- enumerate

Night ——- benight

Name ——- nominate

Necessity ——- necessitate

Office ——- officiate

Origin ——- originate

Person ——- personify

Peace ——- pacify

Power ——- empower

Practice ——- practise

Prison ——- imprison

People ——- populate

Peril ——- imperil

Roll ——- enroll

Red ——- redden

Siege ——- besiege

Sign ——- signify

Slave ——- enslave

Sympathy ——- sympathise

Spark ——- sparkle

Strength ——- strengthen

System ——- systematise

Table ——- tabulate

Throne ——- enthrone/dethrone

Title ——- entitle

Tyranny ——- tyrannise

Thief ——- thieve

Trap ——- entrap

Vapour ——- evaporate

Vacancy ——- vacate

Vigour ——- envigorate

Vice ——- vitiate

White ——- whiten

(b)  Formation of Verbs from Adjectives:

Adjective ——- Verbs

Able ——- enable

Ample ——- amplify

Bitter ——- embitter

Bold ——- embolden

Broad ——- broaden

Certain ——- ascertain

Cheap ——- cheapen

Civil ——- civilise

Clear ——- clarify

Dark ——- darken

Dear ——- endear

Deep ——- deepen

Dense ——- condense

Different ——- differentiate

Equal ——- equalise

False ——- falsify

Familiar ——- familiarise

Fat ——- fatten

Fertile ——- fertilise

Fine ——- refine

Foul ——- defile

Firm ——- affirm, confirm

Public ——- publish

Pure ——- purify

Popular ——- popularise

Proper ——- appropriate

Rich ——- enrich

Red ——- redden

Simplesimplify

Special ——- specialise

Sweetsweeten

Strong ——- strengthen

Sure ——- ensure

Stupid ——- stupify

Short ——- shorten

Thick ——- thicken

Very ——- verify

White ——- whiten

Wide ——- widen

 

B.  FORMATION OF NOUNS FROM VERBS AND  ADJECTIVES.

In English, many Nouns are formed or derived from Verbs and Adjectives by adding  – ance, – ment, – ness, -sion, -ing, -age etc.

Note : When a syllable (or syllables) is placed at the end of a word to qualify its meaning and form a new word is called a Suffix. -ance, -ment, -ness, -sion, -ing, -age etc. are English suffixes. 

A list of Nouns formed by placing or adding these suffixes to Verbs or Adjectives is given below:

(a) Formation of Nouns from Verbs.

Verbs ——- Nouns

Add ——- addition

Attend ——- attendance

Advise ——- advice

Abide ——- abode

Abolish ——- abolition

Abound ——- abundance

Accede ——- access

Accomplish ——- accomplishment

Allude ——- allusion

Allow ——- allowance

Approve ——- approval

Act ——- action

Admit ——- admittance, admission

Ascend ——- ascent

Attain ——- attainment

Bear ——- birth

Bless ——- bliss

Break ——- breach

Betray ——- betrayal

Behave ——- behaviour

Bind ——- bond

Carry ——- carriage

Compel ——- compulsion

Conceal ——- concealment

Concede ——- concession

Conquer ——- conquest

Confide ——- confidence

Choose ——- choice

Comply ——- compliance

Deny ——- denial

Die ——- death

Do ——- deed

Drink ——- drought

Descend ——- descent

Defy ——- defiance

Deceive ——- deceit

Decide ——- decision

Defend ——- defence

Depart ——- departure

Destroy ——- destruction

Err ——- error

Enter ——- entry, entrance

Exist ——- existence

Exceed ——- excess

Expel ——- expulsion

Fail ——- failure

Fly ——- flight

Feel ——- feeling

Go ——- gait

Give ——- gift

Grieve ——- grief

Grow ——- growth

Hate ——- hatred

Heal ——- health

Judge ——- judgment

Know ——- knowledge

Laugh ——- laughter

Leak ——- leakage

Lose ——- loss

Learn ——- learning

Lend ——- loan

Live ——- life

Maintain ——- maintenance

Move ——- movement

Marry ——- marriage

May ——- might

Mock ——- mockery

Mix ——- mixture

Obey ——- obedience

Oblige ——- obligation

Occupy ——- occupation

Offend ——- offence

Omit ——- omission

Pass ——- passage

Please ——- pleasure

Punish ——- punishment

Provide ——- provision

Pretend ——- pretence

Paralyse ——- paralysis

Prepare ——- preparation

Proceed ——- procedure

Propose ——- proposal

Receive ——- receipt

Relieve ——- relief

Respond ——- response

Refuse ——- refusal

Reduce ——- reduction

Repeat ——- repetition

Remove ——- removal

Remember ——- remembrance

Resign ——- resignation

See ——- sight

Sing ——- song

Sell ——- sale

Seize ——- seizure

Sit ——- seat

Sign ——- signature

Slay ——- slaughter

Speak ——- speech

Steal ——- stealth

Succeed ——- success

Sow ——- seed

Solve ——- solution

Strive ——- strife

Satisfy ——- satisfaction

Tell ——- tale

Try ——- trial

Think ——- thought

Thrive ——- thrift

Unite ——- union, unity

Vary ——- variation, variance

Weave ——- web

(b)  Formation of Nouns from Adjectives.

Adjectives ——- Nouns

Able ——- ability

Absent ——- absence

Accurate ——- accuracy

Anxious ——- anxiety

Audacious ——- audacity

Bankrupt ——- bankruptcy

Brief ——- brevity

Broad ——- breadth

Brutal ——- brutality

Bitter ——- betterness

Certain ——- certainty

Chaste ——- chastity

Civil ——- civility

Cruel ——- cruelty

Curious ——- curiosity

Clean ——- cleanliness

Complete ——- completion

Deep ——- depth

Dense ——- density

Decent ——- decency

Different ——- difference

Dry – ——- —— dryness

Elegant ——- elegance

Equal ——- equality

False ——- falsehood

Fertile ——- fertility

Fond ——- fondness

Free ——- freedom

Firm ——- firmness

Fine ——- fineness

Ferocious ——- ferocity

Glad ——- gladness

Gay ——- gaiety

Grave ——- gravity

Generous ——- generosity

Hard ——- hardness

High ——- height

Humble ——- humility

Happy ——- happiness

Hostile ——- hostility

Hot ——- heat

Human ——- humanity, humanism

Just ——- justice

Local ——- locality

Large ——- largeness

Long ——- length

Low ——- lowness

Merry ——- merriment

Mortal ——- mortality

Moist ——- moisture

New ——- newness

Noble ——- nobility

Notorious ——- Notoriety

Pure ——- purity

Poor ——- poverty

Proper ——- propriety

Public ——- publicity

Pious ——- piety

Popular ——- popularity

Private ——- privacy

Real ——- reality

Red ——- redness

Rigid ——- rigidity

Rich ——- richness

Supreme ——- supremacy

Secret ——- secrecy

Simple ——- simplicity

Scarce ——- scarcity

Splendid ——- splendour

Sure ——- surity

Soft ——- softness

Special ——- specialty

Short ——- shortness

Safe ——- safety

Strong ——- strength

Vacant ——- vacancy

Vain ——- vanity

Vital ——- vitality

Various ——- variety

Weak ——- weakness

Wide ——- width

Weary ——- weariness

Wise ——- wisdom

Young ——- youth

 

(C)  FORMATION OF ADJECTIVES FROM  NOUNS AND VERBS

Adjectives may be derived or formed from Nouns by adding -at, -ful, -an, -ly, -able, -ish etc. and from Verbs by adding -tine -able etc.

(a)  Formation of Adjectives from Nouns.

Nouns ——- Adjectives

Angle ——- angular

Air ——- airy

Autumn ——- autumnal

Asia ——- Asiatic, Asian

Accident ——- accidental

Brother ——- brotherly

Book ——- bookish

Body ——- bodily

Blood ——- bloody

Benefit ——- beneficial

Brute ——- brutal

Burma ——- Burmese

Colony ——- colonial

Charity ——- charitable

Crime ——- criminal

College ——- collegiate

Coward ——- cowardly

Circle ——- circular

Conscience ——- conscientious

Courage ——- courageous

Child ——- childish

China ——- Chinese

Day ——- daily, diurnal

Dream ——- dreamy

Duty ——- dutiful

Danger ——- dangerous

Earth ——- earthly

East ——- eastern

Empire ——- imperial

Enemy ——- inimical

Essence ——- essential

Envy ——- envious

Example ——- exemplary

England ——- English

Face ——- facial

Fame ——- famous

Father ——- fatherly

Fault ——- faulty

Fool ——- foolish

Friend ——- friendly

Gas ——- gaseous

God ——- godly

Gold ——- golden

Greece ——- Greek

Hand ——- handy

Heart ——- hearty

Heaven ——- heavenly

Home ——- homely

Honour ——- honorary, honorary

Ignorance ——- ignorant

Irony ——- ironical

Italy ——- Italian

Joy ——- joyful

Joke ——- jocose

King ——- kingly,  royal 

Law ——- lawful

Luxury ——- luxurious

Line ——- lunar

Lord ——- lordly

Love ——- lovely,  loveable

Miracle ——- miraculous

Mouth ——- mouthly

Mother ——- motherly

Man ——- manly

Mystery ——- mysterious

Memory ——- memorable

Might ——- mighty

Machine ——- mechanical

Muscle ——- muscular

Milk ——- milky

Money ——- monetary

Merchant ——- merchantile

Neuter ——- neutral

Nature ——- natural

Orator ——- oratorial

Office ——- official, officious

Origin ——- original

Profit ——- profitable

Peace ——- peaceful

People ——- popular

Part ——- partial

Palace ——- palatial

Picture ——- picturesque

Pride ——- proud

Passion ——- passionate

Prose ——- prosaic

Practice ——- practical

Quarrel ——- quarrelsome

Ruin ——- ruinous

Right ——- righteous

Rome ——- Roman

Silver ——- silvery

Society ——- social

Spirit ——- spiritual

Snow ——- snowy

Spain ——-Spanish

Sun ——- sunny

Star ——- starry

Study ——- studious

Sweden ——- Swedish

Switzerland ——- Swiss

School ——- scholastic

Sympathy ——- sympathetic

Terror ——- terrible

Time ——- timely