School Essays Part -II

School Essays Part -II


School Essays Part -II

School Essays Part -II

Table of Contents

School Essays Part -II



Menonim Menonimus



Wildlife Conversation

Man is the supreme being of all the beings created by God. It appears as if humans are created to rule the rest. Man is the most blessed creation of God. He is the most intelligent and powerful of all beings. But man is an inseparable part of the world of Nature. The world of Nature works according to certain rules and its own principles. Being a member of the vast world of Nature, man has certain duties and responsibilities towards the rest of the world of Nature. God created the world of Nature in such a design that every object and creature is maintained in norms and balance. Therefore humans have certain responsibilities towards other beings.

These creatures are victims of nature and human attacks. Innumerable varieties of creatures die in natural disasters and many are killed for their food, profit and enjoyment.

These helpless creatures are offered as sacrifices at the altar of the gods and goddesses. Human beings have been indifferent to these creatures since time immemorial. Some of these creatures are used by men. Camels are used by men in the desert as a means of communication. Horses are used to travel quickly. Elephants are used to dig and lift wooden logs. Cows and buffaloes are used for plowing land, driving carts, etc. They are our friends and we should think of their protection.

Different countries have different types of wildlife. A country can maintain its unique uniqueness only through its wildlife and their destruction means losing one of the distinctive characteristics of that country.

India is proud of its wildlife. The most notable among them are elephants, lions, tigers, rhinoceros, species of birds, snakes, and insects. The Himalayan region, the Sundarbans, and some forest belts of northeast India are areas where tigers are found. We have rhinoceros and elephants in North-East India and lions in the Gir region. All species of birds are found in India. Peacock is the national bird of our country. Snakes and insects of various varieties are found also in abundance in the forests and woods of India.

Unfortunately, some species of birds, animals, and snakes are going out of existence. Without any love and sympathy for these helpless creatures, men kill them for food, pleasure, and profit. In Assam, rhinoceros become the helpless prey of profit-monitoring hunters. 

The wildlife of a country is a valuable asset. It attracts visitors, foreigners, and scholars for various purposes. If these creatures are allowed to go out of existence, then our Earth will lose its natural charm, and beauty. Many foreign visitors come to India every year to see its wildlife. This helps India earn foreign exchange. If we let our wildlife die, India will lose its distinction and wealth. The distinguishing feature of a country is conditioned by its geographical location, its people, history, religion, and natural resources. God has created different creatures in different areas to maintain balance in the scheme of things in the world of nature. Thus, at any cost, we should not allow the extinction of our wildlife.

It is indeed a pleasant sign that our country has made plans and schemes for the conservation of its wildlife. In every state of our country, various departments consisting of experts have been set up to look after wildlife.

Laws have been passed banning the killing of wild animals. The forests are demarcated for the safe habitat of birds and animals. A project named ‘Tiger Project’ has been created for the conservation of tigers.

There are many forests in our country which are reserved for wildlife. Kaziranga and Manas in Assam, Rewa and Kanha in Madhya Pradesh, Gir in Gujarat, Corbett National Park in UP, Hazaribagh National Park in Bihar, and so on. The UNO has been providing financial grants for the conservation of wildlife. Thus a worldwide wave is working to conserve this natural wealth.

Modern civilization and industrial advancement have distracted the world of Nature. We should make every effort to maintain balance in the world of  Nature in its various fields. Wildlife is a part of nature. Therefore, we should strive for its protection. We should extend our support to various departments created for this noble cause. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Camel

Introduction: The camel is a four-footed large, calm animal. It is generally found in the deserts and used as a beast of burden. 

Description: It is about eight or nine feet high. It has a long neck, a small head and four slender legs. It is strong and thick. It has a hump on its back. In some countries, there are two humps of a camel. Its body is rough and covered with grey hair. Its legs are wide. It has a long hairy tail. Camel’s stomach is very large. It contains a large amount of water. So the camel can go without drinking water for several days. 

Camel is found in lands where there are great deserts. It is used in the deserts of Arabia, Persia, Afghanistan, Egypt, and India.

Camel is very adventurous and is famous for its patience. It can travel several miles across the desert. It does not get tired easily. When it travels in the desert, it cannot drink water or eat grass and no shade is found for rest. It drinks a lot of water before starting and can go on without drinking for about a week. It can see things from afar. It can smell water from long distances. It is gentle and painful and it does not harm us. But sometimes, it gets furious and bites us if we tease it too much.

Usefulness: Camel is a very useful animal. It is a beast of burden. The camel carries men and their goods through the burning desert. No other animal can do this. So, it is called the ‘Ship of Desert’. The camel is one of the valuable assets for the people of the desert. People ride on its back and move from one place to another. They can carry goods of trade with the help of camels. They drink his milk and eat meat. The Arab considers it as a sacred animal and takes great care of it. Camel is useful for men both in life and death. Thin brushes and a kind of cloth are made from its hair. Its skin is made of leather.

Conclusion: Nowadays with the invention of various means of advanced communication the demand for a camel seems to be waning. But, as a  strange beast of nature, we should preserve it. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Monkey

Introduction: The monkey is a wild animal. It is generally found in the continents of Asia, Africa and America. 

Description: It has four legs.  It runs on all fours but sometimes it stands on the hind legs and uses the forelegs like hands. The monkey is like a man in shape and appearance. Its feet, head, eyes, eyelids, teeth and lips are like that of a man. It has fingers and toes like men. Its body is covered with hair. There is not a single hair on the face and palms. It has a long tail. There are many types of monkeys. Black-faced and red-faced monkeys are commonly seen in India.

Food: The monkey lives on the fruits, roots and leaves of trees. It takes rice and vegetables also. It eats almost all types of fruits but is very fond of bananas and mangoes.

Nature: Monkeys live in soldiers in the forest. The monkey is an intelligent animal. It can jump from one tree to another very quickly. There is great unity among the monkeys. Monkeys cannot build nests. When teased, monkeys become obedient to their master. The monkey is fickle. It sucks the young like a human mother.

Usefulness: A monkey is not so useful as a cow, cat or dog is to man. It often mischiefs us. It can be trained to show tricks. This can confuse us by showing rickshaws. Many poor people train monkeys to show such tricks. In this way, they earn their bread.

Conclusion: The monkey, like humans, is a creature of Nature. Though it is not so useful to us yet we should preserve this creature for the balance of biodiversity and natural beauty. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Rhinoceros

Introduction: The rhinoceros is a ruminant (grass-eating) large animal. It is found in the jungles of Africa and India. The largest type of rhinoceros is found in the forests of Assam. Kaziranga forest in Upper Assam is famous for its rhinos. 

Description: Rhinoceros live on grass, leaves, branches and roots of trees. It does not take meat. Rhinoceros like to live in mud. It is a peace-loving animal. Generally, it does not attack other animals. It uses its terrible horn in its defence. Its sense of smell is very curious. Generally, it sleeps during the day and roams about at night. Its lifespan is about forty to fifty years. Rhinoceros do not move in herds like elephants.

Usefulness: Shield is made from the skin of rhinoceros. They can protect us from bullets and swords. In ancient times the shields made of rhino skin were widely used in battle.  Cups, toys and many useful and wonderful things are made from the horns of rhinoceros. Some tribal people seem to eat their flesh. Rhinoceros is a source of income for the government.

There is a blind faith that the horn of a rhino has the healing power for some diseases and hence some profit-mongering hunters kill it mercilessly. Now, the existence of the rhinoceros is at stake because of poachers. 

Conclusion: The rhinoceros is considered a unique animal of Nature. The Government of Assam has taken it as the symbol of the state and has taken various steps to protect it from the hand of illegal hunters. We should cooperate with the Government to protect this unique creature. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Horse

Introduction: The horse is a four-footed useful animal. It is very beautiful to see. The horse is found in almost every country. A race of the wild horse is found in Tartary and America. The horse lives on gram, grass and vegetables.

Description: It has a long body. Its legs are long and thin. Its ears are erect and pointed. Its body is covered with short and shiny hair. It has long hair on its neck. It is called a mane. It has a long and flowing tail. Its hoofs are not cloven. 

Horses vary in size and colour. There are many types of horses as the Arabian horse, Australian Horse, English Horse, Russian Horse etc. The  Arabian horse is very sharp and most beautiful. The Australian horse is very large. The English horse is the most hardworking. The ponies of Burma and Manipur are very small animals.

Nature: Wild horses live in herds of four to five hundred. When trained, they become useful and loyal and obedient servants. It is an affectionate animal and is very much in love with its owner. The horse is often referred to for its allegiance. There are many stories about the honesty of the horse of Rana Pratap of Mewar. 

Usefulness: The horse is very useful for humans in peace and war. In ancient times,  the trained horses were used in war. Horses are used for riding, hunting, driving and carrying loads. Horses are used in fighting also. In Europe, some people use the horse to plough the land. 

Conclusion: We should take care of such useful animals. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Lion

Introduction: The lion is a ferocious wild animal. It looks like a giant cat of majestic presence. It is very grand to see. It is called the ‘king of beasts’. 

Description: The lion has sharp and powerful claws and teeth. It has soft pads under the feet. Its body is covered with smooth hair and its legs are very strong. Its head is large, eyes-balls are big and vivid. It has a long tail with hair at the end. It has a mustache. The lioness has a long mane. The skin of the lion is light brown. Its height is four to six feet. It lives up to forty to fifty years.

The lion is an animal of prey. It is a fleshing-eating animal and hunts almost of all kinds of animals.  It never eats the flesh of its kind.

Nature: Lion is a fearful animal. It is very brave and strong. It also springs on very large elephants and tigers. There is some nobility in it. It does not kill an animal if it is not hungry and if it cannot catch prey with a spring. It can carry a large animal on its back. It sleeps during the day and hunts at night. It roars like thunder. Hearing the roar of the lion, men and other wild animals trembled with fear. The lioness gives birth to two cubs at a time.

Usefulness: Lion is not very useful for us. The lion’s fur makes a good posture. The lion is trained to play in the circus. It shows many tricks and games with its master.

Conclusion: The lion adds beauty and charm to natural. It also attracts visitors from abroad. With the increase of human population, the forest land has been decreasing day by day for which the lions with other wild animals are at a stake. So we should take steps to protect this animal. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Tiger

Introduction: The tiger is a beautiful, gorgeous and ferocious wild animal. It is a kind of giant cat. It varies only in colour and shape from the cat. The tiger lives in warm countries. It is found in India and other hot parts of Asia. The Royal Bengal Tiger is the largest of all tigers. It is found in the Sundarbans of Bengal. 

Description: It has sharp claws and strong pointed teeth. With them, it tears the body of the animal on which it lives. It has soft pads under the feet. It has brown hair on its back and sides but white hair under the legs and abdomen. Its pale skin is covered with black stripes. It has a long tail. Its eyes are large and bright and it can see in the dark. It has a cat-like mustache. It is almost as strong as a lion. It is a beautiful and gorgeous animal.

Food: The tiger is a carnivorous animal. It preys on cows, buffaloes, goats, sheep, deer and other animals. But it does not usually attack men unless offended. It is very fond of blood. It first sucks the blood of its prey and then eats the flesh.

Nature: In nature, the tiger is a ferocious animal. It is stronger and more formidable than a lion. It can see at night. Therefore, it sleeps during the day and hunts at night. The tiger roams slowly in the forest and suddenly roars at its prey. It can easily carry a cow or buffalo. The tiger lives in the forest, but sometimes at night, it comes to men’s homes and also takes pet animals. The tiger does not like strong sunlight. It is not great like a lion but is very clever and ferocious. It kills animals even when they are not hungry. The tiger is a good swimmer but it is not a good climber. The tiger produces four cubs in one birth. 

Tiger Hunting: Tiger hunting is done by men. Tiger hunting brings happiness. But this is a dangerous job. Hunters sometimes lose their lives while hunting. Tigers cannot be tied. It is trapped in a trap.

Usefulness: Tiger is not very useful for us. Its skin makes fine rugs and seats for Indian sages It is trained to perform tricks in the circus. Thus it earns money for its owner.

Conclusion: For want of much forest land, the existence of the tiger is at stake. For the balance of biodiversity, we should protect this gorgeous species of animals. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Domestic Pets

Introduction: Domestic pets refers to those animals which are kept in human households for their benefits or entertainments. Every man has a natural love for domestic animals. Some are judged for their virtues, some for service, some for beauty and some out of pure love. Among the domestic pets mention may be made of cow, horse, buffalo, goat, dog, camel, sheep, cat, monkey, rabbit ad some few others. Some people are fond of birds like peacock, hen, duck, dove, pigeon etc.  

Service Provided: Of all animals, the cow is most useful to humans. She gives us milk, pulls carts and ploughs our field. The cow is a gentle and harmless animal. The buffalo also gives us milk, pulls carts and ploughs our fields. The goat gives us milk and its flesh is eaten in all countries.

The dog watches our homes at night. The cat kills mice and rats and plays with children. Some people are fond of raising dogs and cats. The camel is used to carry loads in the desert.

Some people are fond of birds. People usually raise ducks, chickens, parrots, pigeons. Ducks and chickens lay eggs for us. Cats, rabbits, peacocks usually kept for their beauty. Some people nurture fish for beauty in ponds or in glass jars.

Keeping and rearing pets is not difficult. Some pets are left free and others are put into cages. They require food by men. Gentle animals are allowed to roam freely, cruel ones are chained. Birds are usually kept in cages. Pigeons fly about by day and sleep in wooden boxes at night. Ducks swim in ponds. Pets are usually clean. They are loved and cared for. Pets become devoted to their owner. Lower animals are useful to humans. If we love and care for them, they become very attached to us. They like our family members. 

Conclusion: We should be kind to domestic pets and treat them well. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Honey Bee

Introduction: The honey bee is a type of small insect. It is reared by humans for its sweet honey.

Description: It has two wings and six legs. It is of golden colour with dark spots on its body. Its head and eyes are small. It has a sting. 

There are three classes of honey bees. They are drones of male bees, queen bees and workers or honey bees. The last two are made up of women only. 

Nature: Thousands of bees live together in a hive. They store honey in the hives for food. It is very interesting to see how they work. The hive is well maintained. Each hive has a Queen. Only the Queen bee lays eggs. Workers do not lay eggs. Thousands of workers collect honey from flowers and make hives. Some of them are soldier bees and they defend the hive and the queen bee. The queen bee flies about the hive and inspects it.  Drones are passive and do nothing.

The number of working bees is very large. They are active and do all the works. They make a beautiful hive and collect honey. They work from sunrise to sunset and collect honey from flowers. They make the hive in multiple cells. In some of them, the queen bee lay eggs.  Bees are clean and hygienic. They build their hives on trees or in the holes of the earth. When people try to break their hives for honey, they attack with their sting.

Usefulness: Bees are very useful to humans. They give us honey which we eat and use in medicine. Bees make wax and with wax we make candles. People rear bees for honey and wax. Bees are hardworking. We can learn a lesson of hard labour by seeing the workings of the bees. 

Conclusion: Of all kinds of bees, the honey bees are the most useful for their honey which is full of healing power for various diseases. We should take care of our pet bees by providing their food crops nearby. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Crow

Introduction: The crow is a black, ugly and shrewd common bird. They are found almost everywhere on the earth, but mostly seen in tropical countries. 

Description: The craw has two legs with claws, two small but keen eyes and a hard beak.  Generally, two kinds of crows are seen: one is a common crow and the other is called ‘raven’. The common crow is smaller in size and its neck is of grey colour. Its wings, beak and legs all are black. Its voice is harsh.

The raven is larger than the ordinary kind. The feathers of the crow are smooth and shining. Its eyes are very clear.

Food: The crow is a very greedy bird. The crow rises very early. It caws at dawn about our home. All day long it flies about here and there in search of food. It often kills small birds and steals their eggs. It is very cunning. 

It does great harm to us. It is a great thief. It carries away small pieces of food from the hands of children. There is unity among the crows. If one crow is caught, many crows flock thee. It builds its nest in a large tree. 

In some countries, the crow is regarded as a bird of ill-omen. If the crow caws at noontime in any man’s house, people believe that some evil will come upon the house.

Usefulness: Though people do not like this bird, it is of some use to us. It caws at dawn about our homes and tells us that it is time to get up. The crow eats rotten food and nasty matter. Thus it helps us to keep the villages and towns clean. In this respect, it is a good sweeper and prevents many diseases.

Conclusion: Like other birds, the crow is also a creature of Nature. Though seemingly, the crow is a less useful bird to us, yet it contributes to the keeping of balance of biodiversity of the natural earth. So we should not be cruel and negligent to this blackbird. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Rose

Introduction: Rose is a very beautiful flower. Its smell is very sweet. For its sweet smell and beauty, it is called the ‘Queen of Flowers’. 

Description: There are many types of roses. Some are red, some white and some yellow. Roses grow on small thorny plants. No flower garden is complete without roses.  Rich men grow it in their gardens. The gardeners take great care of it. When the roses bloom, the entire garden looks grand and filled with a sweet fragrance. 

It is said that that rose was first cultivated in Persia and in ancient time, Persia was called the ‘Land of Roses’. It is now grown all over the world. It thrives best in warm climates. Rose is found in almost all the gardens of India. It is found in large numbers in Kashmir. The largest rose is found in Iraq.

Usefulness: The rose delights us with its beauty and sweet smell. We decorate our parlour and bedroom with roses. We make flower bouquets and garlands. Rosewater is prepared from the honey of roses. 

Conclusion: In every garden, there should have roses and the gardener should take great care of it. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Coconut

Introduction: The coconut is a kind of sweet fruits. It is a big fruit. It is found in India, Ceylon and in some other parts of Asia. Among the Indian states, coconut grows in abundance in Bengal, Tamil Nadu and Kerala. 

Description: The coconut trees thrive well in saline soil. It is planted on the banks of tanks or and other water resources. In some places, there are large coconut gardens. The coconut tree is very beautiful in appearance. It is a tall tree. It has no branch. There are long leaves at the top. Fruits grow in clumps at the top. Each bunch has many fruits. The tree produces two crops a year. The fruit has a hard shell inside its outer shell. Inside the shell, there are kernels and milk.

Usefulness: Coconut is a very useful fruit. Green coconut gives us delicious drinks in summer. It is very good for patients. Coconut kernel is a nutritious and useful food. Different types of sweets are prepared from it. Coconut oil is also prepared from the kernel of it. Coconut oil is used as hair oil and in some places, it is used in cooking. The coconut tree is also very useful for us. The trunk of the tree is used as a beam and fuel. With the fibres of its outer shell, people make ropes, brushes and mattresses. Some people make hubble-bubble, buttons, cups and other items with its hard shell. The coconut tree is a source of income for its owner. 

Conclusion: We think every household should have coconut trees and people should be aware of their usefulness. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Mango

Introduction: The mango is a type of luscious fruits. It belongs to the cashew family (Anacardiaceae). Its scientific name is ‘Mangifera indica’.  

Description: It varies in size and colour. Some are oval and some are flat in shape. Marigold mangoes are green and ripe mangoes are golden, yellow or slightly red in colour. The ripe mangoes look beautiful.

Mango is usually found in hot countries. It is widely grown in India for which it is called the ‘Indian fruit’.  In India, it grows abundantly in the states of  Maharashtra, Bihar, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Bengal and Assam.

There are many varieties of mangoes such as Lengra, Fazli, Kishanbagh, Mohanbhog, Himsagar etc. There are other local varieties.

Mango trees bloom in late January. In late March, these flowers turn into small green mangoes and gradually grow larger. In the months of May and June, they become mature and ripe. People take mango by removing the skin. There is a hard seed inside the mango.

Usefulness: Mango is a very tasty and nutritious fruit. We also eat green mangoes. The taste of green mango is usually sour. But some mangoes are sweet even though they are green. Indian people prepare chutney from green mango and preserve to be used in any season.

The mango was almost unknown in England till the sixteenth century. Nowadays mangoes are exported to other countries of the world from India and Bangladesh. Mangoes are cheap in India. But in Europe, they sell at a much higher price. Mango orchards give a good income.

The mango tree is also useful for us. The mango tree is large and tall. Its branches and leaves are spread. The tree gives us a pleasant shade. The tree trunk can be made into planks. Mango trees are also used as fuel.

Conclusion: We should plant the mango tree in our orchard and should take to eat this luscious fruit. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Bamboo is a type of fastest-growing grass belonging to the Poaceae family. It is hollow and round.  

Description: Bamboo grows in abundance in India, China, Japan, Burma and Australia. There are different types of bamboo. Burma’s bamboo is superior to Indian bamboo in many respects. Bamboo usually grows in an enclosure and do not require any care of planting. 

Usefulness: Bamboo is a very useful plant for us. Pallet houses in Bengal and Assam are mainly built with bamboo. The Indian peasants make walls and posts of the houses with bamboo. Thus, a poor man can build a house at little cost. Bamboo is used in homes and gardens. Various useful furniture, boxes, home decorators, coffins etc. are made of bamboo. Thus, it serves the purpose of wood and iron. Thin and hard bamboo are used as sticks. Fishing rods and canopy rods are also made of bamboo. Farmers make ladders from bamboo. Paper is made from bamboo pulp. Bamboo is also used as fuel. In China, beautiful things like utensils, cups, spoons, brushes are made out of bamboo.

Conclusion: In the northeast Indian states, bamboo is used for multiple purposes. It is a shame for an Assmsese house if there is not a bush of bamboo plants. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Rice

Introduction: Rice is a type of corn. It is obtained from paddy. Paddy plants are like grass. The plant has a thin stem. There are long leaves at the top. Paddy’s ears emerge from the top of the plant. There are about two or three hundred paddy grains in each ear. The ripe paddy grains appear golden.

Where to plant: Rice usually grows in warm countries. Moist soil is suitable for this. India, Burma, Sri Lanka, China, Japan and Egypt are the major rice-producing countries. In India, rice is grown in almost all states.

Kinds: Three types of paddy are commonly grown in Assam. Bao kind is cut in the spring. Ahu is available in the rainy season and Sali variety in winter. Sali rice is better than Ahu and Bao rice. Ahu and Bao rice are thick but sali rice is fine.

Description: Ahu is grown on dry and high land. The soil is first tilled with a plough. When the soil becomes soft, paddy seeds are sown on it. Small plants grow in a few days. Gradually, paddy ears start coming out from above. When it ripens, the corn is harvested.

Sali paddy grows well on low land. This requires more care. First, a small plot of land is ploughed well and made muddy. Paddy seeds are sown on it. Seeds grow here in plants. Meanwhile, a large filed is prepared and then the plants are taken to it and planted there. After about three months we get paddy. 

Bao is grown on marshy land. It thrives well in water. The plant is tall.

How Rice is Obtained: When the corn is ripe, it is cut with a sickle. The corn stalks are then thrown and the paddy is separated from the straw. This paddy then is dried in sun and we get husk and rice. 

Utility: Rice is the staple food of the people of India, Bangladesh and Japan. Many types of cakes are made from rice. People also prepare  Muri, Chiara, and Akhai from paddy or rice. Assamese people made a type of country liquor from rice. Its straw is used as fodder and fuel.

Conclusion: The countries where the principal food is rice, should grow more rice to provide sufficient food to their people. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Cotton is a white soft thing like wool. It is a product of cotton plant and cotton herb. Some cotton plants are short and some are tall. 

Description: The cotton herb grows to a height of three to five feet. The cotton plant and herbs bear green leaves and yellow flowers. After some days the flowers wither and fall down and young pods emerge in their place. When the pods are ripe, they break and cotton is found in them. Cotton has seeds. The fibre has to be separated from the seeds. The raw yarn is then threaded. This thread is woven into cloth.

Cotton is grown in high land. It is now cultivated almost worldwide. It grows extensively in India and America. In India cotton grows in abundance in the states of Punjab and Bengal and Assam.

Use of Cotton: People of India have been using cotton since ancient times. They made cotton clothes. The fibres were separated from the seeds by hand, the threads were spread by hand-working spindles and then woven on hand-looms.

Nowadays, spinning weaving is done with the help of machines in the mills. Earlier cotton was exported abroad to make textiles and other cotton goods. We had to depend on Europe for our clothes. But now, there are not many cotton mills in India. Indian weavers still make cloth in their hut.

Usefulness: Cotton is as important as rice or wheat. We cannot do without food and clothes. Therefore, the cotton industry plays an important role in the world market. We get our clothes from cotton. Cotton is used to make clothes, quilts, mattresses, cushions and even furniture. The thread is also used for sewing.  A  kind of oil is prepared from cotton seeds. 

Conclusion: We should try to grow more cotton and weave more cloth for ourselves. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Tea

Introduction: Tea is the most popular of all drinks in the modern world. There are many people who can go without food but not without a hot cup of tea in the morning.

Description: Tea plant is grown from seed. It is cultivated by men. The plant usually grows to a height of six feet. It is shrubby and bears many leaves. The leaves are one to two inches long. These leaves are collected by the porter four times a year. Hundreds of coolies, both men and women, work in a tea garden. After collecting the leaves, they are dried on fire and rolled. These are now black and ready for use. Black dried leaves are called tea. Tea has various properties. Buds and young leaves make the best kind of tea.

How to Prepare: The dried black leaves are soaked in warm water for a few minutes. The leaves are then separated from the water. Milk and sugar are mixed with this brown hot water. In this way, tea is prepared and we drink this preparation. It is a refreshing drink.

Where Found: Tea was first cultivated in China. It now grows in India, Sri Lanka and in some other countries. Assam is the main tea-producing state of India. Plants grow well in sloping land. So, tea is grown on the mountain slopes. Humid soil is not suitable for its growth. The Europeans started tea cultivation in India. Now many Indians have got tea gardens too.

Uses: Tea is a major source of national revenue of the Government of India. India gets a lot of money by selling tea abroad. 

Tea was first used only in cold countries. Now many people in our country drink tea and it has become a habit. The sweet drink is refreshing after labour. But if we take more tea, we feel less hungry and it can cause many diseases. Te is also used for dyeing.

Conclusion: Nowadays, it seems that many people can go without food but cannot go without a cup of hot tea in the morning. So, we should grow more tea to provide for our people. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Paper is a thin material that is used to write something on. Before the invention of paper, people used to write on the leaves and the barks of some trees. Palm leaves were generally used for writing purposes. Even now some holy books of the Hindus are written and printed on palm leaves.

How to Make: Paper is made from old rags, grass, straw, bamboo and wood. Old paper is also used to make newspapers. First, rags, grass, woods etc. are reduced to dust in a paper mill. The dust is then boiled and becomes mud-like. This is called the pulp. The pulp is purified and then whitened. The pulp is spread in a thin sheet. It is then dried and cut into pieces of different sizes. This is how we get paper. In the village, the paper is made only by hand. Such papers are thick.

Types of Paper: There are different types of paper such as writing paper, packing paper, drawing paper, printing paper etc. There are many varieties of paper. Some are cheap and some are expensive. There are papers of different colours. Some colour is mixed with pulp to make coloured paper. Thus, we get red, yellow, green or blue paper. Some papers have been fine and polished and others are thicker. 

Utility: Paper is a very useful thing. It is designed for various purposes. We use it every day. It is used for writing, decoration, printing, packing, parcels etc. We write letters on paper. Books and newspapers are printed on paper. Thus it has helped in the spread of knowledge and civilization. No office or school can go without paper. Paper has been used to decorate the walls. Even water pipes can be made of paper. In Japan, some homes have been built with paper for fear of earthquakes.

Conclusion: There are many paper mills in India. Some papers are exported abroad from India. There are many paper mills in Assam and Bengal. Paper is one of the most useful things in the civilized world. Therefore, we should try to establish more paper mills. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Sugar-cane

Introduction: Sugarcane is a species of tall grasses belonging to the family of Poaceae. It is primarily cultivated for its sweet juice. 

Description: It has a long stem but has no branches. The stem is filled with joints and has long leaves at the top. The plant grows to a height of six to eight feet. It looks like a thin, small bamboo. There are different varieties of sugarcane. Some are brown in colour and some are yellow. Some are fat and some are thin,

Where to plant: Sugarcane is grown in abundance in India, Egypt, America and many other countries. It is cultivated extensively in India. Sugarcane cultivation requires labour and care. Sugarcane does not grow from seed. The upper part of the plant is pruned and planted in moist soil. 

Usefulness: It is full of sweet juice. The juice is a refreshing and nutritious drink. It quenches our thirst. Sugar is made from sugarcane juice. The full-grown sugarcane is cut and the long stem is made into small pieces. Small pieces are placed between the wooden or iron rollers and the juice is squeezed out of them. The juice is heated in a large tank. A little lime is added to make the juice clean. After the water evaporates, the condensed juice is left behind in the pan. When it cools, the crystals of sugar are formed. The crystals are deep and dirty. Lime, alum and other things are used to make them clear and white.

We eat sugar or jaggery in our everyday meals. The dessert is mainly made with sugar. We chew pieces of sugarcane. Horse and cow eat sugarcane. Dry stems of sugar are used as fuel.

Conclusion: With the increase in the population of the world, the demand for sugar has been increasing. So we should grow more sugar cane to meet our needs. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Salt is a mineral consisting primarily of sodium chloride. Salt is a well-known thing of our everyday use. 

Description: Salt is obtained from the seawater. First, the sea water is boiled or dried in the sun. When the water dries up, the salt is left behind. This salt is later refined. 

It is also obtained from mines. It is called rock salt. Sedimentary salt is obtained from salt mines in Punjab. Salt easily dissolves in water and other liquids.

Salt Manufacture: In England, salt is produced in large quantities. Salt is also prepared on the sea floor of India. The government can do it alone. Private individuals can prepare salt with the permission of the government.

Utility: Salt is a very common thing but essential for all rich and poor. We can’t do without it. We use it every day in our food. Food is made delicious with salt. It helps in digestion. It is used by men as well as animals. It kills germs of the disease. Salt is used in preparing some medicines. Salt does not taste good on its own. But it can give flavour to other things when it is properly mixed with them. A vegetable cooked without salt becomes tasteless.

Conclusion: Salt is so much useful and necessary that the government should allow the common people to prepare it from sea water in order to make it cheaper. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Iron is a metal of grey colour. It is found in the mine. There it remains mixed with earth and other things. In this state, it is called ore. It is then melted into a fire and purified. Pure iron had a silver lustre. It rusts when exposed to moisture.

Types: There are three types of iron: cast iron,  pure iron, and steel. Cast iron is easily melted. It can be moulded into various shapes. Pure Iron can be beaten in sheets. All sharp tools are made of steel. Iron is used manually in its form.

Where Found: Iron mines are usually found near coal mines. Iron is mostly found in England, France, Sweden, Germany, North America and India. In India, iron mines are found in Bihar and some other places.

Usefulness: Iron is a common metal but the most useful of all metals. Knives, razors, rails, engines, pin, hooks etc. are made of iron. Many items of iron, which we require daily, are produced in factories and mills. Railways, steamers, ships, swords, plows etc. are all made of iron. It is impossible to calculate all the uses of iron. We can’t do without it. Although it is of much lesser value than gold, it is a hundred times more useful than gold.

Iron mines are a great source of wealth. In India, many iron factories have been established. The most important of them is the Tata Iron and Steel Company of Tatanagar in Jamshedpur, Jharkhand. It is one of the largest factories in the world.

Conclusion: Iron is a natural metal. Men can not grow it. So we should use it sparingly. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Coal is a  mineral material. It is shiny black in colour. It is hard-brittle.

How it is Formed: Long ago, there were many forests on Earth. Over time, these forests were made underground by some natural causes. After ages, underground trees and vegetables became a hard thing. We call this thing ‘coal’.

Where Found: Coal is found in mines. It is contained in layers. Coal is largely found in Great Britain, the United States, Africa, Germany, Russia, France, China, India and many other places in the world. In India, the major coalfields are in Taniganj, Giridih, Ledo, Margarita, Singareni and Jharia.

How it is Got: Men dug coal from mines. Miners dig deep into the ground. They move into the dark mines and come out of them with the help of engines. Coal mining is dangerous work. Many people die from accidents. The miners carry security lamps with them and pick up coal with the help of an engine. Sometimes coal is buried at a depth of two thousand feet.

Utility: Coal is a very important thing. It has many uses. It is used as fuel. The gas used for lighting and cooking. Without coal, modern civilization would have been impossible. Coal is used to melt iron from mines. Steam engines, mills, and factories cannot run without coal. We get tar from coal. In cold countries, coal is used to heat homes. Commerce and industry have increased due to coal. Some become rich if it has large coal fields.

Conclusion: With the invention of electricity, the use of coal is seemed to be decreasing, yet it is used in some small industries immensely. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Rain is the condensed moisture of the atmosphere falling visibly in separate drops.

How it is Formed: In the heat of the sun, the water of the seas, rivers, lakes. tanks etc. rises up in the air in the shape of vapour. Vapour is lighter than air. Thin clouds are formed from that vapour in the sky. When the air cannot hold more vapour, it falls down as rain. The clouds do not remain in the same place. The wind blows them in all directions. The air in the mountains and forests is very cold. When the clouds come near mountains or forests, they dissolve there and fall as rain. 

When Rain Falls: In the summer season, the heat of the sun is very great. At that time the wind blows towards land from the seas. When the water vapour reaches cold places, it falls as rain there. In India, rain generally falls heavily in the months of June, July and August.

Usefulness: Rain is a blessing to us. It makes the land fertile and helps trees and other vegetables grow. Crops grow when the rainfall is good. Rain is good drinking water. It is the purest form of natural water. On hot days, rain cools us. It washes away all dirty things. In many places, cultivation is not possible without rain. Farmers eagerly look at the sky for rain. In the dry season, rain gives life to the earth.

Bad Effects: Too much rainfall is harmful. Sometimes heavy rain destroys the crops and as a result, famine breaks out. The roads and fields remain underwater. Men and cattle suffer a great deal. The rivers, ponds and canals are filled with water and many diseases break out.

Conclusion: In the present-day world, there seems a scarcity of pure water. Rainwater, being pure, we should harvest and use it as much as possible. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The River

Introduction: The river is a natural stream of water flowing in a channel to the sea, lake or another river. 

Description:  In the hills and mountains, the rainfall is heavy and rainwater comes out of their edges in small streams. On its way, it connects to other rivers. A river gets its water from rain or melting snow.

The place from where a river rises is called its ‘source’ and the place where it falls is called its ‘mouth’. The part of the river that rises from another river is called the branch river or ‘tributary’. Rivers never run straight.

Usefulness: The river is a blessing to people. It helps us in many ways. It gives us water to drink. It is used for bathing, washing and growing crops. It makes the land fertile. A river is a natural drainage for rainwater. The river helps in the growth of communication and trade. People can go or take their articles to distant places in boats and ships. The river is a source of fish supply to the people. A river is a beautiful sight. It is very pleasant to walk along the river. The cool breeze of the river gives us health.

Harms: Rivers sometimes cause us a lot of harm. In the rainy season, some rivers drain their banks. Many people become homeless and helpless. Floods cause damage to crops and homes. 

Conclusion: Though there are some bad effects of the river, its good effects outweigh them. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Water is a colourless, odourless, transparent liquid that forms the seas, lakes, rivers and rain. It has no taste. Smell or colour. It is a compound of hydrogen and oxygen. 

Description: Water is found in three forms: hard, gaseous and liquid.  As a hard form, we find it in snow and ice. As a gaseous form, we find it in vapour and moisture. The simple liquid form is water.

Water is a very common thing. It is found everywhere. Two-thirds of the Earth is water and only one-third island. Water is found in the sea,  rivers, ponds, canals, waterfalls etc. Our body also contains water. When we feel the desire for water in our body, we drink water. Ocean and seawater are salines. Many impure things are mixed with the water of rivers and seas. The water of the springs is very spectacular. It helps in digestion. Rainwater is the purest form of natural water.

Utility: Water is a very valuable thing. No animal or plant can live without water. It is very useful for us after only air. Coldwater refreshes our body. It quenches our thirst. Water is used for cooking. Bathing in cold water is very pleasant. We wash our clothes and other things with water. Water makes our land fertile. 

Sometimes many impurities and germs are found in natural water. Drinking unclean water can make us sick. We should use filtered and boiled water. In towns, filtered pipe water is used. The germs of diseases are killed when water boils. We should use pure drinking water.

Conclusion: There is so much use of water that without it no life is possible. So We should use not wastewater and use it with consideration. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Sun

Introduction: The Sun is a star of medium size. It has its own light and heat. It is many times larger than the Earth. The sun is some million miles away from the Earth. So it looks like a small round body in the sky. 

Description: The sun has eight planets that revolve round it. We see it rise in the east and set in the west. The sun with its eight planets is called the ‘Solar System’ or ‘Solar Family’.It looks red and beautiful in the morning and evening. Its heat is very spectacular. At noon it becomes so bright that we cannot look at it. In summer we are close to the sun.  In winter we stay away from the sun. So the heat is not so much in this season. The sun’s rays have seven colours.

Utility: The sun gives us light and removes darkness from the earth. Without sunlight and heat, nothing can grow on Earth.  Men, animals, plants and vegetables cannot live without the heat and light of the sun. Sun rays are good for health. They kill germs of diseases. The sun removes the cold and makes us warm. The sun’s rays are pleasant in cold countries. We dry our clothes, food grains etc. in the sun. 

Conclusion: The sun is the basic source of energy for our earth. Without the sun the existence of the earth is impossible. The Hindus worship the sun as a god. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Clock

Introduction: A clock is a device for measuring time. It tells us the time of the day. 

Description: The clock has a flat round face. There are numbers from one to twelve on the face. Typically, a watch has two spikes, one short and the other long. They tell time. The long spike is called the ‘Minute Spike’ and it indicates the minutes. It moves more quickly.  The short spike is called the ‘Hour Spike’ and it indicates the hours. It moves from one number to another in an hour. 

In larger watches, there is a round thing at the bottom. This is called a ‘pendulum’. It rotates and sets the wheel at a definite speed. 

In some watches, there is a third hand (spike). It is called ‘Second Spike’. 

Kind: There is a kind of small clock. It is called ‘watch’. It does not strike. We can keep it in our pocket or tie it to our wrist.  Nowadays, a clock runs on batteries.

Usefulness: The watch is a very useful thing for us. It enables us to work on time. It tells us that time is more valuable than money. It is equally valuable for men of all classes. If we want to do our work in due time, then we must have a watch or clock in our homes. The watch does its job. It teaches us to be regular and punctual.

Conclusion: Proverb  says.’ Time and tide wait for none.’ If time is passed we cannot regain it. So everybody should have a clock and abide by the timetable of his daily work. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Bicycle

Introduction: A bicycle is a vehicle with two wheels. It is the cheapest but popular means of communication. 

Description: The bicycle was first invented in France. It was first made of wood. The present-day bicycle is a great improvement over the first invention. It is now made of metal. The front wheel of the bicycle is movable. It can be rotated from the handle to the right or left. The rear wheel is fixed. There is a leather seat. The rider is placed on the seat. The rider rotates the paddle and drives the wheels. The rear wheel is connected by a chain with a paddle. The wheels have a thin tube inside the tyre. It is pumped and filled with air. A bell is fixed to the handle. The cyclist rings the bell and warns people. The rider can stop the bicycle by the brake.

Usefulness: The bicycle is a very useful thing. Now it is common in any town or village. This saves time. We can go fast from one place to another. It is cheap and is called ‘poor man’s car’. It is very widely used in India, Bangladesh and France. It is used in interior villages where roads are not in good condition. Cycling is a kind of exercise. It improves our health. Bicycles are often used as a means of sports, recreation and sightseeing. People travel by bicycle. The bicycle is very useful for doctors, businessmen and telegraph peons. We can enjoy a lot at affordable prices and visit many places with a bicycle. The expert cyclist shows the gait on the bicycle.

Conclusion: The bicycle is so cheap that even a poor man also can buy it. It does not need any fuel. We can use it almost everywhere where there is no fine road. It does not produce any pollution. We think everybody should have a bicycle and take to use it extensively. 0 0 0

Motor Car

Introduction: Motor car is a kind of popular vehicle in the present-day world. It is run by fuel like petrol, diesel, gas or solar energy.

Description: The motor car was first invented by a Frenchman. It is now made in many places in the world. The motor car engine is in front of the car. Petrol is converted into gas. Due to this gas, the engine works. The motor car has four wheels with rubber tyres. Motor car is more convenient than other means of communication. Hence it has replaced the cart drawn by bullocks, horses, buffaloes etc. It can run at a speed of forty or seventy kilometres per hour.

There are many types of motor cars. Some are light and small and can carry only a few individuals – two to four. There are motor buses and motor lorries. A large motor bus can carry forty to fifty passengers. Motor lorries are used to move goods from one place to another.

Usefulness: A motor car is a very useful vehicle. It is the fastest of all other types of vehicles except aeroplanes. It is extensively used in cities and towns. This saves time because it runs very fast. Therefore, it is very useful for busy men. Traders use lorries to carry their goods because lorries run faster and can carry heavier weights than bullock carts. It is cheaper to travel in bus. Therefore, motor buses are very much in use nowadays. Rich people keep motor cars as an object of luxury for their comfort and convenience.

Drawbacks: Motor cars are very expensive. It is not possible to buy a motor car for everyone. It is also expensive to maintain. The driver demands high pay.  If the car moves at a high speed, accidents can occur. There are some rules for driving a car in cities and towns. Despite precautions, every year, many people are killed by motor cars. The smokes emitting from a motor car to add pollution to the air.

Conclusion: Though the motor car is the most popular means of communication yet we should use it abiding by the rules and regulations laid down by the Government to avoid accidents and pollution. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: An aeroplane is a vehicle that flies into the air. It is the fastest means of popular communication invented by science.  

Description: From the earliest times men have tried to fly above the earth. We have read in the Purans that our forefathers travelled in chariots.  Before aeroplanes, balloons and zeppelins were invented to fly in the air.

The aeroplane was first invented in America by two Wright Brothers: Orville Wright and Wilber Wright. The Airplanes appear like birds flying in the air. The pilot directs the machine. At the head of the machine, there is a thing as an electric fan. This is called a propeller. The aeroplane can fly due to a propeller. The propeller moves very rapidly in the air and produces loud noises. In front of an aeroplane, there is room for pilots and passengers.

Kind: There are different kinds of aeroplanes. Some are called monoplanes and some are biplane. Monoplanes have one pair of wings and biplanes have two pair wings. The seaplane can fly in the air and can also go over the ocean. Two types of aircraft are used in warfare. The bomber aircraft is larger and can carry more weight and it bombs. Fighter aircraft are lighter and can move more quickly.

Utility: Presently, the aeroplane has made a lot of progress. We travel some hundred miles by aeroplane within an hour. The aeroplane takes mail and passengers from one place to another in a very short time. Aeroplanes are used in warfare. It carries war material, drops bombs and watches the movement of enemies. Aeroplanes are also useful for the purpose of commerce.

Conclusion: The aeroplane is a wonderful invention of science no doubt, but travelling by it is so costly for the common people. To make aeroplane popular, travelling by it must be cheap and secure. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Railway means a road with iron rails. The train runs on the rails. The engine works with steam. James Watt was the first to invent a steam engine. George Stephenson is credited with using it for driving on the rail. In India, the railways was first constructed during the Viceroyship of Lord Dalhousie.

Description: The head of the train has an engine. Behind it, there are some vehicles called compartments. The train runs on a pair of iron rails. The rails are parallel to each other and they sleep on some thick wooden planks called ‘sleepers’. The engine derives its power from the steam that comes from the water in the boiler. There are three sections of railway lines. The widest is called the ‘Broad Gauge’, the second is the ‘Metre Gauge and the third is called the ‘Narrow Gauge’.

Usefulness: Railways have been rendering a lot of services to us. It has helped in the development of human civilization on earth. This has shortened time and distance. Railways have made travelling easier, cheaper and comfortable. We can move quickly from one place to another. It has helped in the development of trade and commerce also. More cargo can be transported from one place to another via railway. Export and import have become easier and cheaper.  Railways are used a lot during famines and wars. They move provisions and troops quickly to the affected areas.  Through the railways, students go to various places for higher education. Thus travelling through train has broadened our knowledge and experience.

Disadvantages: Railways have some disadvantages. Many times serious accidents occur and cause many deaths. Goods, vegetables, fruits, milk etc. are sent from the villages to the town by rail routes. So the villagers cannot get those things at cheap prices. Railways block the natural drainage of a country and sometimes they cause great floods.

Conclusion: Despite its few drawbacks, the railways have changed the features of the modern industrial, commercial and transport systems beyond imagination. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Transportation: Old and Modern

Introduction: ‘Transport’ means sending goods and people from one place to another. Nowadays there are many means of transport as car, bike, train, ship, aeroplane etc.  

Old Systems: In the olden days, people had to carry luggage on their head or back if they wanted to go from one place to another. Gradually people of different countries used horses, camels and elephants for transportation. The camel is called the ‘ship of the desert. Still, in Greenland, the Eskimos use dogs and trains drawn by reindeer. Their dogs carry tents and other items as there are no horses for drawing carts. The kings and nobles travel on elephant and horseback or used sedan carried by men called ‘bearers’. After the invention of wheels, the main means of transport became vehicles such as bullock carts and buffalo carts. Boats were used on the seas and rivers. The old methods of conveyance were slow and inconvenient.

Modern System: In modern times, steam, electricity and petrol engines have made a major change in the history of transportation. Better transport has become possible not only on land but also on water and air.  According to certain timetables, a lot of things are moved from one to another by means of modern systems of transportation. 

Motor cars, steamships, railways and aeroplanes have made the modern transportation system faster and easier. Motor vehicles move quickly. Buses are commonly used to transport passengers. Motor, truck and lorry carry goods from one place to another at a cheaper rate. During the war, trucks are used to transport troops, provisions and materials to various places. Railways have helped in the development of trade and commerce also. More food and passengers can be transported from one place to another via the railways. Railways are used a lot during famines and wars. All major cities have tramways. The aeroplane is the biggest surprise in this era of miracles. It is a flying machine. It covers long distances in a very short time. 

Conclusion: Modern means of transport are far better than the old ones. There is no doubt that the modern means of transport are faster, cheaper, easier and more comfortable. But they are not without risk.  Sometimes they lead to serious accidents. We should take every step to avoid the drawbacks of modern transport systems. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Radio is a type of wireless telegraphy. With the help of radio news, music, speech etc. can be heard remotely. Guglielmo Marconi, an Italian scientist invented the radio in the 1890s.

How It Works: Most major cities in the world have radio stations. In a radio station, someone sings or talks before an instrument. There is also a kind of instrument for listening from a distance. This device is kept in men’s homes. If any person sings or talks in a radio station, it is heard from those houses at once.

Usefulness: Through radio, a simple device kept in a house and at a common expense, one can listen to songs, speeches and so on from a great distance. Listening to radio broadcasts is almost as popular as reading newspapers. Even a poor family in a city would be happy to have a radio set of their own. People have realized the usefulness of radio.

Radio has increased the enjoyment of life. We can listen to songs, concerts in our rooms without going to a playhouse. It is used to appease the sick in hospitals. Broadcasting is meant as a medium of instruction and publicity. It helps in group education. The celebraties often talk to us via radio. Lectures on various useful topics are given on radion and people enjoy them sitting in their rooms. Radio also gives us the news of the day. It is also a medium of advertisement.  During wars, radio becomes one of the most useful tools of propagation.

All India Radio Broadcast: All India Radio Broadcast began in 1923. It is under the control of the Government of India and is well organized. The most important  All India Radio stations are in Calcutta, Mumbai, and Delhi. With the inventions of the computer, android mobile phones and the internet the use and popularity of the radio have been waning since the last decade of the twentieth century. 0 0 0


Introduction: Cinema means ‘moving picture’. The cinematograph was invented by the famous American scientist Thomas Alva Edison. It is a great gift of science. In cinema, a series of pictures are thrown on a  screen by a machine.

How and Where Cinemas are Produced: For a cinema, a series of photos are taken on a ribbon called a film. There are special cameras to take pictures of things. Taking pictures is very expensive. Sometimes it is necessary to go to different places to take pictures of real things. Sometimes artificial objects stand for real things and photos of them are taken. Films are produced extensively in India, America and England. To illustrate the facts of novels and plays, the film company engages good actors and actresses. Earlier cinema pictures were silent but now we can hear the voice of actors and actresses.

Utility: We can know many things in the cinema. It is not possible to go and see all the great things in the world but we can see real pictures of those things in cinemas. We can know the history, manners, customs of different countries through cinema. Cinema has a great instructive value also. Through talkies, we can hear lectures on many important topics. Cinema is also a source of enjoyment. It entertains us. Therefore, it has become very popular. Today, there is hardly any city that does not have a cinema hall. Besides, it is a source of monetary income also. America and England are making a lot of money by producing films. This is a very useful art indeed.

Abuses: Along with good sides, cinema has some bad sides also. It can be a source of the downfall of young men. Not all pictures are good. Some photos cause a lot of harm to the students. Not all pictures are viewable by students. Bad photos can spoil their character. Moreover too much of seeing cinema fall bad effect on our eyesight. Too much viewing of cinema turns its viewer into a cinema addict which is not a good sign for us.

Conclusion: While enjoying a cinema we should be very cautious about its bad sides and try to avoid the cinemas which may fall bad effects on us. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Electricity s an essential product of modern science. This is a very dangerous thing. If electricity passes through anyone, he will die instantly. But men have made this powerful thing their slave. They do many things with the help of electricity. 

Usefulness: All major cities have electric powerhouses. Electricity supplies the common comforts of citizens. Roads illuminate so well with electric lights that anyone can pick up the needle from the roads. Electric lights are also used in many homes in towns and even in the villages.

In summer, electric fans give us great comfort.  We can easily work under an electric fan. With the help of electric lifts, a man can move to the top flat of several storyed houses within a minute. Electric tramways help people move from one end of the city to another quickly and with very little cost. The Electric Telegraph spreads code messages all over the world. Electricity is also used in printing presses. Likewise, electricity is used in the treatment of patients also. In villages and towns, electric torchlight is of great use. Electricity had made our lives more easy and comfortable. This saves time, hassle and expense.

Conclusion: The cost of electricity generation is gradually decreasing. People are using electricity more expensively. It is expected that electricity will be used for various other purposes in the near future. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Postman

Introduction: The Postman is a humble public servant who works under a post office. He gets a small salary, but his job is significant. He brings letters, parcels, money orders etc. from the post office and delivers them to their owners.

Description: Everyone knows the postman. He wears a khaki dress. It is given to him by the government. He carries a leather bag with him. He keeps letters, parcels, money etc. in it. In the village, the postman carries postcards, envelopes and stamps for sale. The postman is easily known for hanging his khaki coat, khaki turban and his leather bag below the shoulder.

His Duty: The postman goes carrying on letters, parcels, money etc. sent from distant places, from house to house to deliver them to their addressees. His duty is labourious and sometimes it becomes hazardous. Village roads are not food. He can be attacked by robbers and wild animals. Despite these risks, he performs his duty honestly. 

The postman must be able to read and write. He should be healthy and hard-working. He has to move in sun and rain. The postman must be honest and careful in performing his duty.  The careless postman is punished heavily.

Conclusion: The postman is a very useful public servant. He brings news from our friends and relations. Sometimes he brings bad news to us but still he is always a welcome visitor. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Post Office

Introduction: The Post Office is a government office for sending letters, parcels, money etc. from one place to another. The postal system was introduced in India by the British. Earlier letters, money etc. were sent by messengers from one place to another at a high cost. But the postal system has overcome a major inconvenience and made communication easier. 

Description:  In every post office there is a postmaster and at least a postman, called ‘peon’ to deliver letters and parcels to their owners. A large post office contains several departments such as money orders, savings, letters, parcels, tickets, telegraphs, telephones, etc. There are separate offices for telegraphs and telephones in big cities. If someone wants to write a letter somewhere, they can buy a postcard or an envelope.  After writing the letter, he has to put it in a letterbox in the post office. The postal department takes it to its destination. Apart from letters, other valuable articles can also be sent through the post office.  A man can deposit his money in the savings department of a post office. The government will be responsible for protecting the money.

Conclusion: The Post Office is a very useful government institution.  People have faith in it. Nowadays there are post offices even in small villages. The post offices of the village are small and have only one postmaster and one postman. The post offices have been rendering great services to the nation. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Hospital

Introduction: The Hospital is an institution where people suffering from diseases receive medical treatment. In every city, there is at least a hospital. Hospitals are established by the government, municipalities or panchayats. Some wealthy people also set up private hospital. The charitable dispensary in the village is usually maintained by the panchayats.

Description: Hospitals have two departments: the indoor department and the outdoor department. In a village charitable dispensary, there is only an external department. Outdoor patients are examined and given medicines free of charge by the hospital authority. They do not stay in the hospital.

At the Town Hospital, there is a system of treatment for both indoor and outdoor patients. In the indoor department, patients have to stay at the hospital. The doctors visit him regularly and the nurses take care of him.

Utility: Hospitals are of great use to us. Some diseases cannot be treated at home. It is absolutely necessary to go to the hospital. Poor men get treatment for free. There are special arrangements for women patients. Persons suffering from infectious diseases and serious injury should be removed from the hospital. Every possible facility is provided to the patients in the paying ward. The patient’s relatives also can stay with the patient to take care of him. 

Conclusion: Hospitals have been providing valuable services to the suffering humanity. We should try to establish more and more hospitals for the betterment of our suffering people. 0 0 0

The Public Library

Introduction: Public library is a building or room where different types of books are stored for use or for borrowing by the public.  It is known that the first library of the world was established in the 7th century B.C. in Iraq. Nowadays there are libraries in every city, town and even in some villages also.  

Description: There are two types of library: the Private Library and the Public Library. Private libraries are established by individuals who are fond of books. But a private library is usually small and contains books that are liked by the owner. 

A Public Library is established by the government or by voluntary organizations. The Public Library contains a large number of books of all kinds. It is open to the public. Everyone can go there and read what he likes and can borrow books for some specified days. In addition to books, public libraries have newspapers and magazines. Expensive books of reference and old records are kept in public libraries.

Utility: A public library is a very useful institution. We can get knowledge by reading books. But it is not possible for a man to buy all the books he wants to read. In a public library, a person reads as many books as he wants. He can also read newspapers and magazines. Poor students, who cannot afford books, can use a public library with an advantage. Public libraries spread education among the common people. Not everyone can study in school or college, but everyone can study in a library. Public libraries help us to increase our knowledge. They are very essential for scholars, writers and common people.

Most public libraries contain a reading atmosphere. There are tables, chairs, almirahs etc. to study comfortably. There is no noise. 

Conclusion: There should be a public library in every village and the common people should be taught its importance. This spreads knowledge among people. The Library of Congress, USA is said to be the largest library in the world. The National Library of Kolkata has the largest collection of books. We should be conscious of the importance of the library and take advantage of it. 0 0 0

The Printing Press

Introduction: The ‘printing press’ refers to a machine for printing books, magazines, leaflets, banners, pictures etc. from types or metal plates. The art of printing was first invented in China. The types were made of wood. The modern printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenburg of Germany in 1454. With this invention, the new revolution began in the progress of human civilization.

Description:  In England, the printing press was founded in 1491 by William Caxton. In India, Charles Wilkins established the first printing press. Now there are printing presses all over the world. Now the art of printing has been greatly improved. Nowadays we require very little labour. Printing has been made cheaper and easier with the help of electricity.

Printing art is a great blessing to mankind. Earlier books were written by hand. Therefore the number of books was very small and only a few people could buy books. Furthermore, the manuscripts were sold at high prices and only wealthy people could buy them. We gain knowledge by reading books but knowledge and education were limited to only to few people as books were not available to everyone. Then sometimes, it was difficult to read books written by hand. Printing has overcome all these disadvantages.

The art of printing has helped in the progress of civilization. Thoughts of men are recorded in books. From books, we can know the thoughts, discoveries and inventions of great men. The printing press has spread education among people on a large scale. Books disseminate knowledge irrespective of time and space. Every new idea soon spreads to the whole world through books. A large number of copies can be made in a few hours by means of a printing press. Now everyone can buy books at cheap prices. Ideas of the greatest men of all countries and all ages are readily available to all.

Due to the printing press, we now have a lot of newspapers and magazines. They give us news, knowledge and information of all kinds. They increase our knowledge. Sitting in one corner of the world, we get information about the whole world through newspapers and magazines. This was not possible before the invention of the printing press.

Conclusion: During the late twentieth century printing technology has developed beyond imagination and various types of the digital printing press have made their existence in the market. We should take the advantage of such a printing press and try our best to print more and more books to contribute to the easy dissemination of knowledge. 0 0 0

A Village Market

Introduction: A village market is usually a market located in the village area where people from the village and nearby villages gather to buy and sell their daily needs. It is held on certain days of the week. It is usually held once or twice a week. The village market is held either in the morning or in the afternoon and sometimes for the whole day.

Description: A village market is held in an open space. Generally, there are no permanent shops in the village market. Some shopkeepers build temporary sheds and they use them on market days. But in large markets, there are permanent shops. People from neighbouring villages come with some daily necessities for sale. They sit on the ground under the open sky and carry on their business. Some people come to the market only to buy their daily necessities. So people gather to buy and sell goods. The shops are arranged in rows. 

The village market is a very noisy place. Every article is heavily negotiated in its purchase.  The market authority collects tax from the shopkeepers. The commonly available items in the village market are rice, pulses, fancy goods, vegetables, spices, fruits, milk, curd, betel nut, pan, salt, oil, fish, cloth and some other useful things. Shopkeepers, who use temporary sheds and people who sell things in the open space, go home after selling their things and buying their essentials.

Conclusion: The village market is useful for the villagers. In the village market, the people from neighboring villages meet each other and learn many lessons and exchange their love and feeling. They learn more about the outside world. The goods and things found in the village market are usually fresh and cheap. The village market represents the way the villagers live. 0 0 0

School Magazine

Introduction: Nowadays many schools have their own magazines. The school magazine is usually published every three months or annually. Very few schools can publish it monthly. The school magazine mainly consists of writings of school students. Its practice is generally limited to school students.

Description: The school magazine is the students’ own concern and is usually run by them. For better management, students take help of their teachers. There is a committee of teachers and students. Typically, some teachers are editors, and one or two students from the top classes are chosen as sub-editors. Articles from teachers and students are invited. The students send their articles to the editor. The committee then selects the best articles. Selected articles are corrected by some teachers and resolve necessary changes to be sent to the press for print.

Each student receives a copy of the magazine and has to pay a subscription. The cost of printing is usually met by the students and teachers. 

Usefulness: School magazines are very useful in many ways. They contain writings, pictures etc. of teachers and students. One is naturally happy to see his name in print. So they try to write poems, story, essay, comics etc.

They read many new books to write good articles and this helps to increase their knowledge. With practice, their writing style and composition skill improve. To see their name in print, students try to do better in exams and win prizes in sports and other school activities. This inspires others. So, the school magazine has a highly educative value. It develops our thinking and writing power and motivates us for better work. Good articles and important information benefit not only the contributors but also the readers. Pupils learn the value of cooperatives and the mode of periodic conduct. Many great writers first practised writing in their school magazines. 

Conclusion: It is desirable that each school should have its own magazine. In this respect, the teachers should motivate the students. 0 0 0

Debating Societies

Introduction: Many schools and colleges have debating societies. The purpose of a debating society is to arrange debates and discussion with arguments among the students on selected topics.  

Description: For a debate competition a topic is selected for discussion. Some students speak in favour of the topic and some speak against it. Therefore a debate has two opposite sides. If the topic of debate is ‘School Life and College Life’, one side will try to prove that school life is better than college life and the other side will try to prove that college life is better than school life. Finally, the speakers of the judge gave their opinion. The participant that can give better arguments wins the prize.

Usefulness: Debating societies are very useful. They help increase our power to think, reason and speak in public. In a debate, we try to prove that we are right and our opposite party is wrong. So we should study this subject, read more books and gather more information. We also learn new information from our opponents. Through debate, our wrong thoughts and misconceptions are corrected.  Therefore our knowledge increases on certain subjects. We learn to reason and develop the power of speaking in front of others. In a debate, we are to talk, think on the subject, give good reasons in clear language and defend our side. So our logic faculty gets improved. We learn to think systematically. We become ready men. Above all, by practice, we learn the art of speaking. The utility of eloquence is very great. 

Conclusion: Many students cannot speak anything in a public meeting. They get nervous. They should join a debating society. Debating Societies is the training ground of many famous orators of the world. At first, we cannot speak and people can laugh at us, but with practice, we can learn the art of speaking and become good speakers. In a debate, we can be defeated but we should not be angry and obstinate. We should not try to support our ideas in unfair ways. The discussion should be done in the right spirit. We must accept the right arguments of our opponents. 0 0 0

School Life

Introduction: A school is a place of study. Boys and girls receive education and training in school. School life is a very important part of life.

Why School Life is Important: There are many reasons for being school life an important one.

First, school life is the time of preparation for future life. Our habits are formed in our young days. Our future life is what we make in our childhood. School life lays the foundation for future life. In school, a boy has the scope to develop his body and mind.

Secondly, in school, boys and girls learn the lesson of discipline. They have to study and prepare their daily lessons. Every day they have to do certain tasks.  

Thirdly, the school teaches us a sense of equality. A rich man’s son and a poor man’s son are treated equally in school. In school, boys have to do their own work. They are under the control of their teacher. Teachers praise the students for their good works and reprimand them for their bad works. There no predilection. At school, a boy cannot do what he likes. He should follow the school rules and follow the instructions of his teachers. In the playground, he is one of the others. He should adapt to his equality.

Fourthly, school life is the happiest period of a person’s life. It is free from all the cares and concerns of the world. We can never forget the old days. Our heart leaps with joy when we find our old schoolmates. We feel immense pleasure in talking about our past happy days at school.

Duties in Schol Life: School life is not as pleasant as it first appears. It has big responsibilities. If they are discharged well then they get success. If we ignore this best phase of life then we have to suffer loss for a long time. The first and most important duty of a student is to read books and acquire knowledge. He should participate in sports and healthy exercises. He should be regular and punctual in doing his work. He should practice on the basis of honesty and the spirit of companionship. He should leave bad companies. In youth, we cannot know what is good and what is bad. Therefore we should always follow the instruction of our teachers and elders. Our future career depends on the training received in the early days. 

Conclusion: A school is a place where the future of children is shaped. So we should be fair and attentive to learn the lessons taught at school. 0 0 0

A Cricket Match

Introduction: Nowadays cricket is a popular game and it is played and enjoyed with much excitement. During the last Durga Puja holidays, a cricket match was organized between B. H. College Cricket Team and G. L. C. College Team in B. H. College playground. It was a good match and the biggest crowd I had ever seen. After two days of play, there was a difference in runs between them.

Day 1: The G. L. C.  College team lost the toss and B. H. College team took to bating. The first wicket fell in around ten minutes when the score was ten. The second wicket fell on the next ball. It seemed to be a bad omen and the B. H. College team looked nervous. Their captain was caught for forty-five and they were out for one hundred and seventy.

In the first innings of G. L. C. College, Tarun scored his century and his captain was caught for forty. It was evening when the last wicket fell and he scored six runs.

Day 2: In the next day, the B H College team was all out for one hundred forty-two runs. The college collapsed in about thirty minutes when the score stood at just fifteen. They got frustrated and were afraid that they would lose the day. Fortunately, with the fifth man, the score increased unexpectedly. His happiness knew no bounds when the score jumped and went over the limit. He was hopeful after scoring thirty runs with two wickets at one wicket for one wicket. His joy and enthusiasm was very good as the score was up to 140 and though one wicket fell. In the end, he scored one hundred forty-six runs and won the shield.

It was a fine cricket match that gave the audience a lot of excitement and enthusiasm. 0 0 0


An earthquake is a sudden shaking of the ground, typically causing destruction as a result of movement within the earth’s crust. It is an untrollable enemy of mankind. We cannot know beforehand when it will happen.

From time to time, there were terrible earthquakes in different countries, which caused heavy destruction to human society. A terrible earthquake struck India in 1897 and it greatly affected Assam. A terrible earthquake struck Japan in 1923 and killed about twenty-two thousand people. A devastating earthquake struck Bihar, India in 1934, which changed the map of the state.

Assam faced a heavy earthquake on August 15, 1950, at seven-thirty in the evening. On that day when the people of India were celebrating Independence Day, this natural disaster occurred in Assam. The shaking was very violent. It became very difficult for a man to keep standing. People tried to run here and there for safety. Houses fell down, trees were uprooted. There were severe cracks here and there and some river dried up. Landslides occurred in the hills. Large scale land eroded and as a result, rivers were blocked.

The earthquake caused major flooding. When the river embankments broke down, the water came running fiercely. There was a big flood. Many villages were washed away. The grounds, gardens, houses all went underwater. Parts of the motor road were cut off. The colour of the river changed and smelled terrible. Lots of fished died. Animals and wooden logs floated in the Brahmaputra. Many died, paddy fields were destroyed. The property was lost. About two million people were affected and nearly three thousand people died. The face of Assam was changed. The suffering of the people knew no bounds.

Army and Assam Police provided all help to the homeless. The Air Force dropped bags of rice and flour into the severed areas. Students of Assam Medical College and some voluntary relief committees from all parts of India rendered humanitarian services to the affected people. People from all parts of the world helped people suffering from money, medicine and other things.

Earthquake is always terrible and undesirable. But, being it a natural phenomenon, we have no control over it. Hope that in the future man would be able to control it. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: ‘Famine’ refers to the extreme scarcity of food. It can occur for many reasons.  

First, famine is caused by drought (long absence of rain). For sought, the peasant cannot cultivate their land and resultantly the scarcity of food occurs in a country.  

Secondly,  it may occur for great flood also which destroys the crops and vegetations of a region and as a result, people have to starve. 

Thirdly, growth in population is another cause of famine. Famine also occurs when food is exported to other countries through an incorrect calculation of a country’s requirements. 

Fourthly, sometimes insects like grasshoppers destroy crops and famine breaks out.

Its Effects: The situation of poor people become pathetic when famine breaks out. As long as food grains are available, rich people try to buy them at any cost. People live together without food for several days. They try to live on whatever they get. They live on the leaves and roots of trees. People become cruel and selfish and can commit any crime for food. Children do not take care of their parents. Men steal and commit robbery. For want of food, people are reduced to skeletons and can meet an untimely death.

People eat whatever they get and as a result epidemics like malaria, pox, dysentery etc. soon break out and people die like cats and dogs. The rich and affluent villages become like deserts.

Relief work: When a famine breaks out, it is the duty of the government and the generous people of the country to come forward with assistance for the people in distress. People should raise money and help the famine-stricken people with food, clothes,  medicine etc. A relief fund should be opened. The government should give loans and employment to the victims. Foodstuff should be sent from all parts of the country to the famine-stricken area.

Prevention: The government of the country should take steps so that there is no famine anywhere in the country. Measures must be taken to prevent floods. Modern better methods of agriculture should be introduced to increase the production of food. The means of communication and transportation should be improved so that the surplus food grains can be sent to the other parts of a country quickly.

Conclusion: Famine of any kind is always undesirable. People should lay by at least six month’s food grain at their houses for use in times of calamity like famine. 0 0 0

Saraswati Puja

Introduction: In the Indian Hindu mythology, Saraswati is the goddess of learning and music. The Hindus, especially the Hindu students, worship her every year. She is worshipped at the beginning of the spring season. It is a great joyous festival for the students. A lot of money is spent on the festival.

Description: Saraswati is a symbol of purity and wisdom. Her image is made of straw and mud arrayed with white clothes and the image is put on an altar of lotus.  There is a bina in her hand. Some books are kept beside her.

Pooja and Bhoga: This image is worshipped by the priest on the festival day. After the worship is over, everyone prays to the Goddess to bless the worshipper with her wisdom. The flowers and leaves of the vine tree are offered to its feet. It is a way of showing respect to the Goddess.

The goddess is worshipped in almost every school and college. The students enjoy the festival with great pleasure. It is a very happy day for them. They decorate the place of worship very beautifully. On that day they take a quick bath and do not take any food till the Puja ends. After the prayer, they take ‘prasad’. The beggars are given food and money. Visitors are warmly welcomed. Entertainment is organized at night.

Immersion: The next day, the statue is taken out in a grand procession and then it is immersed in water. In some places, the image is not immersed but is preserved at home.

Conclusion: Along with worshipping Saraswati, the worshippers should be mindful to their study so that they can acquire wisdom. 0 0 0


The Maharam

Introduction: The Maharam is a great festival of the Muslims of the Shia sect. It is commemorated in memory of the tragic death of Hussain, the grandson of Prophet Mohammed. Hussain was a son of the prophet Hazrat Muhammad’s daughter Fatima.

The Story: Hazrat Mohammed, the great Prophet had two grandchildren named Hasan and Hussain. Hasan became Caliph (religious leader) of the Muslims but his enemy poisoned him to death.

Hussain then became the Caliph but his enemy, the Caliph of Damascus, captured his throne. Hussain gathered an army and marched to fight his enemy.  Husain and his followers gathered and stayed for ten days in the plain called Karbala on the banks of the river Euphrates. There the Caliph of Damascus sent an army under Yazid.  The army of Yazid seized Hussain and his men all around. Consequently, a deadly battle took place between the army of Hussain and the army of Yazid. Hussain’s army was defeated in the hand of his enemies. Most of his soldiers were killed and  Hassain was also killed on the tenth day of the month of Maharam. Since then, the Muslims have been celebrating the festival in memory of  Hassan and Hussain.

Description: The festival begins on the first day of Amavasya in the month of Maharam (Arabic month)  and ends on the tenth day. During the Maharam days, Muslims express sorrow for Hasan and Hussain and they also fast for ten days. On the tenth day, they make a little frame of bamboo covered with coloured paper. It is called a ‘grave’. They fight fakes with clubs and swords in memory of the battle of Karbala. Then the frame of bamboo is taken from one place to another and is thrown into water on the tenth day. After this, the Muslims break their fast. On this occasion, food and alms are given to the poor and sweetmeats are distributed to all the people gathered there.

Conclusion: Along with celebrating Maharam, Muslims should be inspired by the great teachings of Islam. 0 0 0


Town Life and Village Life

Introduction: Proverb says, ‘God created the country and man made the city’.  There are many cities in the world no doubt but the number of villages is more than cities. Both, the town life and city life, have their own advantages and disadvantages. 

Advantages of Town Life: In a city, we can live a more comfortable life than we can in a village. We can have a good education in a town. The town has schools, colleges and public libraries. There are many doctors and hospitals. Roads are good and there are good facilities for communication. In the city, we can get pure water supplied by the municipal authority. There are post and telegraph offices at our convenience. We can get daily newspapers easily and promptly. Our lives and property are safe in the city. There are theatres, cinemas and other means of entertainment. We can get all kinds of necessary things at our demand.

Disadvantages of Town Life: There are some disadvantages of town life. The city is full of dust and smoke. We cannot get pure air, green vegetables and fresh things in the city. Natural beauty is unknown to city life.  The city is full of noise and the houses are very close to each other. The city life is very expensive and it is not safe for people to walk on the streets comfortably.

The Advantages of Country Life: Country life is peaceful. In the village, we can enjoy the beauties of nature.  We get pure air, fresh food and uncorrupted things at affordable prices.

In the villages, almost all the necessary things are produced by the villagers and they do not have to depend on others. There is great cooperation among the village people. The people of the country help each other in times of need.

The disadvantages of Country life: In the country, we cannot have everything even if we have money. Villages are backward in terms of education and cleanliness. There are very few doctors in the villages. Life and property are not secure in a village as there is no police station at our easy reach. The communication system is also poor. Ignorance, prejudice and narrowness of mind are common characteristics of country life.

Conclusion: Though both, town life and village life, have their respective advantages and disadvantage, yet it can not be denied that village life is more peaceful and less artificial than town life.  0 0 0


Burglary is an illegal entry into a house with the intention of theft. There was a time in the past when burglary was a common crime both in towns and villages. Once a burglary had happened at my uncle’s house the previous year while I stayed there for some days.  Here I am sharing the experience as follows:

It was the month of July of the last year. Our school was closed for the summer. My cousin invited me to spend a few days with him in the village. Accordingly, I went there with my younger brother. My uncle and aunt were very happy to see us.

A separate bedroom, attached to the drawing-room, was given to us. There were two bedrooms. In one I slept with my younger brother and my cousin slept on the other. After dinner, we went to the bedroom and the three of us were chatting till midnight. We went to bed around 1 a. m. There was a  table in the room and I placed my briefcase, money bag, a book and a wristwatch on it. After about an hour,  we heard the barking of a dog outside. The dog was tied with a rope in the courtyard. It was around 2 pm.

Suddenly I heard someone opening the door of our room from inside. I jumped down from the bed and called my cousin. But meanwhile, the thief had made a good escape. We ran to him shouting as ‘thief, thief’! It was raining then. After running ahead of a little, he slipped and fell. We ran up to him and caught the thief. He broke into the house and ran away with my briefcase, money bags and wristwatch. He was confused and fell at our feet but we did not like to show him any mercy.

My uncle and aunt were sleeping in their room but they woke up when we came back with the thief. My uncle called the police on the telephone.  The Police Superintendent came accompanying three constables and we handed over the thief to the police. The incident instilled excitement in the neighbourhood. 0 0 0

If I Were a King

Introduction: Democracy is said to be the best form of government. People believe that the best form of government is the government of the people, by the people and for the people. The only road to peace, prosperity and happiness lies in a democratic way of life. Therefore, kings are out of place in the world today. The glory and pomp of the monarchy is a thing of the past. No king can have absolute power. He has to submit to the wishes of the people.

My View of a King: A king owns a kingdom for himself to rule. He has powers, wealth and influence. He has countless servants and attendants. But royalty is not a bed of roses. A king cares and worries. It is said  ‘the uneasiness rests on the head that wears the crown’. The state is a big house. The king is its head and the people are his children. It is the duty of the king to look after the welfare and to fulfil the primary needs of his subjects. Vikramaditya, Rama and Ashoka were the ideal kings of ancient India.

If I were the king of India, I would do everything possible for peace, happiness and all-around welfare of my subjects. I have got some plans and I will try to implement them. Some of my plans are as follows:

Government: The form of government will be democratic. The state should be secular. No communal question will ever arise regarding the duties and benefits of the citizens. There will be complete freedom of opinion and worship. Politics would be free from religious predilection.

Food and clothing: First of all, I shall try my best to provide sufficient food and clothing to my subjects.  For this, I shall introduce modern technology in agriculture and give all the facilities to the peasants. There will be no more poverty. We should make our own food. All types of industries would be developed under the control of the state. We can produce our own cotton and get our clothes from handlooms and mills. The mills should be owned by the state.

Education: Education would be free and compulsory. People should be trained in various branches of education: technical, scientific, literary etc. After education, all the students should be able to live a comfortable life and provide useful service to society. Everyone will enjoy equal privileges. Youth should be given compulsory military training. The cleanliness of the country should be improved. Steps should be taken to make the country both physically and mentally healthy. All kinds of social evils have to be overcome. All Indians should have a common language. There should be a system to educate the public and raise their standard of living.

Foreign Policy: Internal peace and prosperity is not enough to make a state ideal. I should also develop international goodwill. I am a lover of peace. Peace will be the primary concern of my foreign policy. Of course, my country will always resist aggression of any kind. The state will take all measures to protect the country.

Conclusion: These are some of my plans. My idea is to make the country a paradise on earth. Hunger, illiteracy and diseases are traditional problems of India. My aim will be to bring about a holistic improvement of my land based on Indian culture and heritage. People should live in peace and prosperity. I may not be able to convert all my plans into action, but I will try my best to bring my ideas into reality. 0 0 0

Health is Wealth

Introduction: ‘Health’ refers to the state of being free from illness both mental and physical. A popular proverb says, ‘Health is wealth’. There is a universality of this saying. None can ignore it anyway. Nothing can be achieved without health. Life without health is a burden. A healthy man is ever happy. An unhealthy person suffers from many diseases and his life becomes miserable. So to maintain health, we should be careful from our childhood. To succeed in the world, we have to struggle hard and for this, we need good health.

Path to Health: We should carefully observe the rules of conservation of health. For this, we can follow  the following instructions:

First, we should be regular and moderate in our habits. We should breathe pure air. A morning walk in the fresh open air is essential for health.

Secondly, impure water being the source of many painful diseases,  we should use pure water. We can purify water by filtering and boiling it.

Thirdly, we should eat nutritious food. Our food should be well cooked and chewed well and it should be digestible. We should take our food regularly at certain times. Overeating is harmful to health. We should never take alcohol. 

Fourthly, we should do regular exercise to make our body healthy and strong. We should play healthy games and participate in sports. Overwriting, over-exercise and overwork are also bad for health. So we should avoid such habits. Flawless entertainment is essential for health.

Fifthly, we must maintain cleanliness in everything. We should keep our surrounding neat and clean. 

Sixthly,  our homes must be high and dry. They should be well ventilated and keep clean. Humid and sick airy houses bring in disease. We must follow the maxim, ‘early to bed and early to rise makes a man perfect and happy’.

Conclusion: Students should take care of their health. Recovering lost health is very difficult. Prevention is better than cure. Without health, students cannot study and cannot expect to do anything good and great. They should be very careful with regard to diet and exercise. They should remember that health is wealth. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Obedience to Parents

Introduction: ‘Obedience’ refers to the behaviour that is respectful and mindful to rules and laws, to authority and to our ever well-wishers. It is a great quality. Without obedience, society cannot exist even for a day. We should be obedient to our well-wishers especially to our parents and teachers.

Our Parents: We owe our existence to our parents in the world. They are living gods and goddesses for us. When we were younger our parents took care of us. They love us very much. They wish our welfare. Our parents feed us and do their best to give us a good education. Our parents love us more than themselves. They know better what is good for us and what is not. They are also ready to give up their lives to make us happy. They are happy if we are great and good. They give up food and do not go to sleep if we are sick.  Our parents feel happy when we are happy, and they are sad when we are upset. Their love for us never diminishes. Mother’s affection for us knows no bounds. Without their care, we could not have life even one day when we were very young. God sent them down for us.

Our Duty: Parents are our selfless friends. Therefore, it is our first duty to obey our parents. We should do what they want us to do and avoid those things that they forbid us to do. We should follow them and respect them.  It is our duty to make them happy and thankful in every way. The lives of great men teach us that they were good sons of their parents. Displacing parents means displeasing the gods and goddesses. If we follow our parents then we can prosper in life. Likewise, we should also be obedient to our teachers because they are our well-wishers and wants us to be better humans. 

Disobedience: Disobeying parents is a major sin. Disobedient children are the most ungrateful creatures on earth. They are base. They remain very sad and die miserably. They can never improve in life. 

Conclusion: To make our life meaningful and happy we must obey our parents. 0 0 0

The Value of Labour (Industry)

Introduction: ‘Industry’ (labour)  means useful physical or mental work. The proverb says  ‘Industry is the mother of good fortune’. This is true to a large extent. If we work hard we make sure to be successful.

Utility: Life becomes meaningful through work. There can be neither health nor wealth without labour. No one can ever become great without industry. Many common people became very great and were famous for hard working. A hardworking man can make his own fortune. 

God has given us strength and ability and we should practise them. It is a law of nature that humans should work to meet their needs.  ‘Eat your bread in the sweat of your face’, says the Bible. Farmers have to work hard for their crops, fishermen for their fishes and students for success in their examinations. A hardworking person benefits not only himself but also his society. The farmers feed us, weavers weave clothes for us.  Without industry progress is impossible. All great things on earth are the result of industry. Glorious nations can increase in fame and wealth. Industry brings health, wealth, greatness and makes life happier. Industry has created the civilization of the world. Its success and progress are all due to labour. It enables us to live and enjoy life.

Evils of Idleness: Proverbs states, ‘A sleeping fox does not catch any chicken’. This is true to a great extent. There can be no success without labour. There is no fruit without suffering. A  man who does not work has no right to enjoy the product to others. He depends on others.  Dependence on others is not only a shame but also a curse on one’s personality. It is rightly said that fate favours the brave alone. A passive man can never progress in life. His life is worthless. Many intelligent but worthless individuals spent their lives in misery. Work is life, laziness is death and laziness brings sickness and decline. A passive mind is the Devil’s workshop.

Conclusion: It is our duty to be hardworking. The fruits of the industry are very sweet. We can make ourselves and our society happy by doing hard labour. 0 0 0


Introduction: Perseverance is the habit of working patiently, in spite of some failures, till the work is accomplished. We start the work and we fell down doing it once or twice or thrice. But if we are still trying until the work is finished it is called perseverance.

Utility: All properties depend on one attribute of persistence. It never fails to bring us success. This is the secret of success. No great work can be done without perseverance. The world is full of dangers and difficulties. Perseverance can only overcome them. If we get frustrated with failure then we can never achieve success in life. All great actions are the result of perseverance. Perseverance helps us to increase our superiority. All the discoveries and inventions of the world have been done by men of perseverance.

Men of Perseverance: A man of perseverance does not care about failure or difficulties. He never loses heart but completes his work patiently and carefully until it is completed. He fails but tries again. His success is sure. He knows that failure is the basis of success and no great work can be done in a day. His patience is never lost and in the end, he is crowned with success. All the great men of the world were men of perseverance.

Without perseverance, no person can do anything big. He starts the work but leaves it unfinished, for want of patience. He has no strong will and therefore cannot do anything for a long time. He is afraid of the outcome that he cannot do any great work. Men fail because they do not stand firm in overcoming hardship.

Examples: Life of great men show us the value of perseverance. Napoleon came to power on the basis of tenacity. The story of Robert Bruce and Spider for the independence of his country is a popular example of perseverance. His perseverance, after all, brought him grand success. He succeeded in his seventh attempt. Columbus was a man of perseverance and so he could discover America and immortalize his name. The lives of great men show that perseverance was at the core of their success.

Conclusion: No great work can be done without perseverance. If we want to do great things, we must learn to persevere. We should not care about difficulties or failure. If we try we will be successful in the end. 0 0 0


Introduction: ‘Self-help’ means the use of one’s own effort and resources to achieve something without relying on others. It is a habit of standing on one’s own feet. Self-help is a great virtue.

Utility: God has given us strength and intelligence. The Bible inculcates us to earn our bread with the sweat of our forehead. It is our duty to do our own work and not depend on others for help. We should try to stand on our own feet. Self-help gives us strength, self-respect and satisfaction. A man who does his work himself can be successful. They are not afraid of difficulties. The lives of great men tell us that they all depend on their abilities. No work is good until we do it ourselves. There is nothing sweeter than what we earn from the sweat of our foreheads.

Want of Self-help: Every man should bear his own burden. Relying on another is a curse. Self-help strengthens our character, while help from outside weakens us. There are some weak-minded people who cannot do any work without the help of others. They do not exercise their power. They depend on others for the tasks they can do themselves. These men can never do a big job. They have no strength of mind. They become dormant and servile. Their lives become useless.

Self-help Student Life: The habit of self-help should be acquired in childhood. Children should learn to do their own work. Without self-help, no man, no nation can be elevated in the world. Students who are always dependent on others suffer for a long time. We feel proud and happy doing our work ourselves. It may be difficult work, yet at first, we should try to do it ourselves.

If we try our best to do something, the world will help us. Self-help leads to success in life. It makes our mind and character strong. Therefore we should depend on our right hand. ‘Self-help is the best help’.

Conclusion: We should remember always that self-help is the best help and the right key to success in life. 0 0 0


Introduction: ‘Unity’ refers to the state of being united. It is integrity with nothing wanting.  Sometimes we cannot do work alone but that can be done with the help of others. Unity is a habit of working together.

Utility: We understand the value of the union. A man cannot bear a heavy burden but if many people try it, they can do it easily. A person cannot protect his country. This can be done when people are united together. It is difficult to break a bundle of sticks, but a single stick can be broken easily. Unity gives us strength. Not every grass is strong, but when the rope is made by them, an elephant can be tied with it. Everything can be done by virtue of unity.

History gives us many examples of the value of unity. By association, many countries have become powerful and prosperous. Again many countries have become weak for being divided among themselves. If the members of a family live together and help each other, they can prosper. But if they do not live together and do not help each other, they become weaker.  The English have become the most prosperous nation for their unity. A poor man does not have enough money to start a business, but if one hundred poor men unite their money they can start a business. 

Unity is also found among the lower animals. If we look at the honey bees we see that they work in harmony. Likewise, we can learn a lesson of unity from the ants.

Conclusion: The value of unity is great. Unity leads us to prosperity. Hence the proverb says rightly, ‘United we stand and divided we fall.’ 0 0 0


Introduction: ‘Truthfulness’ is a trait of character or personality of a person of being honest and reliable to others by means of speaking the turth’.  If we speak what is right then we speak the truth. This is a great virtue. A true man will never tell a lie. He does what he says.

Value of Truthfulness: Truthfulness is a virtue and this virtue can be learnt by practice and determination.  A man who always speaks the truth is really a  man of strong character. His life becomes glorious. A true man never cheats anyone. He keeps his point. So people depend on what he says. A true man may be poor, yet he is respected by all. A true man can achieve success in business, lead a peaceful and happy life. Everyone is happy to help him. Everyone loves to deal with him. A truthful man is also a man of honesty. He dislikes everything which is fake or fraudulent.

Liar: A liar is not liked by anyone. Nobody believes him. He has a weak character. He is dishonest. A dishonest man cannot shine in business. A liar can achieve success for a short time but in the long run, he is out of it. A liar does not lead a beautiful life. He is always afraid of being found outside. We all know the story of the shepherd boy and the wolf. The boy lost his life by lying. The liar is not believed even when telling the truth. 

Conclusion: A true man is respected and loved by all, while a liar is insulted and hated by all. Therefore, all of us should try to cultivate the habit of truthfulness. 0 0 0


Introduction: ‘Temperance’ refers to moderation in eating and drinking. This includes habit orientation and especially abstinence from eating and drinking too much. In a broader sense, moderation includes restraint in everything. Temperance is a virtue.

How to Practice: We eat to live, not live to eat. Temperance can be practised at any time without the expense of money. Nature delights in the simple diet. A man should know-how and in what proportion it is best for him to eat and drink. Temptation comes to us but we must fight it with determination to win. Many drunkards improve their lives with sobriety and many regained their lost health by following the rules of temperance.

Usefulness: Moderation makes our mind and body healthy. It gives us a long life. It protects us from many diseases. Medicines are indeed essential to get rid of illnesses but men who live in habitual courses of exercise and abstinence hardly need it. Medicine is, for the most part, nothing but an alternative to abstinence. A man of restraint habit can lead a happy life. He attains peace of mind and progress in life. 

Excessive smoking and drinking are various forms of intemperance.  Intemperance kills human beings inch by inch. A man of intemperate habit suffers his entire life. He lives a miserable life, he can do nothing great. He cannot live long. An alcoholic is hated by all. He kills himself and brings poverty, misery and ruin to the family. Excess of a good thing is also evil.

Conclusion: Childhood, especially student life is the proper time of learning and practising temperance. If we are accustomed to it once then it can be a lifelong virtue. The parents and teachers should inculcate this lesson of temperance on children from their childhood. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Cleanliness is a habit of keeping the body and things of daily use free from dirt. A proverb says, ‘Cleanliness is next to Godliness.’ For this, we have to bathe daily, rub our bodies well and keep our clothes, rooms, utensils, food etc. clean and hygienic.

Benefits: Cleanliness is considered a religious duty. Those who maintain cleanliness in body and things, they are pure in mind also. Cleanliness enhances our moral and spiritual life. Hindus never do any religious work without bathing. Muslims wash their hands and feet before prayer. Men with dirty habits cannot have a pure character.

Cleanliness is a necessary condition for good health. Dirty habits spoil our health, while cleanliness promotes this. Dirty clothes, unclean bodies and unclean foods are very injurious to health. If we wash our body properly, then impurities cannot remain in us. It helps in the free circulation of blood. Our clothes and beds should be clean and tidy. We should keep our rooms free of dirt. When we eat food in a dirty room, dirt and germs of disease fly into our food. When we eat this unclean food, we get sick. So we should keep our house and surroundings clean and hygienic.  In dirty places germs of disease flourish. If we are clean and hygienic in our habits, we can be free from disease and lead a happy life. A sound and clean body have a healthy and pure mind.

Cleanliness commands respect also. Everyone likes a man of clean habits. A person who is dirty in his body and dress is intolerable to others. He can spread the germs of disease. Dirty men are hated by all, while clean men are respected and liked everywhere.

Conclusion: Dirty persons suffer from various types of diseases. An epidemic first occurs in the dirty quarters. Therefore, we should practise this habit of cleanliness from our childhood. In this respect, the parents and teachers should motive the children from their initial stage of life. 0 0 0


Introduction: Duty is a task or action that one requires to perform. It may be either a   moral or legal responsibility. Life means work. So everyone, as a social being, has certain duties to perform. 

Types of Duty: Duties are of many types. We have a duty to our country, to our parents, to our teachers, to God etc. God is the creator of this universe and He has given us life. Therefore, it is our duty to worship Him. In our childhood, our parents took care of us. Therefore, it is our duty to respect them and take care of them in their old age. It is the duty of a student to respect his teachers and prepare their daily lessons.  It is the duty of a servant to obey his master and be faithful to him. It is a sacred duty of all to love our country, help the poor and the needy. It is our duty to be just and truthful. In this way, every man has his own duty for his neighbours, for his country and for God. Thus life is a bundle of duties.

Characteristics of a Dutiful Person: A dutiful person is not afraid of danger and difficulties. He only knows his duty and fulfils it at all costs. All the great men of the world were dutiful above all things. Many patriots sacrificed themselves to save their country. He worked for the good of the country and had a sense of duty. A country is risen to a higher level by means of its dutiful citizens. They are honest, truthful and noble. A dutiful man is honoured both in life and death. A man’s life is full of duties and he who does his duty can only rise to name and fame.

Conclusion: The performance of duties gives pure enjoyment of life. Duty builds our character. God has given each man some duties to perform and he should perform them according to his abilities. To be dutiful, we must cultivate the qualities of honesty, truthfulness, obedience, discipline etc. Life is full of duties and the performance of our duties makes us happy and thus duty makes our life meaningful. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Habit is a settled tendency to do or practise certain things regularly which can hardly be given up. Habits are formed by repetition. If a man does the same thing again and again, it becomes a habit with him. If a boy is made to get up early in the morning for a few days, it will gradually become a habit with him and later he will get up early on his own. 

Significance of Habit: Habit makes everything easy. Man’s life is a bundle of good or bad habits. We are all slaves of habits and habits determine our character. Habits are easily formed but once they are formed it is difficult to give up. So usually our future life is made according to the habits we have formed in our early years. The habit once formed becomes a part of our nature.

Good Habits: There are good habits and bad habits. If we form good habits, we can become good men. If a boy makes a habit of telling the truth, he will always be truthful and he will never tell a lie. A good man is one who has formed many good habits. He has good conduct and character and is therefore loved and respected by all. He can improve in life. Sometimes we have to resist temptation and face some troubles in order to form good habits. But we should do them if we want to be good men.

Bad habits: Men with bad habits are bad men. Stealing, lying, smoking etc. are bad habits. Bad habits are very difficult to shake off. A man of bad habits talks about all kinds of bad things. He has no strength of mind. He is easily led to temptation, his life is spoiled. Bad habits are formed easily but very hard to shake off. So we did not repeat anything bad.

Conclusion: We should try to make good habits early in life. All bad habits should be abandoned. We usually imitate others. So we should not mix with men of bad habits. Habits build character and without good habits, our lives have no value. The aim of education is to create good habits and take out the bad ones. The parents and teacher should instruct the children to form good habits from early in life. 0 0 0

Social Service

Introduction: Social service refers to the activities or services for the welfare of a society or community. Man is a social being. He does not live alone. He lives in a society. If a  part of his society suffers from some trouble, he may also be affected by the trouble. So sometimes a member of society should do something for every member of society to live a happy social life.

Significance of Social Service: Social service is a great quality. Great men do not live only for themselves or for fame. They are always motivated to work for the good of others. Social service is the best part of education. It makes society better. It instils a sense of universal brotherhood. It removes narrowness from our mind and brings us heavenly bliss. Serving men means serving God. Everyone can serve in their own way. All the great men like Hazrat Muhammad, Guru Nanak, Mahatma Gandhi, Mother Teresa, Jesus Christ, Florence Nightingale dedicated their lives for the good of human society and they are immortal. Social workers try to bring peace and order to the world and they reduce human suffering. There can be no greater virtue than to liberate humanity from suffering.

For Students: The main duty of a student is to study. But social service is an essential part of education. Along with their studies, they should do some work for the betterment of society. Social service provides scope for creative thinking. Students can help their neighbours in crisis. During the holidays, they can do something to improve the village. Collective illiteracy is the biggest problem in India. Villagers are generally ignorant and pathetic. In collaboration with the villagers, a band of ready workers can open a night school. Every year people suffer from malaria and epidemics and die prematurely. Students can explain the primary rules of public health.  A little organized work and eagerness suffice for its purpose. This will provide a good discipline for them.

Conclusion: It is said that as is the society so is its inhabitants. So we should try to render some services for the betterment of our society and this habit of doing good to society should be formed from student life. 0 0 0

A Gentleman

Introduction: A person possessing some humane qualities as honesty,  humbleness, kindness, generosity, sobriety, courage, self-respect, self-reliance, morality, impartiality etc. is called a gentleman. One does not become a gentleman by birth or wealth. Money and rank have no essential relationship with real gentlemanly qualities. Only he who does gentle deeds can be called a gentleman. A poor man can be a true gentleman in spirit and everyday life.

Essential Qualities: To be a true gentleman, one must be honest,  humble, sober, courageous, self-respecting and self-reliant. A true gentleman is never mean and never takes unfair advantage. He has no ear to condemn and makes the best explanation for everything. A gentleman never hurts others. He does not give in derogatory words to anyone. He is liberal-minded. He is kind and also considerate to enemies. He does not insult anyone. He is also kind to animals. He is not distracted by success, he is not depressed by failure. He does not boast of his wealth or his strength. He keeps his promise and never tells a lie. He is never cruel and forgives those who try to harm him. A true gentleman never laughs at the guilt of others. He does not make any rude remarks and respects all religions. He is kind and sympathetic to his subordinate. He is a friend of the poor and the weak. A man possessing these fine qualities is a true gentleman whatever his post maybe.

A man is not just a gentleman because he has a good income, lives in a good style and has a good appearance. A poor man may have a more gentlemanly quality than a rich man.

Conclusion: A true gentleman leads a pure and honest life. He respects everyone and judges everything with wisdom. Everybody should try to be a gentleman in the truest sense. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: Thrift means the habit of saving something for the future. This is a very good habit. We should save something from our earnings for the future.

Utility: There are many ups and downs in life. We do not know what waits for us in the future. We must live within our means and try to save something for future needs. In our old age, we cannot work and our income decreases. We have to educate our children. We have to give our daughters in marriage, we can fall ill and some accidents can happen. We need money for all these things. If we make provision for them in times of being young and active, we will never be in trouble. It is our duty to lay by something for the rainy days. A wise man saves something from his earnings and he never suffers in bad times.

Extravagance: Some people do not know the right use of money. They spend their money right and left. They spend their money on luxury and pride. They do not think about the future. Consequently, in their old age, they get into great trouble. They spend money on useless things and later, they do not get money to buy useful things. Wastage leads to waste.  They later repent for their stupidity.   An extraordinary millionaire can also be reduced to a street beggar. The man who spends all that he earns is poorer than the man who earns less but saves some from his small income. Many millionaire’s wives and children become street beggars.

Conclusion: Everyone should practise the habit of saving. The habit should be formed from an early age. In old age, we become feeble to earn money and there are circumstances over which we have no control. So, a wise person makes provision for the future. 0 0 0

Kindness to Animals

Introduction: God is the creator of all things including the vast universe.  All the creatures big g or small are like the children of God. He loves them very much.

Being kind: If we are kind to animals then we definitely please God by loving His children. Animals can feel pleasure and pain as we do it. When beaten or otherwise ill-treated they weep quietly and suffer. We can misbehave with them because we have more power than those dumb creatures. Our action is definitely sinful. To behave badly with an animal is to be more cowardly.

Many of the animals are very useful to us. We cannot do without them. The cow gives us milk. The bull ploughs our fields and enables us to grow our crops. The horse takes us on its back and pulls our carts. The camel takes us across the desert. Some animals are useful in both life and death. They work for us from morning till night. They rarely do us any harm. We should be grateful and kind to them in every way. We should treat them well, give them adequate food and look after them.

Cruelty: There are men who are very cruel towards animals. Some children give pain to small birds and insects. They enjoy these cruel games. They are no better than animals. We are generally cruel towards animals. We sacrifice them in the altar of the gods and goddess. We eat the meat of some of them. Caterers and ploughmen sometimes beat their bulls very brutally. If we are kind to animals, they will love us and if we are cruel to them, they will try to harm us. They can know our kindness and cruelty.

Conclusion: We are the children of the same God.  The animal is a dumb creature. They cannot express their feelings in words. So only the cowards and fools mistreat them. Many of the animals are of great use to us. So we should be kind to these useful and animals as beloved creatures of God. 0 0 0


Introduction:  Money is a legal medium of exchange in the form of coins, banknotes, cheque etc circulated by the superior authority of a country. Money, besides being a medium of transaction, is a unit of accounting and a store of value.

Importance of Money: Money is a very important thing. The whole world runs on the strength of money. It is a means of exchange. It helps to supply our material needs and progress society. Our peace and happiness depend on the right use of money. Those who have money are called rich. The rich can lead to a fine life. Those who have no money are called poor and they lead a pathetic life. They cannot purchase the necessities of life. The benefit of money gives us happiness and the loss of it breaks our heart. Some lucky individuals can get money from their parents but in fact, the money is earned by labour. People make money through trade, agriculture and other business.

Good Use: Money is a blessing if we can use it properly. Money should be spent on our health, education and other necessities of life. Money must be spent for a high and noble cause. A monk can do much good for his society and thus he can earn a name and fame. With money, we can help the needy, feed the hungry, educate the mass, relieve the sick and help the victims in many ways. All dignitaries spend their money on charity for the upliftment of humanity. They establish schools, hospitals and other useful institutions. Thus they use money properly and they become immortal. Money gives us an opportunity to do good works and earn fame. Religion says that helping the poor is like lending to the Lord.

Abuse: Money is a dangerous weapon in the hands of evil men. It becomes a curse. Bad men use their wealth to persecute the weak and the helpless. Money makes them proud. With the help of money, they kill men, commit great injustice, indulge in luxury and commit all kinds of sins. Thus they misuse the money. They harm others and ruin themselves.

Some people collect money for the love of it. They themselves do not enjoy it nor do they help others. There is no use of that money. This is an abuse of money.

Conclusion: We should earn money from labour and honest works. We should not try to make money in evil ways. Money should be spent only on the essentials of life and not on luxury. The money we save should be spent on good causes.0 0 0

Amusement | Entertainment

Introduction: ‘Amusement is a provision of entertainment that makes us forget boredom after labour and makes our body and mind relaxed. Entertainment gives us joy, new strength and health.

Types of Amusement: Everyone wants amusement. There are different types of amusement like sports, cinema, circus, music etc. Amusement like cricket, football, horse riding, swimming gives us happiness and health. Entertainments like cinema, circus, cards bring us joy and relax our minds. Rural entertainment varies from city entertainment.

Importance of Amusement: The world is full of cares and concerns. We have to struggle hard in life. But if we keep working without rest, we cannot work long. Our work will not interest us. Life will become dull. Our work cannot be done properly. We are not machines. Our health will be broken. Entertainment restores our health and gives us new strength. So entertainment is equally essential as work. After hard work, we need a rest and some entertainment. Entertainment breaks the monotony of work and we relax our mind and body. Entertainment removes our cares and concerns and gives us new energy and we can work hard again with more interest. So entertainment makes life enjoyable and happy.

Good Amusement and Bad Amusement: There are good amusement and bad amusement. Flawless and healthy entertainment gives us happiness and health. Bad entertainment like alcohol, gambling etc. can give us happiness for the time being but they spoil our health and weaken our character. Good entertainment is necessary for everyone, but bad entertainment should be carefully avoided.

Conclusion: Students should have impeccable and healthy entertainment. Indoor games make us happy and relax our mind. Outdoor sports also make our body strong. Too much entertainment is not good. We must be careful that entertainment cannot harm us. 0 0 0

The Study of Science

Introduction: Science is the systematic study through observation and experiment of the laws behind the working of things. The main business of science is to know the laws and control the forces of Nature. Man is ever trying to control Nature. But she refuses to reveal her secrets to us. The study of science involves careful observation of the things of Nature. Nature is full of beauty and wonder and science has allowed us to delve into its mysteries.

Miracles of Science: Wherever we lay our eyes, we see the victory of science. The history of human civilization is a record of the achievement of science. Science has enabled man to bring the forces of nature under his control and use them for material prosperity. It has brought remote parts of the world closer to each other. It is through that effort of science that the train runs, an aeroplane flies and a wireless machine operates. Science has explored new ways of health. Miraculous treatment of some acute diseases has become possible due to the discovery of some amazing medicines. The science of engineering has enabled us to build a huge structure. The printing press has changed the character of our lives. Mobile phone has become an integral part of our daily lives along with television and the internet. Water power has served to help agriculture and industrial production.  The findings of science are challenging our old beliefs. We no longer see Nature as an arbitrary force. We come to know that nature is governed by a body of well-regulated laws. Modern science has put new weapons at our disposal to fight against poverty, ignorance and superstition.

Utility: The study of science helps to develop our intellectual and moral features. It teaches us to do basic research. It makes us love what is right, just and true. It empowers us to have accurate observation and precise thinking. Science has done great service to humanity. It has made life easier and more comfortable. Science tries to meet our new needs. The present age is the era of science. Everyday life is connected to science in countless ways.

Conclusion: In this age of science everybody should study science to make our life happier, easier and more comfortable. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Study of Biography

Introduction: Biography is the story of a person’s life and deeds. It is a record of a man’s life, his successes and failures, his smile and tears, his hopes and aspires. 

Significance of Biography: The study of the biography of a great man is always a source of inspiration. Biography teaches us many lessons. Great men of the past reach our hearts through biographies. Biographies are not only wonderful works of art, but they are also highly useful human documents. They shape the lives of the future generation.

A man by nature, an exemplary creature. Many people have been inspired to do great works by reading the lives of great men in history and fiction. The life of great heroes like Rana Pratap Singh tells us that no sacrifice is too great, where the honour of one’s country is at stake.  The life of a great man tells us about his great qualities that made him famous. When we run into difficulties, examples of them come to our aid and inspire us with hope and courage.  An example is better than precept. The study of the life stories of great men leads us to the right path and show how we can make our lives sublime.

It is the work of biography to teach what man can be and what he can do.  The examples set by the great men do not die. There were great men like Ram Mohan Ray, a politician like Abraham Lincoln,  emperor like Ashoka, heroes like Harish Chandra, a revolutionary like Che Guevara, social reformers like Mahatma Gandhi and the religious leaders who have enriched humanity. They all struggled all their life to make the world a better place for humanity.

The study of their life stories can motivate us to do great humanitarian deeds like them. 

Conclusion: The biography of a great man is more interesting than history or novel. In the biography, we read about a man who loved people and worked for humanity. If we want to be great or better persons then we should follow the footsteps of great men. From the lives of great men, we find that they carefully studied the lives of their famous predecessors. The lives of great men tell us how to rise to the top and overcome difficulties.

Conclusion: We should study the biographies of the word personalities to learn great lessons because nothing can motivate and inspire us more intensely and deeply as the life stories of great men can do. 0 0 0

Military Training for Students

Introduction: In ancient times, military training was compulsory in some countries like Greece, Sparta, Rome etc. The Spartans compelled both boys and girls to undergo vigorous military training for some years. Today all civilized countries are trying to train young boys as soldiers by law.

Benefits: Military training builds the body of the nation. Regular parades and camp life affect new vitality in young men, making them strong and fit. They include a sense of discipline which is an integral part of a character. It develops a sense of self-reliance, self-control and self-respect. A civilized state can remain stable only when it rests on the solid foundation of disciplined people. A country that has given military training to its citizens will not need to bear the cost of maintaining a very large army. In the event of war, civilians would be called upon to join the country’s war forces.

Importance of Military Training: Military training is essential for the students of a country. Without national defense, freedom is always in peril. Therefore, to protect itself from foreign invasion, a country should have strong land, air, and naval forces. Winning freedom is not enough, but preserving it and keeping it working is a difficult task. It is a reasonable demand that the state should provide military training to all able men and women. According to the long tradition, India is a peaceful land and opposes all forms of oppression and aggression. The demand for military training overcomes the concern of protecting the country from internal disorders and external aggression. It is the duty of all to protect the honour of their motherland. It is wise to be prepared for all the sad turn of events.

Steps Taken: National Cadet Corps has been started in various provinces to provide military training for boys and girls. Joining the Corps is a voluntary task but here is a great chance for our boys and girls to receive serious military training.

Conclusion: It is expected that the government is considering the question of including military training within the curriculum. We should welcome this because we need a life of discipline, orderliness and obedience and only compulsory military training can instil these good qualities in students. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: War is an armed conflict between different countries or different groups within a country.  War is a horrible thing. Most wars in history were the outcomes of selfishness and longing for the power of some crazy leaders. 

Why Wars: There are wars and wars. There are wars to protect a country, its religion and oppression. War to fight against tyranny and oppression. Again wars occur to quench the thirst of some bloody imperialists. In history, we see that some strong nation under crazy leaders waged war with other countries and toppled down innocent humanity. Sometimes war may be necessary but there is nothing great or spectacular about war. War is always the expression of an animal in man.

Evils of it: There have been many wars in the world since ancient times. Ancient warfare was a martial and courtly practice. Citizens, in general, were not affected. But modern wars have completely fallen apart. It is the father of many evils – political, religious and economic. The battlefield is a ghostly scene of defeat and destruction. Thousands of people die of starvation, disease, or sufferance. Thousands of homes and families are clean out of existence. The main business of war is to destroy cities,  burn croplands, turn fruitful areas into deserts, etc. War multiplies widows and orphans. Certainly, war is abominable. Every war costs a huge amount of money and lives. After the war,  the government imposes all kinds of taxes on the people. The prices of all commodities go up. As a direct effect of the war, trade and commerce get badly affected. Industries are disorganized and the progress of a nation stops suddenly. War is the enemy of culture. In times of war, all schools and colleges remain closed. Such are the evils of war.

Conclusion: The victory of peace is better than the victory of war. Both warring parties are equally afflicted and have to pay the price for their stupidity. Yet each war only leads to the next. Therefore, the leaders should learn the lesson from history that war brings no good to humanity but chaos, death, and destruction. They should find out the points of contention among nations and solve them in some amicable and peaceful ways and take a vow to avoid war anyway. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Technical Education

Introduction: Technical education means that type of education which teaches us some useful arts. It is training in practical arts and science. Education commonly imparted in schools is called ‘literal education’. Technical education is practical. It enables students to do certain things and makes them qualified to enter a career with some previous practical knowledge. It is opposed to theoretical and literary education. Training in carpentry, agriculture, medicine, engineering etc. has been included in technical education. The purpose of vocational education is to equip men with the necessary training to earn a livelihood.

Usefulness: Technical education is very useful. The current education system cannot afford jobs for qualified students.  Lack of vocational education is responsible for the unemployment and poverty in our country. Technical education enables a person to earn his bread. Technical education imparts training in some specialized branches of industry. It is actually a trade or handicraft teaching. It acts as a bond between school and practical work. It teaches a person the principles and practices of the business in which he is trained. People with technical education are essential for increasing industrial production in the age of competition. It helps in the development of the prosperity of a country.

Conclusion: Agriculture is the mainstay of India. There are few agricultural colleges in India.  Mahatma Gandhi’s Wardha Scheme is based on the principle that education should be related to the practical needs of society. In free India, we need more artisans, engineers, miners, and technicians to make our economic fortune. Therefore we want more schools, colleges, and institutions for technical education. Technical education can be made a part of high school training so that every boy and girl leaving school can embark on some job by himself. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


Introduction: A home is the permanent residence of a person and consists of family members to whom he belongs. A house that gives us only shelter cannot be called a home. A home is a lovely place where we live with our parents, brothers, sisters and other nearest relatives.

Love at home: At home, we are born in our childhood in the lap of an affectionate mother and under the care of a loving father. At home, we spend the happy days of our childhood. Many sweet memories or our past lives are associated with it. So home is a big attraction for us. We are naturally attracted to a home. We think that there is no more sacred place than a home. We love everything at home. A man can live in the desert, yet he thinks that it is the best place on earth. When we are away from  ‘home’, we remember pleasant memories associated to home. We miss our loving parents and beloved brothers and sisters while away from home. We like to go back there. Home is our earthly paradise. 

Its Effects: Home has a great influence on us. A man’s character is formed in his childhood. Home is the place where a child’s future is made. We get instructions in school but we learn many other fundamental things at home. A child is fond of imitating others. Examples of virtue or vice, everything he sees or hears mould his character spontaneously. So if parents are good then children become good. Our mothers can build our character at home. Many have become great only because of their mothers at home. If the people at home are bad then the children become bad.  Therefore, parents should lead a pure life and set good and great examples for their children. They should train their children well at home. A good home is a sacred place. A man is lucky if he lives in such a home.

The house is dull without children. For fathers traveling abroad, memories of home are associated with their beloved children. Children also help make the home happy. Good children multiply the blessings of a home. If children are good and obedient then the parents are happy. A home with bad children is as miserable as hell.

Conclusion: We are naturally fond of home and we should love our home. But we should not be homesick. Some idle and vulnerable people do not like to love their homes. We cannot praise them. Everybody should love his home and try to make it a happier one. 0 0 0

Use of Books

Introduction: Book is a written work either hand-written or printed consisting of pages glued or sewn along one side and bound in a cover. Books contain knowledge and information on various subjects which contribute to the dissemination of knowledge and information from generation to generation.

Significance of Books: Books record what men have seen, heard, thought or discovered. The knowledge and experience of one generation is passed on to the future generations through books and thus books help in the progress of civilization. The best books are those from which the reader gathers the most useful knowledge and greatest inspiration. There are books for all times and interests.

The was that books are used for us are numerous. Books are the only means to enter into the thoughts of great men of all ages. Books never fail. Books are said to be the best friends which never betray us. The purpose of books is to impart knowledge. While we read a book we forget the cares and concerns of our busy lives and live in an elevated environment in the company of great men of the past.  The noble thoughts of great men mould our character and personality.

Types of Books: There are various types of books as–books of science, history, geography, philosophy, literature, entertainment etc. Science tells us about the discoveries and inventions made by scientists. Medical science tells us about various diseases and their treatment. History is said to be the books of philosophy by examples.  Poetry takes us to higher realms. 

There are books for entertainment. We need entertainment for the mind as we need physical exercise for the body. There are also books of biography, travel and fiction. Biography acts as a beacon of light in our journey through life. Reading about foreign countries and foreign customs opens the mind. Reading literature as a novel, story, drama etc. expands our knowledge of humanity. A light novel is the easiest way to spend one’s vacation. 

Conclusion: Men read books according to their tastes and interests. It is said that a man is known by the company he keeps. This is true to books also. We can say that a man is known by the type of books he reads. We should form the habit of reading books from our early life. 0 0 0


Introduction: Contentment is a state of being happy and satisfied with what a person has. Contentment enables a person to tolerate the hardships and sorrows faced in life with patience. He is satisfied with his own lot.

A  Blessing: Contentment is the source of all happiness. A satisfied mind is a constant feast. Contentment is the best feeling that we can hope for in life. It is better than wealth. Money cannot give us true happiness. Contentment does not bring wealth but eliminates the desire for that which is more valuable. Contentment is natural wealth, luxury is artificial poverty. A man may have health and wealth, yet he cannot be contented with what he has. On the other hand, a poor man who can hardly meet both ends can be a contented man.  Such men have no peace. He who is always trying to increase his wealth can not be a happy man.

But contentment does not mean that we should remain idle being satisfied with what we have without trying to improve ourselves. If one does so, it is wrong contentment.

Conclusion: Contentment comes from the mind but it can be developed.  If a man compares himself to a man who is less fortunate, he will not feel very dissatisfied with himself. Therefore to be happy in life we must feel contentment with what we have and try to improve ourselves by honest means. 0 0 0

Importance of Sports 

Introduction: Sports are physical activities with the entertainment of an individual or team that competes against another individual or a group of individuals.  Usually ‘sports’  refers to some outdoor exercises that make us happy. 

Types of Sports: There are different types of sports such as: running, racing, athletics, swimming, boxing etc.  These are outdoor sports and they provide us with entertainment. These sports entertain both spectators and players. In addition, sports provide an opportunity to show certain talents of the participants.

Importance of Sports: Sports are important for us. Because we do not always like to be confined to our regular lives. Sometimes we get tired. Life then becomes dull and boring. Sports make our body and mind fresh and relaxed. They enable us to forget our busy lives for some time and encourage us to resume our tasks. Thus, sports provide pleasure with diversion.

The harmonious and balanced development of both body and mind brings happiness to us and we derive them from sports. We know that too much mental exercise without any physical exercise ruins our health. When we exercise our organs along with the exercise of the mind, we become strong and active in both body and mind. Sports carry this practice to our organs. It builds our muscles and gives us the energy to work. 

All schools, colleges, and universities there are provision of various sports for students. These educational institutions arrange annual sports week for the students. Nowadays students also participate in sports like football, volleyball, race, tennis, cricket etc. Rural sports meetings are also held under the patronage of the government to entertain and please the rural people on one hand and to encourage the players interested in various sports on the other.

Sports teach us discipline. It trains and builds our character. Players always listen to the captain and the referee or umpire. Every game has an established set of rules. Players always have to follow those rules. When the games are played with interest and following the rules, the purpose of the games is served.  In this way, games teach us to control our nature and temptations. 

We have heard of the Olympic Games.  These are the games played between players from different countries of the world. The purpose of the Olympic Games and the Asian Games is to bring together players from all over the world. It creates an international unity and develops a universal brotherhood.

The government has also become aware of the value of sports. Hundreds and thousands of rupees are spent every year in the name of sports and games. 

Conclusion: Misbehavior and bad motives are harmful in sports. It spoils the spirit and ideals of the game. The students should be encouraged to participate in games and sports from their initial stages. 0 0 0


Introduction: Swimming is a physical activity of propelling oneself through water using the limbs. Swimming is liked by many of us. 

Swimming as an Art: Swimming, in the past, was considered to be a popular art. This art was highly acclaimed in ancient times. Swimming was essential when there was no bridge and no important system of communication. People living beside a river or a sea practised swimming. Most of these people could swim like frogs. But swimming is not an inborn habit. It requires practices. The more we take to swimming the more we become expert in it. To some people,  swimming become a passion.

Importance of Swimming: Some people practice swimming out of necessity while some practise it out of joy. Still swimming has been recognized as a good form of exercise. In swimming,  limbs are to be moved. It provides good exercise to our bodily organs. Any form of systematic and regular exercise is good for health, so also swimming helps us in improving our health.

Everybody should learn how to swim. The important requirements for swimming are good health and muscular strength.  Swimming is not only a form of exercise for pleasure, but it is a skill also. On some occasions, good swimmers are necessary for society. During floods, boat-wreck, shop-wreck etc. a healthy and clever swimmer proves to be of immense service to the people. 

Science has presented the world with easy and speedy means of communication on the land, sea and in space. In view of such improvements in communication, the importance of swimming is lessened. But this art cannot be totally rejected. To move on the sea we have ships, to cross rivers we have motorboats. Still swimming is essential. Nature is powerful enough to outdo the efficiency of anything and everything made by man. So, ship-wrecks and boat-wrecks are there on the sea and river. To rescue the people or to save the victims, we need people who are good swimmers. People working in defense service are trained in acquiring this art of swimming. Swimming had virtue in it. A good swimmer can save a drowning man. Thus he can give life to a dying man. A swimmer realizes the value of swimming. Swimming thus ennobles us and also gives us pleasure. Training and intelligence depend on becoming a good swimmer.

Swimming is practised in many ways. The chief and popular of those is the breast-stroke system. It is practical everywhere. It helps in saving a drowning man. Other strokes help us in gaining speed. The side-stroke is very pleasing but it makes the swimmer feel tired very soon. 

For fishermen and anglers, swimming is very important. In the Olympic and Asian Games, there is an event on swimming. In this age of specialization, the art of swimming has importance as it provides scope to specialize and to prove one’s capability. It is now considered  a part of games and sports. To swim across the English Channel is really a thrilling and exciting event. 

Conclusion: Nowadays swimming is a recognized form of sport. We should encourage our children to practise swimming.  0 0 0

School Essays Part -II


‘Obedience’ is the behaviour that is respectful and mindful to rules and laws, to an authority or to our ever well-wishers. Obedience is not servility. It is a virtue to live a happy, disciplined, and ordered social life.  

Obedience is important in every sphere of our lives: in school, college, army, family, sports etc. We should act according to the rules and orders set by the authorities.

The lesson of obedience begins at home. If the children or members of the family do not follow the rules of the family, there can be no peace and order in the family. 

The next stage where we can learn about the value of obedience is the society where we live in. To live in a society we must abide by some rules, conventions, rituals etc. Otherwise, our social life would turn into chaos.  

After home and society, we learn the lesson of obedience in school and college. Every educational institution has a set of rules and regulations and everybody must follow them. For example, the students must obey the teachers and their instructions. Otherwise, education is impossible.  

Similarly, there will always be chaos and if we do not follow the laws of the state. Obedience is the first condition of happiness.

Obedience builds our character. It trains our brain. It teaches us to control our passions and temptations. It is our social and human duty to obey our parents. They think and work for our good. Controlling our passions and temptations leads us ahead.  

We must exercise our discretion and judgment in being obedient. Obedience to foreign domination is not obedience. Lack of obedience in one’s decision becomes tyrannical. So we learn to obey orders with conscience and judgment. Obedience makes social life easier and binds one with the other.

Obedience is most important for students. If they are disobedient, they cannot learn anything and cannot build their character. Disobedient students become violent in nature and behaviour and they cause chaos and indiscipline in classrooms, in meetings,  in the examination hall and everywhere. Students are the future leaders and administrators of the country. If they do not make a habit of being obedient, then they may not have the virtue of commanding others. To command others is to learn to obey others. Obeying others is not a matter of shame or humiliation. It is a virtue that contributes to the happiness of our social life. 0 0 0


Utility of Leisure

‘Leisure’ means freedom from compulsory tasks or duties. It also refers to the time when a person is free from regular engagement for some time. In short, it means the amount of time when the mind and body are at rest. 

Life means work. Man has to fight hard for his existence. ‘The Theory of Evolution’ says that the most qualified and skilled creatures survive on this earth while others perish. Everybody can not comply with this theory but we can hardly deny the fact.

Vacation is necessary for all beings in this world. Man can be at work without rest. Such life becomes dull and short-lived.  A person is reduced to health when he is physically and mentally occupied with worldly concerns all the time. Then life would be a burden.  But we cannot get rid of work. Furthermore, man is not a robot, he cannot work all the time. 

Modern life is a busy life. We are in jail for this routine. Relaxation provides an opportunity to break out of this routine. Then the person can breathe free air and the wonders of Nature which provide relaxation to our body and mind. T

But how and when to take leisure? Life is no longer a bed of roses. Surviving becomes a difficult task. There is no system of compulsory slavery, yet we are slaves to ourselves. Therefore, there is difficulty in getting free time. Nevertheless, our work routine must be so well planned that we can get a few hours of rest. We may get a period of leisure, but if our mind is full of worries then it is not leisure. Leisure is a diversion of our mind and body from our routine work to something that provides us with relaxation and entertainment.

In industries, in offices, in educational institutions, in the army, in the navy, etc. – there is a provision of leisure everywhere. Schools and colleges are given holidays to make students happy and refreshed. Sitting six or seven hours in class without a break is really exhausting. Leisure helps in getting rid of this boredom. 

We should know how to spend and use our leisure time. For this, we should raise some hobbies. Lovers of books can turn pages of books. People with a poetic mind can enjoy the objects of Nature under the open sky.  Some people can play games and sports like football, volleyball, cricket, carom, walking etc. Of course, there are no rules or limits on how we should spend our leisure time. It depends on one’s interest and choice.

But If we can use our leisure time properly then it would be rewarding. All the ways of enjoying leisure time are good if they help us overcome our dullness and worries.

Leisure after our routine work is necessary but we should never try to run away from our important work on the pretext of leisure. It is to remember that they can enjoy leisure in the truest sense who are honest in performing their duties. 0 0 0

The Value of Experience in Life

‘Experience’ is the knowledge of an event or subject gained through involvement in it. In other words, to say, the experience is an impression fallen on someone by an event.

The world is full of wonders and mysteries. But our life is short. During this short time, a man has to know and learn many things. He must know and learn till the end of his life. He learns a great deal from books, teachers, sellers and his surroundings. Our memory is not so sharp that we can preserve all the information that we learn from them. But when we learn from our practical life it remains alive for a long time. Every event leaves an impression on our minds which can hardly be swept off. Therefore experience is the best teacher.

Experience makes us aware of the art of living. When we know and learn things and use them in practical life then our knowledge becomes complete in itself. We realize the usefulness of our knowledge. But experience alone cannot teach us mathematics, chemistry, biology and other branches of learning. Knowledge of those subjects learned from books or from teachers becomes alive if we apply them in our practical life. We read about hills, mountains, seas, oceans etc. in geography but when we get a chance to see them in our own eyes then our knowledge of them gets matured.

Again our life is surrounded by events. We have read about events that are recorded in books. But these cannot come to us in the same way. It depends on time, place and circumstance. Reading about death is quite different from watching it. Experience is the best teacher in teaching us the art of living under different circumstances.

The life experiences of our ancestors are recorded in books and we can go through them. Our seniors and teachers also help us with the learning that they have gained from their experiences. But we do not always act on the advice and warnings of others. If a child is advised not to play with fire, he cares a little until he gets the experience of burning his fingers while playing with fire. Thus the child learns to dread the fire through experience. 

Overwork is harmful to health. But an energetic youth does not care about it. When his health reduces to overwork only then he experiences the meaning of that good lesson. Thus our knowledge deeps through practical involvement in events.

Experience is power. It strengthens our willpower, determination, patience and courage. When we come over the misfortunes of bad days with patience then we realize the value of patience. 

Every experience is a good lesson for our life.  An experienced man is not lost in the whirlpools of this world. So we should be mindful to the events that happen in our surroundings and learn lessons from them to make our life more meaningful. 0 0 0

Life is Work

Work is an activity either physical or mental that produces an effect. In other words, to say, work is the act of putting effort into something in order to achieve a result.  

Birth and death do not define life. Real-life is the work we do between birth and death. Life is not worth living in the absence of work. So we have to say that it is impossible to think of life without work. It is often said that life is not measured in terms of years, but in terms of accomplishments that we perform during our lifetime. 

Every man has to do some work for his survival. He has to work to earn his bread. It is also said that man cannot live by bread alone. He should have a place to stay or he should be protected from sun and rain and should rest after a day’s hard work. He should also have his clothes. He should work to get all these essential things for living a social life. We see that wild animals, birds,  insects etc. live on the foods found in  Nature. They don’t have to produce their food, yet they have to move in search of food and shelter. 

Men in the primitive era lived mainly on the gifts of Nature. There was little difference in the way of life of humans and other beings. But man is provided with intelligence. As he went through different stages of life, he gained experience and knowledge resulting in advancement and progress in every sphere of life. All these improvements and achievements are possible only for their laborious work. Each person works according to his intelligence and ability to meet his needs.  Whatsoever men do, gives rise to progress and prosperity. We know that the tireless works of men contribute to the development of modern civilization. Thus the secret to the success of humanity is nothing but hard labour.

Works are of two types:  physical and intellectual. Of course, there is a degree of difference between the two. The intellectual labour of a scientist or a philosopher is much more intense than the intellectual labour of a man engaged in road construction. But the work of each type has its own respective importance.

The achievements and success achieved through our works can’t be ignored because our works directly or indirectly contribute to the progress of civilization. Scientists like Harvey,  Addison, C. V. Raman; Philosophers like Radhakrishnan, Kant, and Freud; social workers like Mahatma Gandhi, Jayaprakash, Mother Teresa and so on are remembered because of their works. It makes us realize that life is nothing but work. But our work must be productive and honest. 0 0 0

A Village Fair

Introduction: ‘Village Fair’ refers to the gathering of people to buy and sell necessary goods. Its specialty is that it is held on some days having religious or other social significance. With buying and selling goods there are provisions of entertainment at a village fair. Men,  women and children gather at the village fair to purchase their necessary goods along with entertainment. It also mobilizes the farmers of a region to sell and buy agricultural products and the things produced in their cottage industries. 

In a village fair, various goods and articles are kept for sale and display. Items of entertainment such as magic shows, merry-go-rounds and theatre shows and so on are organized. Exhibitions of various types of machinery are seen at the village fairs. The fair authority puts some volunteers to make the villagers aware of those things. 

The site for the village fair is usually selected either on the banks of a river or in an open field or on a public road that is connected to good road communication. Village fairs are generally held after the harvesting season. There is no hard and first rule as to how long the village fair should continue. Sometimes it lasts for a week and sometimes for a fortnight.

Some preparation is necessary to organize a village fair and there are both temporary toilets and urinals for men and women along with the drinking water system. Some rows of temporary stalls are constructed at the village fair. Volunteers are appointed to maintain peace and discipline. Some two or three days before the fair, people start arranging their shops with various things. The shops are beautifully decorated to attract buyers and this brings beauty and grandeur to the village fair. In a village fair,  various kinds of items like toys, dolls, balls etc. for children, various ornaments for women and girls and many other items are displayed. Furniture of various designs, fishing nets, pottery, various clothes and many other items are kept for sale. Apart from these, some people are busy displaying balloons, sweets, and toys for children only. 

A village fair is busy with a crowd of people and echoes of joy and ecstasy are heard from far and wide. Government departments like fisheries, agriculture, family planning etc. arrange exhibitions at such fairs to make people aware of the facilities offered by these departments. In this way, a modern village fair provides entertainment and facilities for selling and buying local products to the people.

A village fair also helps in the development of cottage industries and handicrafts as it provides a market for their domestic works. A village fair, thus, provides the scope of marketing and entertainment to all categories of people. 0 0 0

The Importance of English in Modern India

English is one the most logical, rich, and popular languages in the world. It is now used as a medium of international communication. But the English language is a foreign language to the people of India. It came to India with the British who made it the language of administration and transaction. Although, the Indians have achieved independence many years ago, yet they learn English for a variety of reasons.

Each Indian state has its own state language but it is a matter of regret that there is not a common language for internal connectivity with all the states. Though Hindi is said to be the common language of India yet, many Indians do not like to take it as a medium of internal communication. The  South Indian people find it hard to learn  Hindi. So they are to perform all the transactions in English.  However, except Hindi, a  common Indian language is still a dream to replace English at all levels of administration, education and country-based competitive examinations.

For the Indians, English is a library language for acquiring knowledge of modern science and technology. India cannot live separately in these fields of knowledge from the rest of the world. So Indian students learn English besides their mother tongue. Students have to supplement their knowledge by reading books and journals in English. 

Our country has made a lot of progress in various fields. Yet we cannot be content with what we have achieved. To represent our culture and achievements abroad we need to learn English.

English literature has a huge impact on Indian literature. Some Indian authors wish to get readers internationally of their writings through translation. So, the Indians have to learn English.  

Among our young students, we look for diplomats, thinkers, scientists interpreters, etc. to participate in international affairs. Therefore, they must study compulsory English. 

From all these considerations, it is important for us to learn English. 

Learning English is a daunting task for Indian students. However, as they need to learn English, some new methods of learning English should be formulated so that the Indians can learn English easily. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

National Integration of India

National integration means bringing together the various units and communities of a nation into a close and homogeneous unity despite the existence of differences in caste, religion and language. Its purpose is to make citizens of different castes and faiths feel that they belong to one nation and they should work unitedly to make the nation stronger and prosperous. India is considered to be the unique model of  ‘unity in diversity’ among the world countries. 

Every citizen of different communities, castes, beliefs, and groups should be ready to work together for the collective good of the nation, forgetting their individual differences and interests. It develops from a sense of national solidarity and integrity. Every citizen of India irrespective of their caste, creed and community should feel like an Indian and do good for the nation. This spirit and belief help in unifying the various communities and groups of people within the land. They must be integrated into one and only then the sovereignty and welfare of the nation can be upheld. The nation becomes stronger and more prosperous when differences of caste and creed are allowed to sink and a sense of unity develops as a nation. This harmonious amalgamation of all castes and communities is a must for national integration. It is a soul that binds everyone as people of one nation. When we unite as a nation, the nation becomes stronger, but when we think more of our communal interests than our national welfare then the nation weakens.  

There are some opposing forces in our country that stand in the way to achieve this national integration.  Except for countries like Pakistan and Bangladesh, religion is no longer an active force. These religions that oppose nature on the surface often act as disruptive forces and leave behind the development of national integrity.  Every Indian should strive to achieve this most essential national integration for our survival as a nation. India is a country where people of different religious faiths live.  The constitution of India guarantees religious rights to all. In India, there are  Hindus, Christians, Sikhs, Buddhists, Muslims etc. and all are expected to work for national unity and integrity. But unfortunately, there are few Indians who seem to be communal and think India to be a Hindu country.  As a result, they often strike and sabotage and do all these that prevent concrete action for the larger interests of the nation. This gives rise to political discord. 

An unfortunate trend has developed in India where politics often supports religious sentiments. Some selfish politicians have always tried to exploit religious sentiments to gain political power. They pray for national integrity but treacherously they do their politics on religious forces and as a result, the country disintegrates more and more. 

Our country is multi-religious, multi-racial and multi-lingual and each state of our country has its own regional language. But differences are not a hindrance to the integration of India as most Indians think of each other to be brothers and sisters under one flag.

It should be the endeavour of every Indian to find ways and means to overcome differences so that we can stand as a nation. First and foremost of all problems is the problem of language. It has taken a sharp dimension so far. Hindi-speaking people want to apply Hindi to other Indians, while non-Hindi-speaking people are determined to oppose the move at all costs. This conflict arises from our inability to distinguish between the state language and the medium of education. The medium of instruction should be the state language and to reject this step means disintegration among us. The language of the state should be given to the concerned state. At the national level, a national language which is Hindi should be allowed to function. Within a state, the regional language must be indisputably predetermined. But it is understood from various corners of the country that a state that practices the national language gains more weight and privilege. It becomes a source of jealousy for many people. To counter this fear and jealousy, in competitive examinations, candidates should be given a chance to show their proficiency in two Indian languages. Language should not be allowed to serve as a force to disintegrate Indians.

The inter-state relations of the country can be put to shame if economic imbalances are allowed to prevail. But this will be a passing phenomenon and will disappear with the growth and expansion of the socialist economy. Every effort should be made for equal distribution of national wealth among the states of the country. A sense of national unity and integrity will follow its path when every Indian realizes that no state or part of the country enjoys special benefits and privileges.

National unity and integrity is a very subtle forces. It works on emotion. Forces that destroy national integrity must be nipped in the bud. A national spirit should be cultivated by all Indians. We should be tolerant of each other, and respect every religion and language prevalent in the country. Every religion or language should enjoy the freedom to flourish without hurting the other. Thus, the root of achieving national integrity in our country is tolerance. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Role of Students in Nation Building

Industrial advancement and scientific expansion have brought about a paradigm shift in all areas of our lives. The students find themselves in a drastically changed environment. A student should adjust himself to these changed surroundings and environment.

People differ on the issue of students’ involvement in the affairs of society and the country. Whatever is said about this, we must remember that students are also members of the society and country in which they live. Naturally, they should be aware of the affairs of their society. Furthermore, today’s students are the citizens, leaders and administrators of tomorrow. They should develop a sense of responsibility. They should be equipped with the knowledge of those besides doing their studies dedicatedly. Thus students cannot confine themselves to the books only keeping in mind their responsibilities to the nation.

The future citizens of the country bear certain responsibilities for their country. It is not desired that students should raise the affairs of the country at the cost of their valuable academic lives. Nevertheless, they cannot relinquish their responsibilities of the nation under the pretext of an academic career.

Students are more or less free from bias and prejudice. They can help build societies that will contribute strongly to the welfare of the nation. They can do this by offering social services, especially during their holidays.

Our society is now in a crisis of class struggle, poverty, and illiteracy – and all of these give rise to many other evils. Most of our people in remote villages live in unhygienic surroundings. Their children are illiterate. Unscrupulous middlemen exploit them mercilessly for their ignorance. Students can help overcome these social evils by providing social services during their holidays. They can enable uneducated villagers to read and write.  They can educate them on the importance of clean living, the need for family planning and many other unavoidable issues. It can thus turn the students to responsible citizens of the country. Students also get a double benefit from such social work. They learn about the feelings and sufferings of the people. Such activities of the students provide scope for getting training for their future life.

The student community is a powerful force in a nation. If they are led properly then the nation will bear fruits for all. But selfish politicians confuse our students to achieve this. At their instigation, the students become violent, take out processions, organize agitations and so on.  Again when the students try to seek public support for the right cause, the selfish leaders start agitating to suppress them. 

Thus our young students are misguided. But the students are now at a turning point. They have to guard against such evils so that they do not fall prey to those dishonest politicians. To stay away from such evils, students should train themselves by acquiring knowledge in various branches of their studies. They must build good character, and must be imbued with democratic and noble ideals. 

At present the duties and responsibilities of the students have increased a lot. The students are the protectors and creators of our nation. The nation looks forward to receiving selfless services from the student community. Therefore, students have a definite role in nation-building. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Travelling as a Part of Education

Travelling means going from one place to another by foot or by vehicles of any kind. Man is a travelling being by nature. This instinct of roaming about is rooted in human nature and this leads a man to know the unknown, to see the unseen and to enjoy the unenjoyed things of homeland and abroad.

Travelling has great educational value. Nowadays, it is also regarded as a  part of education, because–

First, travelling widens our views on life. Besides, travelling brings us joy, mental satisfaction and ecstasy. It is also a way to get rid of the boredom of life.

Secondly, travelling promotes understanding of people of various culture and civilisation. It is an important component in establishing world peace, human integrity and a sense of fellow-feeling.

Thirdly, travelling gives us first-hand knowledge of things. In most cases, theoretical studies have no practical application in our lives. Travel bridges this gap as true education takes place outside the classroom. Thus travelling lead our bookish knowledge into perfection.

Fourthly, travelling takes us into contact with nature. The magnificence and varied beauty of nature leave a wonderful impression on us. When a man is at the top of a mountain, he realizes his own littleness and realizes the frivolity of human quarrels and conflicts.

Fifthly, travelling impresses our mind with the magnificence, grandeur, glory and wonder of God’s creation. Travelling helps the traveller to know how the earth is full of natural beauty. We have read in books the majesty of the Himalayas, the vastness of the sea and the beauty of the Taj Mahal, Red Fort, Great Wall of China etc. But we know a lot of them if we see them with our eyes.

Both travelling and education are connected with each other. Therefore, educational institutions should give more and more facilities to the students for doing tours to various places of importance at home and abroad. Thus, travelling should be made an essential part of education. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Pollution and Its Remedy

Introduction: Pollution refers to the addition of contaminants into the natural environment that causes adverse change. It is anything that makes the earth dirty and unhealthy. Environmental pollution occurs when pollutants contaminate the natural environment. Pollution disturbs the balance of our ecosystem, affects our normal lifestyles and leads to human diseases and global warming. Due to development and modernization in our life, pollution has reached its summit. With the development of science and technology, human capacity has increased drastically. 

There are different types of pollution, as– Air Pollution, Soil Pollution, Water Pollution, Light Pollution and Noise Pollution. Let us discuss them in brief as under:

Air Pollution: Air pollution is one of the most fatal forms of pollution.  A biological, chemical and physical change of air occurs when smoke, dust and any harmful gases enter the air. Air pollution is caused by the burning of fossil fuels, activities related to agriculture, mining operations, exhaust from industries and factories and household cleaning products. People release huge amounts of chemical substances into the air every day. The effects of air pollution are deadly to the flora and fauna of the earth. It causes global warming, acid rain, respiratory, heart etc. Many wildlife species are forced to change their habitat in order to survive.

Land Pollution: Land pollution occurs when the presence of pollutants, contaminants and toxic chemicals in the soil is in high concentrations, which has a negative effect on wildlife, plants, humans and groundwater. Industrial activity, waste disposal, agricultural activities, acid rain and accidental oil spills are the main causes of soil pollution. This type of contamination affects the health of humans, affects plant growth, reduces soil fertility and alters soil structure.

Water Pollution: Water pollution is capable of taking our world on the path of destruction. Water is the largest natural resource of the entire humanity. Nothing will remain without water. However, we do not appreciate this gift of nature and pollute it without thinking. The major causes of water pollution are– industrial waste, mining activities, sewage and wastewater, accidental oil spills, marine dumping, chemical pesticides and fertilizers, burning of fossil fuels, animal waste, urban development, global warming, radioactive waste and sewer lines. 

Light pollution: In some areas, light pollution occurs due to major additional illumination. Artificial lights disrupt the world’s ecosystem. They have deadly effects on many creatures including mammals, plants, amphibians, insects and birds. Every year many species of birds die after unnecessarily colliding with illuminated buildings. 

Noise Pollution: Noise and unpleasant sounds cause temporary disruption of natural balance. This is usually due to industrialization, social events, poor urban planning, household chores, transportation and construction activities. Noise pollution causes hearing problems, health problems, heart problems, sleepiness and communication difficulties. In addition, it greatly affects wildlife. Some animals may suffer from hearing loss, while others become incapacitated in hunting. Understanding noise pollution is very important to reduce its impact on the environment.

Radioactive pollution is the presence of radioactive materials in the environment. This is when it is very dangerous. Radioactive contamination can be caused by violations in nuclear power plants or improper transport of radioactive chemicals. Radioactive material must be handled with great care as radiation destroys cells in living organisms that can result in disease or death.

Remedies of Pollution: Pollution of any kind negatively affects the lives of both animals and humans. The only way to control environmental issues is to implement conservation methods and create a sustainable development strategy. We must find some effective measures to restore our ecological balance.

First, we should take advantage of public transport, walking or riding bikes whenever possible, strengthen our trips, and consider purchasing electric cars. 

Secondly, it is very important to make a permanent food choice. We should choose local food whenever possible; buy organically grown vegetables and fruits or grow our own.

Thirdly, we should conserve energy. We should turn off the electric equipment when we are not in the room. We know that small changes can lead to large energy savings. Use energy-efficient appliances. Whenever possible, we should try to buy used items and should choose products with minimal packaging. We should remember that almost everything we buy can be recycled.

Fourthly, to minimize water pollution we should conserve water as much as possible. People should avoid using herbicides and pesticides and should take to use environmental-friendly chemicals for their everyday work.

Conclusion: Pollution prevention is a major concern nowadays because of the harmful effects on our health and on our environment. Everybody can contribute to the prevention of it by taking some necessary steps against it. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Football: My Favourite Game

The activities that people take for the purpose of entertainment and physical exercise are termed as ‘sports’. Playfulness is a human instinct. Everyone enjoys playing. Sports are prevalent in almost every society of the human tribe. There are different types of games. Some games are played indoors and there are some games that are played outdoors. Some games require two players and some games require several players. I enjoy playing outdoor games. I enjoy playing volleyball, cricket, kabaddi, running etc. Among them, football is my favourite one.

Football is one of the most popular games in the world. This game is played between two teams with a ball. Each team consists of eleven players. Football requires a large playground. The team that scores more goals becomes the winner. 

The modern game of football is said to have originated in England. The rules and regulations of modern football were established in England in 1863 AD. However, there is evidence that such a game was introduced in ancient China under the name ‘Kuju’. The word ‘kuju’ means kicking a ball. In this game, any part of the body could be used except the hand. In the game, the ball had to be thrown into a net. But today’s football game is different from its rules and regulations.

The game of football has been gaining popularity in the world since the nineteenth century and it has risen to the top of popularity in the twentieth century. Due to its international popularity, the ‘International Federation of Football’ (FIFA) was established in Paris, France in 1904. It conducts current football competitions in the world. The motto of this organization is, “For the sake of the game, for the sake of the world.” 

Football is a popular game because it is exciting. The spectators watch this game and feel solidarity with the players. Playing football is a form of physical exercise. In addition to this, international football competitions promote international understanding, brotherhood, cooperation and so on.

We should love and practice this game. 0 0 0

The Pen 

A pen is a tool for writing. No one can say exactly when or where the pen was invented, although there is evidence that the pen as a writing tool was first used in ancient Greece. 

There are different types of pens like a fountain pen, ball pen, pencil, wood-pencil, feather pen, reed pen, chisel pen etc. Among these varieties of pens, the chisel pen is thought to be very ancient. From the beginning of the art of writing, people used a sharpened piece of metal as a pen and used it to inscribe or cut deep various information or knowledge on a rock or a hard flat object. After the discovery of paper or paper-like objects such as papyrus, bark, animal skins etc. people resort to using sharpened pens. There is clear evidence of the use of a reed pen in ancient Egypt. The dominance of the reed pen in the history of human civilization is long. This genre of pen was widely used, probably from 1500 BC to the 19th century. A reed pen was made of the reeds. 

After the reed pen, another type of pen was introduced called ‘feather pen’. This type of pen was made with the feather of some birds of prey, especially the feather of an eagle, hawk, heron etc. Evidence of the use of the feather pen in India is visible till the first half of the twentieth century.

Reed pen, chisel pen and feather pen are the types of pens used in the ancient and middle ages. In the nineteenth century, there was a new addition to the world pen. In 1884, Louis Waterman, an American engineer, made a type of pen called ‘fountain pen’. The head of such a pen is made of metal and the inside of the pen is filled with ink. The invention of the fountain pen has made writing much easier and more convenient. The modern era, in the history of the pen, begins with the invention of the fountain pen. Following the fountain pen, different types of pens were invented. Among them, the ball pen or dot pen is now the most popular and widely used pen. 

The pens are available in a variety of colours, such as: red, white, sapphire, green, black, purple etc. The length of the pen is usually six inches, although a pen of three inches in length is available on the market. Recently, a ball-pen of twelve inches long has come on the market. 

The contribution of the pen to the history of human civilization is immense. It is said that the development of human civilization began with the introduction of the pen. This is because the pen helps to record past knowledge and experiences for future generations.  

The keyboard of the computer now occupies the place of the pen to a large extent although the use and relevance of the pen have not been completely lost. 0 0 0

The Cuckoo 

One of the birds we see is the cuckoo. It belongs to the genus of Cuculiformes. This species is found especially in Asia. 

The male cuckoo is a bright blackbird, although the colour of the female cuckoo is slightly brown. It is shorter than the crow and its neck is slightly longer than a crow. It is 40-45 cm long. Its eyeballs are dark red.

This is a type of migratory bird. It is more common in the spring season. It sings ‘cau, cau’ and sometimes it sings ‘to to’ for a long time.  Sometimes it also makes sounds like ‘kick-kick kick’.

Spring is its breeding season. It can lay three to four eggs at a time. The cuckoo does not know how to make a nest. So it lays eggs secretly in the nest of a crow and the crow hatched the eggs to grow babies.

The cuckoo is not a beautiful bird although many poets have written poems on the theme of the cuckoo. Fruits, grains, insects etc. are the staple food of the cuckoo. Ornithologists say that the cuckoo population is declining due to deforestation. 0 0 0


The Fruits of Assam 

Assam, a north-eastern Indian state is rich in fruit trees. Assam produces a wide variety of fruits and vegetables. Mango, blackberry, jackfruit, litchi, peach, letuka, coconut, betel, pomegranate, amlakhi, outenga, orange etc. are found in number in the plains and hills of Assam 

Mango is grown in almost all regions of Assam. It is generally cultivated in the districts like Goalpara, Barpeta, Dhuburi, Nalbari, Nagaon, Baksa, Odalguri etc. But most of the mangoes produced in Assam are sour. However, some of the mangoes are sweet and delicious when ripen. Therefore, a large number of mangoes are imported from West Bengal to Assam every year. 

‘Blackberry is a small fruit though it is good for health. In particular, it is considered as a diet for diabetics, asthma and other patients. Blackberry trees grow in abundance in most of the districts of Assam. However, in urban areas of Assam, this type of fruit tree is rarely seen. Some people also make jellies with it.

Jackfruit is one of the delicious fruits of Assam. There are more or fewer jackfruit trees in all the villages of Assam. It is a healthy sweet fruit. Some jackfruits are exported from Assam to other states of India every year. 

Assam produces more or less litchi and letuka. However, the quality of litchi grown in the plains of Assam is sour. Of course, litchi grown in the hilly areas is delicious. Letuka grown in Assam is often sour. 

Coconut is one of the most widely grown fruits in Assam. In the districts of Goalpara, Barpeta and upper Assam, coconut tree grows abundantly. The coconuts of Assam are delicious and sweet. In size, it is larger than the coconut produced in other states of India. Some people produce milk from the coconut. Some coconuts from Assam are exported to West Bengal, Shilong, Mizoram, Arunachal Pradesh and other states. 

Assam produces some pomegranates and oranges also, though they are not enough to meet the local need. Moreover, their quality is not good. Therefore, pomegranates and oranges are imported in large numbers from other states of India every year. 

Outenga and amlakhi is found in abundance in the forests of Assam. Assamese people eat amlakhi and outenga with vegetables. Some amount of amlakhi is exported to other states. 

The above fruits are available in Assam though not enough to meet the demand. Assam is a hilly state. Many hills are covered with wild grass and plants. If the Government of Assam comes forward to plant fruit trees in these hills and in the uncultivated lands, Assam will be self-sufficient in fruits.  0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

The Natural Beauty of Assam  

Introduction: Assam, a north-eastern state of India is full of natural beauty. The mother goddess has created Assam with all the charm, tenderness and delicacy of mesmerizing beauty. In the plains and hills, in the lakes and rivers, in the woods and forests of Assam, there is an abundance of bewitching beauty. 

The Beauty of the Hills and Mountains: There is beauty in all the hills and mountains of Assam. They seem more beautiful and charming in the morning sunlight. In the winter, the snow-capped mountains are covered with white sheets. The Karbi-Anglong hills in the middle of Assam also bear a glimpse of the alluring beauty. Similarly, Guwahati, the capital of Assam, is surrounded by mountains from all sides. From the top of the hill, the city of Guwahati looks like a ribbon of glittering light. 

The Beauty of the Plains: Though Assam is a hilly state, the Brahmaputra and Barak valleys of Assam produce a wide variety of crops. The paddy fields look golden in the month of Aghun. When the ripened paddy and wheat dances in the wind our hearts experience a heavenly pleasure. 

The Beauty of Rivers of Assam: Assam is a land of innumerable rivers and rivulets. The Brahmaputra and its tributaries inundate the plains of Assam during the rainy season. It also creates over-flood and causes considerable havoc to the land and property of the Assamese. But the rippling sound of water gives mysterious joy and pleasure. Boat racing is held on the rivers of Assam during the rainy season. The boatmen sing various songs which add melody to the natural beauty Assam. 

The Beauty Woods and Forest: Assam is the land of woods and forests. The forest occupies 30% of the land. The forests are the home of various species of trees, shrubs, reeds etc. These trees have contributed immensely to natural resources as well as to the beauty of Assam. In the northern Himalayan plateau, there are many species of trees, such as gomeri, sonaru, teak, shishu, shimlu, saal etc. which look tremendous to our eyes. In the same way, the rows of saal trees that stretch across the plains on the southern bank of the Brahmaputra River of Assam attract tourists who are thirsty for beauty.

The beauty of Different Seasons: There are six seasons in Assam: summer, rainy, monsoon, autumn, winter and spring. These seasons are characterized by their respective beauty. The beauty of Assam in summer and monsoon is incomparable though autumn brings a novelty to the natural beauty of Assam. During autumn the sky is clear and blue. Fruits like mango, jackfruit, orange, letuka, coconut etc. give new impetus to the hearts of the Assamese. The beauty of spring in Assam is heavenly and brings us new enthusiasm to our body and mind. During this season, the trees become more and more charming with new leaves. A large variety of flowers such as rose, tamarisk, narcissus, kapau etc. blossom abundantly in the hills and plains of Assam. During spring many species of birds like the cuckoo, nightingale, robin and some other birds appear in nature. These add a new melody to the beauty of Assam with their respecting songs. 

Special Places of Natural Beauty in Assam: Assam bears a lot of natural beauty in its plains and hills though there are some places in Assam whose natural beauty is so captivating that many tourists from outside Assam come to enjoy them. There are several such places, as Kamakhya, Nilachal Hill, Basishtashrm in Guwahati, Agnigarh in Tezpur, Powamakka in Hazo, Dargah Swarip in Goalpar etc. The natural beauty of the surrounding areas of these places is so enchanting that the sadness and fatigue of the humdrum life may instantly be removed by visiting these places. 

Menace to the Beauty of Assam: At present the natural beauty of Assam has been facing a deadly menace to extinction. With the growth of population, people are cleaning off the forests and hills for making abodes and producing crops. As a result, the natural beauty of Assam is being deteriorated. If the people of Assam, are not aware of the need to preserve the natural beauty of Assam, then in the near future, the natural beauty of Assam will disappear forever. 0 0 0

Charles Darwin: My Favourite Scientist

Introduction: I have been interested in reading books since my boyhood. I spent most of my childhood days at my maternal uncle’s house where there was a favourable reading environment. So I got the opportunity to read two or three new books every month. My maternal uncle noticed my interest in reading books and started supplying me with new books. This was how I accustomed to reading a variety of books. Along with reading books on varied subjects, I had a weakness for reading biographies of famous people and read out the lives of Einstein, Newton, Planck, Thomas Alva Addison, James Watt, Alfred Nobel etc. All of these scientists have inspired me a lot to move forward in life and each of them is my favourite. However, today I would like to write about one of my favourite scientists. Among these scientists, I have chosen a scientist whose thought and theory has revolutionized the world of human thought. The name of that scientist was Charles Darwin. He is considered the father of the theory of evolution.

Birth and Parentage: Darwin, the father of the Theory of Evolution, was born in 1809 into a traditionally educated family. Darwin’s great grandfather was Erasmus Darwin. He was a doctor, poet and thinker. Darwin’s great grandfather from his mother’s side, Josiah Wedgewood, was one of the most talented and famous potters at that time. Robert Darwin, Darwin’s father, was a doctor. By practising medicine, he earned so much wealth that Darwin did not have to work or think about earning a living for the rest of his life. This was why he was able to devote his life to the pursuit of science. In addition, his mother Susana also brought a large amount of money from her father’s house as dowry. Darwin was the fifth of six children born to Darwin’s father, Robert Darwin. 

Education: Darwin began his education at a local primary school. After a year of study there, Darwin enrolled in a well-known school called the Shrubbery School. While still in school, Darwin focused more on nature studies than on textbooks. Darwin’s family was a family of physicians. Robert Darwin, therefore, enrolled his son, Charles Darwin, in Edinburgh Medical College in 1825 with the intention of teaching him medicine. But Darwin was not interested in medicine because he hated to cut off and dissect the body of a man. During this time he was again attracted to two new things— one is marine life and plants and the other is geology. Geology in particular had a profound effect on Darwin’s thought.

Marine Voyage and Research: On December 27, 1831, Darwin sailed with Captain Robert Fitzgerald to South America for the purpose of studying biology in an undiscovered inaccessible area.

During this voyage, he had to endure various hardships. The ship was very small and narrow. It was not that the ship was his only problem but also that he faced physical problem also. Symptoms of nausea, vomiting and fever appeared on him. But in the midst of all these problems, he was calmly engaged in his work and finally succeeded in his endeavour. He travelled extensively throughout South America, studying flora, fauna, insects, reptiles and fossils. The most important thing for Darwin was the study of the rocky soils of the Galapagos Islands. That was where he got the answers to all his questions. In the Galapagos Islands, he discovered that there was no similarity between the turtles of one island and that of another island. In the same way, he noticed that there were differences between the birds of the same species on different islands.

Theory of Evolution: Darwin’s voyage to the Galapagos Islands changed his thought completely. He studied the animals in the area and came to the conclusion that the creatures of the earth were constantly fighting for their survival. Sometimes there was fierce competition among them for food. Only the animals that survived in this competition could develop rapidly. Animals that did not possess or develop such special qualities became extinct forever. This had resulted in the emergence of a variety of animals of different shapes and sizes from the original animals. This is Darwin’s great and groundbreaking theory of evolution. Darwin expounded this theory of evolution in his famous book, ‘The Origin of Species’. 

Before Darwin developed this new theory of the origin of animals, all the people on earth assumed that it was a celestial force that created the earth and all its creatures at the same time and that the creatures have been the same since the day of creation. But Darwin’s groundbreaking theory of evolution disproved that age-long notion. As a result, Darwin’s theory gave rise to a battle between the clergy on the one hand and the scientists on the other. Darwin’s theory was able to reshape the world of science. 

Conclusion: This great scientist died in 1882 leaving behind him a theory to be much discussed for the next generations. 0 0 0

If I Were the Principal of a School  

The headteacher or principal is the teacher who is in charge of the management of a school in accordance with certain rules and regulations. 

There is a principal in our school. Although he is an ideal principal yet I personally do not agree with some of his governing policies. So if I become the principal of any school in the future then I would run the school as described below.

First of all, I would give more importance to teaching students about how to be a good person instead of being a good student because in our society we need more good people than good students. We see in reality that the students, who are good at reading and writing, become the most corrupted government employees after completing their studies. They became involved in all kinds of illegal activities such as misuse of government funds, taking bribes, not being present in the office on time, being involved in alcohol, gambling etc. I would provide such education to the students so that they can stay away from any anti-social activities and corruption in the future and serve society in principle. 

Second, I would stop giving mid-day meals to the students. This is because the principal of the school as well as the upper officials are seen to be corrupt in everything related to the mid-day meals. For example, we have 200 students in our school, although our principal prepares a food budget for 250 students and receives funds from the departmental authorities. Students are not provided with adequate food. Food standards often go down drastically. Many students throw them away. I am also one of them. Therefore, I would send the funds received from the government for lunch to the bank accounts of the parents of the students so that the students can bring home-cooked food to the school. 

Third, I myself adhere to discipline and force my teaching staff to adhere strictly to discipline. I would also emphasize the need for each and every teacher to be idealistic so that the students can learn a lesson of human qualities from the lifestyle of the teachers. 

Fourth, I would make arrangements to provide some technical education to the students on my own. We see that a student who has passed M, S, C, can’t fit the wheel of his bicycle, can’t cook any of his own food, can’t fit a bulb with one of the electric wires of his house and can’t catch a net from a pond while fishing. In order to do a DTP, he has to run to the DTP operator. However, he is given a certificate of higher education. I would always strive to ensure that my school would not give birth to such types of people.

Fifth, I would force every teacher and all other employees to spend a portion of their salary in the public interest of society. This is because it has been noticed that today the irrational government pays more than the required amount to the teachers or other employees. As a result, their children become prematurely malnourished. Some people become addicted to alcohol, gamble or play games on their mobile phones, or buy a bike and misuse the money. I don’t want my students to be like that.

Sixth, before taking a test of students on the textbook, their character and human qualities such as benevolence, discipline, kindness, honesty, frugality etc. should be tested. 

If I ever become the principal of a school, I would do more to build good people instead of creating good students. I know that in doing so, some people would thwart me and oppose me. But I would not care a bit. I hope that at least the common people would cooperate with me. 0 0 0


Assam is a state inhabited by various ethnic groups in the distant past. All communities have their own culture, manners, festivals etc. Among the various communities of Assam, the Miching is a notable community. The Miching community lives, especially in upper Assam. They are mainly cultivators and their festivals are also based on agriculture. One of their main festivals is ‘Ali-i-lrigang’. It is an agricultural festival similar to the Bihu festival.

It is difficult to get a clue as to when and how Ali-i-lrigang began. According to some scholars, the festival was celebrated long before the Michings came to the plains of Upper Assam to cultivate paddy with plows. The Ali-i-lrigang festival may have been different at the time. Since then, it has evolved into what it is today.

In Michigan, ‘Ali’ means seeds grain, ‘I’ means fruit and ‘Lrigang’ means beginning. This means that it is the beginning of the planting season. Like other communities, agriculture and agro-based traditions are the mainstays of the migrants’ way of life. Therefore, the beginning of planting crops is one of the most important parts of their national life. They celebrate the Ali-i-Lrigang festival to please god and wish for good production and to pass the time amidst merriment. This festival is celebrated on any day of the month of Phagun. But today, the first Wednesday of the month of Phagun is scheduled for this.

The Ali-i-Lrigang festival of the Michings is divided into two parts. On the first day of the festival, a section of land in the house is planted by the head of the family chanting hymns with broken eggs, potatoes, ginger, paddy etc. This is called ‘lrigang’. After this, they offer Purang and Apang (homemade wine) to god praying for a good life and good harvesting. And then the Michings perform the ‘Gumraag’ dance after dusk. The youths dance in new dresses and make fun. The dance is accompanied by musical instruments such as dol, tal, papaya, gagana, lengnong, madha, lenden, tapung etc.

The Ali-i-Lrigang festival usually lasts for five days. During these five days, the youth and children go from home to home and dance and collect rice, paddy etc. In some areas, this festival lasts for three days. 

During this festival, they call in a priest at their home and worshipped their gods. During the festival, people refrain from cutting down trees, killing fish, mowing the land etc. This is called ‘madnam’ (abstinence from work). On the last day of the festival, a banquet is held.

Although originally the ‘Ali-i-Lrigang’ is an agricultural festival, its significance is vast. The songs, costumes, musical instruments, food habits, beliefs, folk traditions, etc. associated with it have strengthened the cultural identity of the Miching people. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Benefits of Swimming

Although some people can swim, others fail to learn for one reason or another, with the main one being the fear of water (hydrophobia). For those who do not know how to swim, why not invest in learning not only for their safety but also for the numerous health benefits that come with swimming. 

Learning to swim is vital to our personal safety as we never know when we may unexpectedly end up in the water. The common reason why most people drown is that they cannot swim. Some people fall into the water and for being afraid of the water they drown and die before they know it. Rather than fear it, we require to be confident and relaxed. 

Drowning many times involves water entering through the mouth and nose forcing an individual to gasp for air. According to the World Health Organization, it is the third leading cause of unintentional injuries worldwide with individuals who have increased access to water being most at risk. Swimming requires a lot of muscle work in order to move in water, the skill, in the end, strengthens the muscles and enables one to have a flexible body. Swimming is like an overall workout since one is utilizing every part of his body. 

Swimming makes the heart stronger, by making it more efficient in pumping blood and in the end, leading to better blood flow throughout the body. 

Swimming also builds endurance. It is a therapy treatment for somebody’s injuries and provides a satisfying feeling when cooling down on a hot day. But also, notably, swimming can boost one’s self-confidence, physically and in water. 

To learn swimming you may go to a coach. A coach will also take you through the basics. They will teach you important techniques such as gliding, floating on water, holding your breath, maintaining a streamlined position and different swimming styles, among other things. Some individuals prefer to learn without the help of a professional swimming coach but it is risky to try learning to swim without the assistance of a professional coach. The importance of a professional coach is not only to teach but also to ensure your safety while training. For instance, in case you encounter a problem during a particular lesson, they will immediately come to your rescue. Anyone can learn how to swim regardless of their age. You just need to be determined and focused. Elderly individuals often avoid several forms of exercise due to pain when they move. Swimming will reduce pain during motion as the water helps to prevent excess strain on the body. Water is a natural cooling element, which reduces pain while moving stiff joints and sore muscles. 

Knowledge is power, and adding a new skill to our life not only improves our confidence, but it could also even help us professionally. So everyone should learn how to swim as it is a great way to enhance our skills and enjoy life.0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

World Rivers Day 

World Rivers Day is observed every year on the fourth Sunday of September. It is celebrated to raise public awareness about the rivers and the importance of all of the waterways around the globe. It highlights the values and significance of rivers and strives to increase public awareness and encourages the improved stewardship of rivers around the world.

The plants and animals surrounding the river and canyon would not thrive and be as beautiful as they are if our rivers were polluted. This day is celebrated to ensure that these important bodies of water are celebrated and appreciated as they should be.

Rivers are healthy freshwater environments that supply water for drinking, growing crops, manufacturing, energy, and transport. Rivers are vital for people and wildlife it needs careful management because there’s not always enough to go around. It is a day that highlights the importance of rivers, aiming to heighten awareness and encourage people to preserve our important and beautiful rivers.

The United Nations launched the Water for Life Decade in 2005 to help create an awareness of the need to better care for our water resources. And this was followed by the establishment of World Rivers Day in response to a proposal initiated by internationally renowned river advocate, Mark Angelo.

The proposal for a global event to celebrate rivers was based on the success of BC Rivers Day, which Mark Angelo had founded and led in western Canada since 1980. The River enthusiasts from around the world came together to organize the World River Day event.

Mark Angelo is an internationally-celebrated river conservationist. He is the founder and Chairman of both BC and World Rivers Day and is Chairman of Emeritus of the Rivers Institute at the British Columbia Institute of Technology 

Some of the major rivers of the world are Amazon, Mississippi, Nile, Euphrates, Ganga, Yamuna, Brahmaputra etc. The major Peninsular Rivers are Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, Kaveri and some others.

Rivers have been extremely helpful to men in all parts of the earth from the very early times of human existence. They provide water to slake the thirst of men, fertilize their lands, provide a means of communication for the goods that transport from place to place, provide food, energy, recreation etc. Rivers provide us with fresh drinking water. Rivers are the biggest sources of fresh water.

Around 96% of the water body consists of saline water which cannot be consumed by humans. We need to rely upon the rivers for drinking water.

Rivers influence not only the place but also the people, their customs, practices, tradition, and lifestyle. Rivers not only provide water for their domestic needs and agricultural purposes but also enable the people to move from place to place through the water path.

We, likewise humans, should be respectful to the water resources and protect them from being polluted for our own welfare. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Benefits of Book Reading

A book is a printed or handwritten collection of information on any subject or topic of human interest primarily prepared for reading and bound along one side. How and when did the tradition of the writing of books came into existence cannot be said for certain. But it is guessed that the ancient Sumerians had begun the tradition of recording their experiences in a book about five thousand years before Jesus Christ was born. It may be said that the true beginning of human civilization began with the invention of writing techniques and recoding human experiences in the book. The effects of books on the human brain and activities are beyond description. Let’s enumerate the benefits of reading books in a few words as under

First, books open a new world for us and take us on a new journey with different stories, characters, periods, and plots. We can know things, people, their customs, hopes, despair, struggle, thoughts, aspirations etc. by reading a book 

Secondly, book reading keeps us relaxed and peaceful and offers several health benefits. It is a fine medium of distracting our mind from everyday humdrum activities.

Thirdly, just like our body, our brain requires regular mental workouts to keep it strong and healthy. This is where reading comes into play. It is a great exercise for your brain which keeps it actively working and boosts cognitive stimulation.

Fourthly, while reading, we often come across new words that we may not know the meaning of. We can note these words down so that we can revise and learn them and use them while communicating with people. Also, reading books by authors belonging to different places helps you gain exposure to new words of their native language which plays a vital role while learning a new language.

Five, Books are a great stress buster. Be it the stress at work or home, it just goes away when we engage ourselves in reading a book. Books keep you busy and distracted and make us lose all our tension and feel relaxed.

Books are the most fruitful and faithful medium of storing human knowledge, philosophies and experiences. Had there not been the tradition of writing books, there would have been no civilization.  So we should respect books, collect books and encourage each other to build the habit of reading books from our childhood. 0 0 0

School Essays Part -II

Benefits Of Fruits

This blue planet of ours by the name of Earth is the only planet in this infinite mysterious universe that bears all the conditions of a favourable atmosphere for life. It is coloured and enriched with lots of trees and beings. For our food and taste, Nature has gifted us with many kinds of fruit trees among which some common fruits are, papaya, mango, peach, litchi,, apple, grapes, pear, letuka, coconut, jack fruit and so on. We eat all these fruits with much taste and eagerness as they are delicious to eat. But besides, being delicious, the fruits have a lot of benefits for health and mind.  Let us enumerate some of the benefits that we get from the various  kind of fruits 

First, if we are planning to adopt a healthy lifestyle, fruits would be our obvious choice. Whether it is for losing excess weight or embracing a vibrant lifestyle full of energy, fruits are inevitable.

Secondly, Fruits along with the high nutritious value and soluble dietary fibre have an 80 percent water content. And as we all know, water is essential for good health. Very often, we do not consume the required or recommended quantity of water i.e. about seven to eight glasses, which can be fulfilled by including fruits in your diet.

Thirdly, fruits contain many antioxidants like Vitamin C and anthocyanins that protect the body from many diseases and also help in improving your immunity level. In fruits, there is the presence of many minerals, vitamins, antioxidants, and phytonutrients that help in keeping your body healthy.

Fourthly, fruit components, as mentioned above, not only protect our bodies against diseases but also work as anti-aging agents. They help in rejuvenating the cells and tissues, hence we can delay the process of aging with the help of antioxidants that we find in fruits.

Fifthly, fruits form the very basic component of the diet recommended for weight loss. Fruits do not contain calories nor fat but contain simple forms of sugar. Different fruits like watermelon, grapes and many berries have a high water content that also helps as fillers. Other fruits like papaya and banana help in improving digestion. One of the best fruit for weight loss is the apple. If we eat an apple every day while following our normal weight loss diet, we will soon see the difference.

Sixthly, eating fruits every day makes our skin glowing and beautiful. Many fruits like apple, papaya, lemon, banana, orange, avocado bestow you with healthy glowing skin. Some of these fruits can also be used as ingredients for a face mask.

Seventhly, during pregnancy, fruits provide a healthy source of nutrients for the complete development of the baby in the womb. Fruits contain nutrients like folic acid, which is essential for the development of a baby’s brain and spine and Vitamin C, which is crucial for shaping tissues, blood vessels, skin, muscles and other organs of the fetus. 

Eightly, fruits are natural medicines to fight against or reduce the chances of many diseases like heart disorders and diabetes.

There is no end to the benefits of fruits to our body and mind. We should be mind to eat plenty of seasonal fruits to keep us healthy, wealthy, active and happy. 0 0 0.


The Usefulness and Abuses of Mobile Phone

Introduction to Mobile Phone

The mobile phone is one of the most important inventions of 20th-century science. It is a portable telephone that can make and receive calls over a radio frequency link within telephone service areas. The radio frequency link establishes a connection to a mobile phone operator’s switching system, which provides access to the Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN). Most modern mobile phones have color displays, and many support multimedia features such as cameras, video players, and Internet browsing. Mobile phones typically use lithium-ion batteries, which provide long battery life.

Evolution of Mobile Phone

The first mobile phone was invented in 1973 by Martin Cooper of Motorola. Mobile phones were originally designed for use in vehicles. The first mobile phone call was made on 3 April 1973, when Dr. Cooper called a colleague from a moving car. Since their inception, mobile phones have made a remarkable development. Early mobile phones were large and bulky, and by the early 1980s, only a few hundred thousand were still in use. By the mid-1990s, there were over 100 million mobile phone users worldwide. Today, there are over five billion mobile phone users, making it the most widely used communication technology in the world.

The Usefulness of Mobile Phone

Mobile phone is one of the most useful devices that we use in our daily life. It keeps us connected to our family, friends, and co-workers. We can use it to make calls, send text messages, email, browse the internet and stay connected with the world. It also helps us stay organized and efficient. We can use it to set alarms and reminders to keep track of our schedule. Mobile phone is also a good means of entertainment. We can use it to play games, listen to music and watch videos and movies.

In addition to telephony, modern mobile phones also support many other services, such as business applications, gaming, and digital photography. Mobile phones that offer these and more general computing capabilities are called smartphones. Mobile phones have also profoundly impacted our social life and relationships.

Abuses of Mobile Phone

The ever-increasing popularity of mobile phones has also led to an increase in its misuse which is counted as its abuse.

Perhaps the most common misuse of mobile phones is using them to send messages or make calls to friends when one should be paying attention to something else, such as a class or a meeting. This can be highly disruptive and disrespectful to those around the user, often leading to missed opportunities to learn or participate. Additionally, phone use can be a major distraction while driving, which can lead to accidents.

Another serious misuse of mobile phones is using them to commit crimes. For example, some people use them to coordinate drug deals or other illegal activities. Others use them to stalk or harass others. And still, others use them for pornography.


The bottom line is that mobile phones are powerful tools that can be used for good or bad. It is up to each individual to use them responsibly. 0 0 0.


Global Warming | Global Warming Essay


‘Global Warming’ is the increase in the temperature of the atmosphere as well as the surface of the earth due to irrational human activities. Global warming appears as a serious problem today. It is adversely affecting the environment and threatening the survival of all living beings.

Factors of Global Warming

There are some factors of global warming. But among them, the increase in carbon dioxide is a prominent one. It absorbs the heat and the surface temperature of the earth rises. Besides this, smoke emitted from motor vehicles, factories, and industries increases the amount of carbon dioxide in the air and causes global warming. Ozone gas in the atmosphere also absorbs infrared rays from the Sun and increases global warming.

How Global Warming Affects Our Environment

Global warming is affecting the natural temperature of the earth in several ways, such as-

Global warming is causing the melting of huge ice sheets in the Polar Regions. As a result, many islands in the seas and oceans, including Bangladesh, Myanmar, and New Zealand, will be merged under the sea in near future.

Global warming is also changing the Earth’s climate. Climate change causes much rainfall in some places and desertification in others due to drought.

Scientists have predicted that global warming would affect human health also and it would increase the rate of mortality.

Food crop production will also decrease. As a result, mankind will face a food crisis.

Do we want to leave behind us a scorched world full of deserts, filled with no crops on it, and forests with no trees? Would we like our progeny with no food and in ill health? Truly none of us want it. Then we must take immediate measures to control global warming.

Measures to Control the Global Warming

For controlling Global Warming we can take the following measures:

First, to increase the amount of oxygen and rainfall in the atmosphere, more trees must be planted and the amount of forest area must be increased.

Second, the use of smoke-emitting vehicles must be reduced or environmental-friendly alternative fuels must be invented.

Thirdly, the use of industries and factories must be limited.

Fourthly, nuclear explosions must be stopped.

Besides these, the production of nitrous oxide should be reduced by stopping the application of chemical fertilizers in agriculture. People should be made aware of the use of organic fertilizers instead of chemical fertilizers.


Global warming is not a problem in a particular region or a particular country. It is a problem of the whole world, of the whole human race. Therefore, every person in the world must be environment-conscious and the countries of the world must come together and take immediate measures to prevent it. Otherwise, the existence of mankind would come to an end. 0 0 0.

Soil Pollution


Soil is a complex mixture of minerals, organic matter, water, air, and living organisms that forms the uppermost layer of the Earth’s crust. Soil is a precious natural resource that plays a vital role in sustaining life on Earth.

Why is Soil an Important Element:

Nutrient Cycling: Soil serves as a reservoir and source of essential nutrients for plants, which are necessary for their growth and development. Through a process called nutrient cycling, soil organisms break down organic matter and release nutrients that can be taken up by plants. These nutrients, such as nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium, are essential for the production of healthy crops, which in turn provide food for humans and animals.
Plant Growth and Habitat: Soil acts as a medium for plant growth by anchoring the roots, providing support, and supplying water. It also acts as a reservoir for soil moisture, allowing plants to access water during dry periods. Additionally, soil provides a habitat for a diverse range of organisms, including microorganisms, insects, worms, and small animals, which contribute to the overall health and balance of ecosystems.

Water Filtration and Storage: Soil plays a crucial role in the hydrological cycle. It acts as a natural filter, removing impurities and pollutants from water as it percolates through the soil layers. Soil also has the ability to store and release water, helping to regulate water availability and prevent floods or droughts. The capacity of soil to retain water is influenced by its texture, structure, and organic content.

Carbon Sequestration: Soil is a significant reservoir of carbon. It stores carbon through the decomposition of organic matter and the action of soil organisms. This process, known as carbon sequestration, helps mitigate climate change by reducing the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere and storing it in the soil, thus acting as a carbon sink.

Biodiversity and Ecological Balance: Healthy soil supports a diverse range of organisms, including bacteria, fungi, algae, insects, and worms. These organisms contribute to the decomposition of organic matter, nutrient cycling, and the formation of soil structure. Soil biodiversity is crucial for maintaining ecological balance, promoting plant health, and supporting a wide range of ecosystem services.

Causes of Soil Pollution:

There are some salient causes of Soil Pollution, such as:

Industrial Activities: Industrial processes and activities generate vast amounts of waste materials that often contain hazardous chemicals and heavy metals. Improper disposal of industrial waste contaminates the soil, leading to soil pollution.

Agricultural Practices: The overuse and misuse of agrochemicals such as pesticides, herbicides, and fertilizers contribute significantly to soil pollution. Excessive application of these substances leads to the accumulation of toxic residues in the soil, disrupting its natural composition and fertility.

Improper Waste Disposal: Improper disposal of household waste, sewage sludge, and landfill leachate can introduce harmful substances into the soil. When these waste materials are not adequately treated or managed, they leach into the soil, contaminating it with toxins and pollutants.

Mining Activities: Mining operations extract minerals from the Earth’s crust, often resulting in the release of heavy metals, such as lead, mercury, and cadmium, into the soil. These metals persist in the environment and have long-lasting detrimental effects on soil health.

Deforestation: Deforestation disrupts the delicate balance of ecosystems, leading to soil erosion. The removal of vegetation cover exposes the topsoil to erosion by wind and water, resulting in the loss of valuable soil nutrients and organic matter.

Effects of Soil Pollution:

The effects of soil pollution are as follows:

Reduced Agricultural Productivity: Soil pollution diminishes soil fertility, affecting crop growth and productivity. Contaminated soil lacks essential nutrients and may contain toxic substances that can stunt plant growth, reduce crop yields, and lower agricultural output.

Water Contamination: Pollutants in the soil can leach into groundwater reserves, contaminating drinking water sources. This poses a serious health risk to humans and wildlife, as the polluted water can carry harmful substances over long distances.

Biodiversity Loss: Soil pollution can disrupt the delicate balance of ecosystems, leading to the loss of plant and animal species. Contaminated soil affects the organisms living within it, leading to a decline in biodiversity and ecological imbalances.

Health Impacts: Soil pollution can have direct and indirect effects on human health. The consumption of crops grown in contaminated soil can expose humans to toxic substances, leading to various health issues, including gastrointestinal problems, organ damage, and even cancer.

Solutions to Soil Pollution:

Sustainable Agricultural Practices: Encouraging farmers to adopt sustainable agricultural practices, such as organic farming and integrated pest management, can minimize the use of harmful chemicals and promote soil health.

Proper Waste Management: Implementing effective waste management strategies, including recycling, composting, and hazardous waste disposal, is crucial to prevent the introduction of pollutants into the soil.

Reforestation and Afforestation: Planting trees and restoring vegetation in deforested areas can help prevent soil erosion, protect topsoil, and improve soil fertility.

Soil Remediation Techniques: Employing soil remediation techniques, such as bioremediation, phytoremediation, and soil washing, can help remove or neutralize contaminants, restoring the soil to a healthy state.

Education and Awareness: Raising awareness about soil pollution, its causes, and potential solutions is vital. Educating the public, farmers, and industries about the importance of soil conservation and responsible practices can drive positive change. 0 0 0.

Soil Conservation


Soil is a precious natural resource that plays a vital role in sustaining life on Earth. It serves as a foundation for agriculture, providing nutrients, water, and support for plant growth. Unfortunately, soil erosion, degradation, and pollution are escalating global concerns that pose significant threats to food security, biodiversity, and environmental stability. To ensure the long-term viability of our planet, it is crucial to implement effective soil conservation strategies. This essay will delve into various methods and practices that can be employed to conserve soil and preserve this invaluable resource for future generations.

1. Implementing Sustainable Agricultural Practices:

a. Conservation Tillage: By reducing or eliminating plowing and using techniques like no-till farming, conservation tillage helps minimize soil disturbance, erosion, and moisture loss, promoting the retention of organic matter and soil structure.
b. Crop Rotation: Rotating crops helps break pest cycles, enhances nutrient availability, reduces soil erosion, and prevents the depletion of specific nutrients, promoting soil fertility and overall health.
c. Cover Cropping: Planting cover crops during fallow periods or between cash crops helps protect the soil from erosion, improves water infiltration, suppresses weeds, and enriches the soil with organic matter.
d. Agroforestry: Integrating trees or shrubs with agricultural practices helps reduce erosion, improve water retention, increase biodiversity, and enhance soil nutrient content.

2. Controlling Erosion:

a. Terracing: Building terraces on slopes helps reduce runoff and erosion by creating level platforms that allow water to infiltrate the soil and slow down its flow.
b. Contour Plowing: Plowing across the slope contours rather than up and down minimizes soil erosion by intercepting water flow and reducing its velocity.
c. Windbreaks: Planting trees, shrubs, or windbreak barriers along the edges of fields helps prevent wind erosion by reducing wind speed, deflecting its force, and stabilizing the soil.
d. Mulching: Applying organic or inorganic materials as mulch on the soil surface conserves moisture, suppresses weed growth, moderates temperature extremes, and protects against erosion.

3. Enhancing Soil Health:

a. Organic Matter Management: Incorporating organic matter, such as compost, manure, or crop residues, into the soil improves its structure, water-holding capacity, nutrient content, and microbial activity.
b. Nutrient Management: Balancing nutrient inputs through proper fertilization techniques, such as soil testing, precision application, and using slow-release fertilizers, prevents nutrient imbalances, reduces pollution, and enhances soil fertility.
c. Irrigation Management: Efficient water management practices, like drip irrigation or precision sprinklers, reduce water wastage, prevent soil erosion, and maintain optimal moisture levels in the soil.
d. Avoiding Overgrazing: Implementing proper grazing management strategies, such as rotational grazing, rest periods, and maintaining appropriate stocking rates, prevents soil compaction, erosion, and degradation caused by excessive livestock activity.

4. Preventing Pollution and Contamination:

a. Minimizing Chemical Inputs: Reducing the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, and herbicides through integrated pest management (IPM) approaches helps prevent soil contamination and safeguard beneficial organisms.
b. Proper Waste Disposal: Ensuring the safe disposal of agricultural chemicals, livestock waste, and industrial byproducts prevents soil pollution and the leaching of harmful substances into the soil.
c. Soil Testing and Monitoring: Regularly testing soil samples and monitoring soil quality helps identify potential issues, such as nutrient deficiencies or soil contamination, allowing for timely corrective measures.

Effects of Soil Conservation

Soil conservation refers to the protection, management, and restoration of soil resources to ensure their sustainable use and prevent degradation. The effects of soil conservation practices are far-reaching, impacting various aspects of our environment, economy, and society. This essay delves into the profound effects of soil conservation and highlights its importance in sustaining ecosystems and securing a prosperous future for generations to come.
1. Enhanced Soil Fertility and Productivity: One of the primary effects of soil conservation is the preservation and improvement of soil fertility. Conservation practices such as terracing, contour plowing, and cover cropping help minimize erosion, reduce nutrient loss, and enhance organic matter content. By preventing soil erosion and maintaining soil structure, these practices ensure that essential nutrients, water, and oxygen are retained, thus fostering optimal conditions for plant growth. Improved soil fertility and productivity enable sustainable agriculture, leading to increased crop yields and food security.
2. Prevention of Soil Erosion: Soil erosion poses a significant threat to agricultural lands and natural ecosystems worldwide. However, soil conservation measures effectively combat erosion, thereby safeguarding valuable topsoil. Contour plowing, strip cropping, and windbreaks are techniques that break the force of wind and water, reducing their erosive impact. These practices prevent the loss of fertile soil, preserve soil structure, and maintain soil moisture levels, all of which are critical for sustaining vegetation, wildlife habitats, and agricultural productivity.
3. Mitigation of Water Pollution: Soil conservation plays a pivotal role in mitigating water pollution. Soil acts as a natural filter, retaining and purifying water as it percolates through the ground. However, when erosion occurs, sediments, pesticides, fertilizers, and other pollutants are carried by runoff into water bodies, degrading water quality. Implementing conservation practices such as riparian buffers, contour buffers, and grassed waterways helps trap sediment, absorb excess nutrients, and reduce chemical runoff. By preventing soil erosion, these practices contribute to cleaner water sources, healthier aquatic ecosystems, and the protection of human health.
4. Preservation of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services: Soil conservation is closely intertwined with the preservation of biodiversity and the provision of essential ecosystem services. Soil serves as a habitat for countless organisms, including microorganisms, insects, and earthworms, that contribute to the nutrient-cycling process and overall ecosystem functioning. Conservation practices protect and promote the diversity of soil organisms, ensuring the sustainability of ecosystems and the resilience of plant communities. Healthy soils support the growth of diverse vegetation, which, in turn, provides habitats for wildlife, aids in carbon sequestration, regulates water flow, and maintains ecological balance.
5. Climate Change Mitigation: Soil conservation also plays a critical role in mitigating climate change. Healthy soils act as carbon sinks, storing significant amounts of carbon dioxide (CO2) and other greenhouse gases. Conservation practices like conservation tillage, agroforestry, and the use of organic amendments enhance soil organic matter content, which increases carbon sequestration potential. By retaining carbon in the soil, these practices help offset greenhouse gas emissions, reduce atmospheric CO2 levels, and mitigate climate change impacts.
6. Economic Benefits and Sustainable Development: Soil conservation has profound economic benefits and contributes to sustainable development. By preserving soil fertility and preventing erosion, farmers can maintain or increase crop yields, reducing the need for costly inputs such as fertilizers and irrigation. Additionally, soil conservation practices protect valuable agricultural lands, preserving their long-term productivity and supporting rural economies. Furthermore, sustainable soil management practices enhance the resilience of farming systems, enabling farmers to adapt to changing climatic conditions and market demands, ensuring long-term economic viability. 0 0 0.


The end of School Essays Part-II

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