Indian English Poetry Criticism

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Indian English Poetry Criticism






Menonim Menonimus



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Indian English Poetry Criticism,  A collection of Critical Essays on Indian English Poetry by Menonim Menonimus.


All Rights  of the book ‘Indian English  Poetry Criticism’ is Reserved with the Author


First Published: 2019


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Late A. Rahman

My Father

Who taught me the Dignity of Labour

A Lesson that Makes me What I am

— Menonim Menonimus





  1. Henry Derozio’s ‘Poetry’- A Critical Analysis
  2. Henry Derozio’s Sonnet ‘To the Moon’-An Analytical Study
  3. Henry Derozio’s ‘Song’ -A Critical Analysis
  4. Henry Derozio’s ‘Song of the Hindustanee Minstrel’-A Critical Analysis
  5. Henry Derozio’s Poem ‘Chorus of Brahmins’- A Critical Analysis
  6. Henry Derozio’s ‘Harp of India’-A Critical Analysis
  7. Henry Derozio’s Poem, ‘To the Pupils of Hindu College’-A Critical Analysis
  8. Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Night of Slaughter: Duryodhan’s Death’ -A Critical Analysis.
  9. Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Sita Lost’ – A Critical Analysis
  10. Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Buddha’s Death’-A Critical Study
  11. Greece Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Samarsi’-A Critical Analysis
  12. Brajendra Nath Seal’s Poem  ‘Nature Unveiled’-A Critical Analysis
  13. Brajendranath Seal’s Poem ‘The Rime of the Wizard Knight’-A Critical Analysis
  14. Brajendranath Seal’s Poem ‘ An Ancient Hymn’-A Critical Analysis
  15. Michael Madhusudan Dutt’s Poem ‘King Porus: A Legend of Old’-A Critical Analysis
  16. Michael Madhusudan Dutt’s Poem ‘Satan’- A  Critical Analysis
  17. Michael Madhusudan Dutt’s Poem ‘The Captive Ladie’- A  Critical Analysis
  18. Ram Sharma’s Poem ‘Bhagobati Gita’-A Critical Analysis
  19. Ram Sharma’s Poem, ‘Music and Vision of the Anahat Chakram’-A Critical Analysis
  20. Ram Sharma’s Poem ‘ In Memory of Swami Vivekananda’ -A Critical Analysis
  21. Ram Sharma’s Poem ‘Lines Addressed to James Skibblerus’ -A Critical Analysis
  22. Kasiprasad Gosh’s Poem ‘ The Shair’s Farewell Song’-A Critical Analysis
  23. Kasiprasad Gose’s Poem ‘ To a Dead Crow’ – A Critical Analysis
  24. Kasiprasad Gose’s Poem ‘To a Young Hindu Widow’ -A Critical Analysis
  25. Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Soul-Weariness’: A Critical Analysis
  26. Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Prologue’-A Critical Analysis
  27. Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Spirit of Light’-A Critical Analysis
  28. Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Golconda at Sunset’-A Critical Analysis
  29. Sri Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Rose of God’ -A Brief Comment
  30. Sri  Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Trance of Waiting’-A Brief Comment
  31. Sri Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Thought the Paraclete’-A Critical Analysis
  32. Sri  Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Revelation’ – A Critical Analysis
  33. Sri Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Transformation’ -A Critical Analysis
  34. Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘Lakshman’ -A Critical Analysis
  35. Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree’ – A Critical Analysis
  36. Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘The Lotus’-A Critical  Analysis
  37. Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘A Mon Pere’- A Critical Analysis
  38. Swami Vivekanand’s Poem ‘The Cup’ A Critical Analysis
  39. Swami Vivekanand’s Poem ‘Peace’ A Critical Analysis
  40. Swami Vivekanand’s Poem ‘Kali the Mother- A Critical Analysis
  41. Anilbaran’s Poem ‘My Beloved’-A Critical Analysis
  42. Manmohan Gose’s Poem ‘London’-A Critical Analysis
  43. Manmohan Gose’s Poem ‘The Garden Passion’-A Critical Analysis
  44. Manmohan Ghose’s Poem ‘Poplar, Beech and Weeping Willow’- A Critical Analysis

Indian English Poetry Criticism


Table of Contents


Henry Derozio’s ‘Poetry’- A Critical Analysis

The poem entitled ‘Poetry’ is a sonnet on adolescent life by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio, the first Indo-Anglian poet. Through this poem, he portrays the working of the brain of the young girl or boy during his or her adolescent period, when he becomes emotional or highly imaginative and desires to do those things which are not possible in real life.

During the period of adolescence, every girl or boy’s mind is occupied by a poetic feeling which is hyperbolic and full of adventurous and colourful imagination. His adventurous imagination is nothing but the eccentricity of the young hood. The poet calls this madness of younghood as ‘sweet madness’. During this period, the youthful brain becomes full of pleasing images and it revolves round those whimsical hopes and desires that it likes. In doing so, he feels excessive joy within his mind. During this period, he becomes so daring and adventurous that he desires to roam about all over the world. In one leap of imagination, he can go to the deep recesses of the sea. And in another leap, he climbs up the Himalayas. Then he wishes to go to the fragrant shores of Araby or Classic Greece or wishes to test the fragrant sweetness of Italian fount. He does not think even once that in chasing those imaginations he may ruin. In this period, he becomes an eager lover also. He becomes amorous and gazes at the beautiful lips of beautiful girls. He looks at everything with an ardent look. During this period, he becomes mad at love and song. He sings songs rivaling the nightingale and dove. In youth, he becomes so much bold that he does not hesitate to go through the gale or fire. He also practises playing on a lyre as an angel.

The above analysis of the poem shows that the poet has portrayed the inner working of an adult mind. In the whole range of Indian English poetry not the second piece of poetry is seen except it where the workings of the adolescent brain are portrayed so vividly, skilfully and successfully within so narrow limit of a sonnet.

The words employed in this sonnet are simple but the imageries are concrete pictures that symbolize the complexity of youthhood. From the very beginning to the very end, this sonnet is made up of imageries that suit best to the matter of the poem.

If poetry is an object of emotion and imagination rounding a thing or feeling,  then this is the best piece of poetry in adolescent life. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Henry Derozio’s Sonnet ‘To the Moon’-A Critical Analysis

‘Sonnet to the Moon’ is an exceptional nature poem by Henry Louis Vivian Derozio. In this poem, nature does not stand as a source of joy and peace as is seen in the poetry of English romantic poets. Instead, in this poem, nature is seen as a source of sorrow and grief. The whole poem, figuratively, is a pathetic fallacy, because human capacities and feelings are attributed to a natural object, here to the moon. The moon reflects or signifies nothing of its own but of human plight on the earth.

The poet Derozio begins the poem by addressing the moon that it wanders through the sky like a ghost or an evil spirit that commits a dreadful deed in the darkness of night. The face of the moon is full of marks of sadness. While its temper is sad and it breaks down in despair, it gets no shelter to take rest. Only the night welcomes it and offers repose (rest). But it can not have rest as the light of the sun reflects on it. Then its hope of taking rest flies away and instead the thoughts of sadness surround her.

In the last six lines, the poet turns his imagination and says that the moon is too near to the earth to see the birth of joy on the earth. And it gazes on the earth and sees that the earth is inundated not with joy but with sorrows, sufferance and pain which touch the heart of the moon. In other words, the moon also feels the sorrows of human being. Then its face becomes pale as it shows sympathy for the misfortune of human being.

The above analysis of the poem shows that as a nature poem it is an exception from the traditional nature poems. It shows not nature but human conditions on the earth. When human feelings or states are attributed to any natural objects with a parallel to the human condition in society it may be called poetic parallelism. And so is the poem.

It is a sonnet of the Petrarchan type. Like Derozio’s other poems, it is not easy and simple in language. There are some terms and phrases in it which are not easy to make out the real meaning. The sentences are compact but full of meanings. Its imageries are highly poetic and charming. In this poem, there is an alliterative phrase as ‘deed of darkness done’.

To sum up it may be said that this poem both in matter and manner is a derivation of Henry Derozio. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Henry Derozio’s ‘Song’ -A Critical Analysis  

Henry Derozio’s ‘Song’ is a love poem. He expresses his deep love for his beloved through this poem. His attitude toward love, in this pretty poem, like his other love poems, is romantic. The poet renounces human society and goes to a secluded place down the sea far away from society and there called for his beloved to live there together amid joy and happiness.

The poet addressing his beloved says that he has left human society on behalf of his beloved and has gone far down the sea. The hall that he wishes to live in is made up of pure amber. It is darksome. No starlight shines there to cheer the bosom of the poet. Yet this dark place is dear to him as he wants to live there with his beloved. He evokes his beloved to go to the depth of the sea. He assures her that he will give his beloved the entire valuable treasures of the sea that no other mortal being can have. In this secluded place, there is a grotto. It is mute without his beloved. There he will live with his beloved and sing, and play on lute to please the ears of his beloved. The songs are full of the joys of love that his beloved once loved to hear.

The subject matter of this song shows that the poet is inclined to a world of nature far away from human society. But in reality, it is impossible to live in such a solitary place. It may be possible only in the imagination. But his love expressed in this poem is deep to the extreme. He is blind to her and to her love, hence this poem is a highly romantic one as he desires to go away from society and wants to live in a world of imagination. Here the influence of the English Romantic poets like Wordsworth, Keats, Shelley and Yeats is visible.

The style of this poem is very simple. The language is easy. It is written in rhymed line as to be sung in tone with musical instruments. The rhyme scheme of the poem is abcb of four lines.

Both in matter and manner, this poem is a pure romantic lyric. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

  Henry Derozio’s ‘Song of the Hindustanee Minstrel’-A Critical Analysis

Once there was a class of people who composed songs on varied themes to be sung with musical instruments. This class of people was called ‘minstrel’.This class of people was also in India in a large number. But nowadays with the spreading of modern education, this class of people has lost its demand and popularity. During the days of Derozio, this practice was alive and he himself had met many minstrels and heard them sing songs. He then, either translated the songs of the minstrel or he himself wrote an independent song imitating the song of the minstrels. Such a song he composed is ‘Song of the Hindustanee Minstrel’. This is a love song. Through this song, the poet has expressed his sincere love for his beloved.

The poem is written in nine stanzas, each stanza consisting of four lines. Through the first three stanzas, the poet eulogizes the physical beauty of his beloved and says that when she uses the ‘surmah’, her eyes sparkle like the stars. Her dress is as beautiful as a rose. The poet tells hyperbolically that there are many valuable pearls in Oman’s sea but no richest pearl can rival his lover. There are many kinds of beautiful roses in Busrah (the name of a place where rose grows abundantly) but the cheeks of his beloved are more beautiful. In toto, his beloved is more beautiful that the young people who meet her once shall praise her and welcome her to be their beloved.

In the remaining stanzas, the poet expresses his desire for union with her beloved. He says that he will meet her beloved erelong and live in the city and then he will cheer up his beloved’s heart with his love. He wishes to forget all sorrows in life and wishes her to be hopeful to live because the poet will live with her amid joys and comfort like a king. In such a comfortable royal palace they will sing songs and play musical instruments and thus they will forget their woe. They together will roam all over the world. His lover weeps but he admonishes her not to weep. They, like birds, will roam from place to place and sing songs with ‘sitar’. The world may change but his love for his beloved will never change. He shall be living and loving her beloved.

The above analysis shows that the poet’s love for his beloved is highly deep and passionate. He is blind to her love. His attraction towards her seems first to be physical and then his physical love develops into hearty love. The poet’s love expressed in the poem is highly romantic. The poet has forgotten the reality of human society and desires to live in a society which is full of love, joy, and comfort.

This poem reminds us of the love poems of Andrew Marvel, a 17th-century English poet who also wrote some exquisite poems on the theme of love.

The style and language of the poem are very simple as his other poems, but the imagery of the poem is richer. Its imageries are not far-fetched but common. As the theme and matter of the poem is sensitive so is the description of the theme. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Henry Derozio’s Poem ‘Chorus of Brahmins’- A Critical Analysis

‘The Chorus of Brahmins ‘is one of Henry Derozio’s fine poems through which he has portrayed the scene of Indian, especially Hindu society. Idolatry is the heritage of the Hindus. From time immemorial human beings along with animals had been being sacrificed at the altar of deities. During the days of the poet Henry Derozio, this custom was in practice more or less. Before, while any human being was procured to sacrifice in front of any deity, then the Brahmins of the society gathered and made a preparation of the sacrifice just before the sacrifice was offered. The poet gives a vivid description of what the chorus of Brahmins did just before the sacrifice.

The Brahmins scattered flowers, played on the cymbal, strew the scented orient spices and along with them they brought balm, myrrh, and thus they made the preparation of their worship and sacrifice. All the preparation they had to do before the sunset. The Brahmins believed that the deity would be pleased with their worship and sacrifice. In these worshipping rituals, people brought many things and goods to offer to the deity. Some brought the purest pearl; some bought flashing refined gold and diamond. The branches of the sandal tree were burnt to produce a sweet scent. After collecting these things, they danced and sang and felt that it was their triumph. The poet says:

”Which their fragrance still impart

Like food man’s injured heart,

This its triumph, this its boast;

Sweetest, this when wounded most.”

Then the widow among them prayed, to the deity and at last, they consecrated the sacrifice to the deity.

The poet has not shown the scene of scarification clearly in his poem, but the acts done just before the sacrifice has been delineated in full. The description is so vivid as if it has been happening in front of our eyes. The poet has done no critical comment on these rituals. He gives an account of their acts only.

The language of the poem is very simple, plain and easy to understand. It is written in a two-lined rhyme scheme.

In conclusion, it is to say that the poem ‘Chorus of Brahims’ is a fine poem on Hindu rituals. The Brahmins with their blind belief have been shown in this poem successfully. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Henry Derozio’s ‘Harp of India’-A Critical Analysis

‘The Harp of India’ is a sonnet by Henry Derozio, the first Indo-Anglian poet. The title word ‘Harp’ means a musical instrument. It had been considered the heritage of India for so long. But the poet saw that this age-long heritage had come to an end. So he has composed this piece of a charming sonnet in an elegiac tone. In this poem, the harp stands as an emblem of glorious Indian heritage.

The poet sees that the harp has lost its prestigious position in society and has been hanging in the boughs of trees. Now, none plays on it. Once, while the minstrels sang songs and played on it then everybody listened to its tune attentively and eagerly. It created an environment of peace, joy, and merriment. But now none plays on it and none is eager to listen to it. The poet figuratively says that the breeze blows over the harp; but not in joy but in lamentation and this breeze becomes sighs. Now silence has bound the chain of it forever. It has been laid neglected, mute, and desolate like a ruined monument in the desert. The poet reminds us that once the minstrels sang songs playing on it with a worthy hand than the hand of the poet. Playing on it with a worthy hand, they gave rise to a harmonious sweet song and by means of it, the minstrel achieved fame both at home and abroad. The minstrels were honoured by all and everywhere. Now the minstrels are dead. They are no more today to play on the harp or to keep up the old heritage of India. At last, the poet wishes that he would try to revive the lost heritage.

The poem is full of Indian sensitiveness. This poem shows the poet’s love for Indian heritage as well as for rustic culture and even more his love for India, his motherland.

The language of the poem is simple no doubt, but the charm of the poem lies in the vivid, life-like imageries. The imageries of bough, breeze and of the ruined monument in the desert are charming and appropriate to the matter.

”Why doth the breeze sigh over thee in vain;

Silence hath bound thee with her fatal chain;

Neglected, mute and desolate art thou;

Like ruined monument on desert plain.”

How vivid and striking these imageries are!

To compare this sonnet with other sonnets by the same poet, it is appropriate to say that it is, both in matter and manner, superior to the rest. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Henry Derozio’s Poem, ‘To the Pupils of Hindu College’-A Critical Analysis

‘To the Pupils of the Hindu College’ by Henry Derozio the first Indo-Anglian poet, is fourteen-lined poetry (sonnet). In this poetry, the poet expresses his joy and thanks to the students of the Hindu College who seem to broaden their outlook by receiving western education throwing away the age-long Orthodox Hindu thought.

The poet notices that the students of the Hindu College have come out of the narrow, orthodox, agelong traditional thought after getting admission to the Hindu College where students are taught the progressive western thoughts. Thus the students seem to broaden their intellectual power. As the young birds in summer try their wings to fly freely, so the students of the Hindu College seem to try their new knowledge of broad outlook. Their knowledge received from Hindu College seems to refresh their intellectual as the April showers refresh the leaves and boughs of trees. This progress of the students in the field of education and thought gives joy in the mind of the poet and thus the poet hopes and anticipates that the Indian students like the western thinkers, would be able to achieve fame. The poet says:

”What joyance rains upon me when I see

Fame in the mirror of futurity.”

At last, the poet says that by means of a college education the students would gain fame and receive chaplets of honour in the ensuing future and this feeling gives the poet incessant joy and this feeling of joy makes his life meaningful.

Here, in this poem, the poet seems to incline his mind to western thought, but it does not mean that he hates Indian heritage. He only praises and encourages the students of Hindu College in pursuing free thought.

The language of the poem is simple no doubt but the expression is compact. In this sonnet, there are three vivid imageries. The first imagery is the imagery of the young flowers, the second imagery is of the young birds on summer days and the third is the imagery of the April shower.

The main charm of the poem is the charm of the matter itself along with the vivid and sensitives imageries beyond its language. 0 0 0 

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Night of Slaughter: Duryodhan’s Death’ -A Critical Analysis

‘Night of Slaughters: Duryodhan’s Death’ is a mythological poem written by Ramesh Chunder Dutt. The matter of the poem has been taken from the ancient Sanskrit epic ‘Mahabharata’ which was originally composed by Dev Bash. The background of the poem is so much long to narrate here; but to say in brief that once in ancient India there were two brothers – Pandu and Dhritarashtra. Both were the kings of two independent kingdoms. Pandu had five sons and Dhritarashtra had one hundred sons. The sons of Pandu were called Pandav and the sons of Dhritarashtra were called Kaurav. The Pandavs were very pious and religious. But the Kauravs were impious, ambitious, and envious of the Pandavs. The Kauravs were so much ambitious that they engulfed the kingdom of their own maternal grandfather and killed their all maternal uncles except only Sakuni, their eldest maternal uncle. Sakuni, however, took shelter on the Kauravs and began to make a plot to take vengeance upon the Kauravs. He found no means to perish Kauravs. So, at last, he determined to set a quarrel between the Pandavs and the Kauravs. The Kauravs under the allurement of Sakuni set a bet against the Pandavs through the Dice game (a kind of gambling) under the condition that those who would be defeated in the bet would give up their kingdom and might go to exit for thirteen years. Under this condition, the dice game was arranged and through the foul means of Sakuni, the Pandavs were defeated and sent to exile. After thirteen years, spending in exile, the Pandavs came back to their homeland and asked the Kauravs to return to their kingdom. But the Kauravs did not agree to that. So a battle began between the two sects. Duryodhan was the head of the Kaurav as he was the eldest Kaurav. In this war, many valiant warriors of both parties fell down. The defeat of the Kauravs became sure. Only Duryodhan was alive and was to be defeated. In the last scene of the battle, between the two parties Bhim, the second Pandav, chased Duryodhan. The poet, in this narrative poem, has written what had happened to Duryodhan while he was pursued and chased by Bhim.

The poet writes that Dutyodhan being battle-tired retreated from the battlefield but the valiant sons of Pandu chased him with the hunter’s watchful care. Duryodhan was ashamed of his downfall in the battle. Though Duryodhan was crest-fallen yet his arrogance did not diminish. He said proudly to the Pandavs that they would perish in his hand that evening. Hearing so, Bhim recalled the past insults done by the Kauravs to the Pandavs. He recalled and replied to Duryodhan that the insults given by the Kauravs had been endured long but were not forgiven. Bhim alone would fight against Duryodhan and this fight would be witnessed by the gods in heaven. Bhim recalled to his mind the evil design of the Kauravs in which they planned to consume the Pandavas in the fire. He called to mind the conspiracy of Sakuni by means of which he cheated the Pandavs and deprived them of their fame and empire. He remembered the scene in which chaste Drupadi’s wearing robes were carried off by Duryodhan. Even he called to the mind and replied Duryodhan that it was Duryodhan’s sin that caused Drona, Karna and others’ death. Replying so to Duryodhan, Bhim was enraged and rushed to Duryodhan and began to fight. Both were great heroes and began to fight in fury with wounds and oozing blood like two bulls. They began to fight as fiercely and heroically yielding thunder as Indra and Yama fought. Spark of fire shot from their maces and their faces ran with blood. For many a time, they fought fiercely and at last Duryodhan fell down.

After this, the poet has given a poetic description of Duryodhan’s discomfiture and says that the fall of Duryodhan resounded in the sky. His outcry was re-echoed in the hills and dales. The beasts and birds flew away in fear. Darkness fell upon the battlefield and Duryodhan was lying moribund on the ground.

And then, the poet says that during that age, feuds and hatred between two families or sects continued from generation to generation. In the battle of Kurukshetra also the same was the case. Drona in the war was on the side of the Kauravs and he met death at the hands of Pandavas. The sons of Drona became determined to take vengeance for their father’s death and so they silently went to the tent of Drupadi, the wife of Pandavs, where she was with her children. The news of the killing of the sons of Drupadi was carried to Duryodhan by Aswa-thama and hearing the news of vengeance Duryodhan’s heart cheered up in joy and he died a happy death.

Through this poem, the poet shows the custom of revenge in ancient Indian society.

The language of the poem is very simple. The imageries employed in this poem are very charming which has enhanced the beauty of the poem. The following lines may be quoted at random to substantiate how rich the imageries of the poem are:

”Like two bulls that fight in fury blind with wounds and oozing blood,

Like two wild and warring tuskers shaking all their echoing wood.

Like the thunder wielding INDRA-YAMA monarch of the dead 

Dauntless Bhim and fiercely stroke and fought and bled!

Spark of fire shot from their maces and their faces ran with blood.”

Besides these the imageries which the poet invokes to narrate the loud outcry of Duryodhan in his moribund bed is also highly poetic. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Sita Lost’ – A Critical Analysis

Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s poem entitled ‘Sita Lost’ is a mythological poem the matter of which is taken from the well-known Indian epic Ramayana by Valmiki. The background of this poem is long but it says in brief that Ram married Sita, the saintly daughter of Janak. Ram being the eldest son of Dasharatha the king of Ayodhya, was to be the king of Ayodhaya after his father. But due to an evil design done by his stepmother Kaikaee, Ram was sent to exile. Sita, his wife, and Laxman, Ram’s younger brother followed Ram into exile. From exile, Sita was carried off by Ravana, the monster king of Lanka. Later on, Sita was rescued and taken back by Ram. But the people of Ayodhya could not receive Sita easily. They pleaded that as Sita was carried off by Ravana and so she might lose her chastity and virtues. Though Ram knew well that Ravana did not harm her and Sita remained chaste, yet to please his subjects Ram sent Sita again to exile. The remaining incident that happened to Sita in her exile is narrated here in this poem by Ramesh Chunder Dutt in a plain and lucid style.

Through this poem, the poet shows Sita’s devotion to her husband and Ram’s love to his subjects as well as his honour to public opinion.

At the very beginning of the poem, the poet says that the banished Sita became sorrow-stricken as she lost everything – her husband, children and all sorts of royal comforts. When it was about morning she went to the monastery of Valmiki in the forest. Valmiki, the sage sympathised with her. Ram also went to the forest to banish Sita. There,  Ram, bowing down his head to the feet of the sage expressed his grief to Valmiki.  Then Valmiki had been composing the Ramayana. So, Ram said to Valmiki that what he had been writing the world would read in praise of him. He also said to Valmiki that to prove Sita – whether she had been chaste or not – he threw Sita to a burning fire. The fire did not burn her. But his subjects were not satisfied. Yet they doubted her chastity and then to please his subjects, Rama had taken Sita to the forest to banish her. Leaving Sita alone in the forest, Rama returned home. But before going back home, Ram prayed to god that Sita might prove her virtue and again she would be his loving bride. In the forest, Sita gave birth to two children. Sita endured all sorrows with patience, but she had lost her spirit and hope to live long. So, he prayed the mother earth to receive her in her bosom as to get relief from her worldly anguish. Then the earth was rent and parted and a golden throne arose held aloft by jewelled Nagas and the earth embraced her forever.

This is the main event of the poem. The plight that happened to Sita is very pathetic, but full of ideals as Sita proves her chastity and her love to her husband and Ram shows his love for his subjects and honour to the public opinion.

In the poem there is a supernatural element as while Sita prayed to mother earth to receive her then the earth was rent parted and embraced her.

Like other poems of Ramesh Chunder Dutt, this poem ‘Sita Lost’ is also simple and easy in language and style. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Ramesh Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Buddha’s Death’-A Critical Analysis

Ramesh Chunder’ Dutt’s ‘Buddha’s Death’ is a mythological poem in which the poet has portrayed Buddha’s teaching just before his death. It may be called the swan song of Lord Buddha. Lord Buddha was the founder of a special and independent religious sect called after his name ‘Buddhism’. He, after a continuous meditation of eighteen years, was enlightened with heavenly wisdom and found out the path of redemption of the human soul. He thought that everyone should lead a pious and virtuous life to get redemption from worldly life. His teachings were warmly welcomed and greeted by people and many became his disciples. Buddha, along with his faithful disciples wandered from place to place and preached his holy teachings.

The poet narrates, here in this poem, the activities and teachings of Lord Buddha’s last days while he was about to die. The poet says, wherever Buddha went with his followers the trees blossomed out of season and spread lovely fragrance. The flowers and sandal powder gently fell on him from high and heavenly music gently wattled down from the sky.

This narration is very poetic and by saying so the poet wants to mean that wherever Buddha went, people’s hearts swelled up with joy and hope.

Then Buddha whispered to his followers, sandal-powder and heavenly music are useless if a man doesn’t become devout, pure, and faithful to his duties.

Then the poet says about what Buddha said just before his last breath. It was night. Buddha was becoming weak. Then Brahman came to him seeking wisdom. Buddha, though dying, spoke to him gently and plainly and gave a lesson and died silently.

From the above analysis of the poem, it has become clear that the poem holds up Buddha’s greatness. Buddha gave emphasis on the piety or holiness of the human heart and deeds. Buddha said as the poet writes:

”But the brothers and sisters,

Man devout and woman holy

Pure in life, the duty faithful-

They perform the worship truly.”

The language of the poem is very simple, easy and fascinating as that of Bengali lyrics. The first twelve lines of this poem contain vivid imagery which symbolizes Buddha’s holiness. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Greece Chunder Dutt’s Poem ‘Samarsi’-A Critical Analysis

‘Samarsi’ is a poem about an individual. His name is Samarsi. He was a poor young boy. Later on, in search of his livelihood, he became a robber. The poem bears five stanzas and each stanza comprises six lines.

The poet says that Samarsi was bold and he was the pride of his clan. But he was so much poor. He belonged to Rajasthan, but in broad Rajasthan, he had not an acre of land. So he left home and came to Jumna in favour of the moors and became a leader of them. The Moors (Moslem) feasted in hall and bower. They always kept the crescent flag fluttering in the temple and tower. Samarsi with the Moors lived a life of robbery. They could throw the dust into the eyes of the soldiers who kept watch by day and night. He became so powerful that his will was the law. The soldiers always kept a watch on the forest beside the lake. In the forest, there was robuck (a kind of little male deer) and partridge (a kind of bird). In the pool and in the stream there were seen ‘perch’ (a kind of freshwater fish) and salmon (a kind of big fish). Though there were warders on the hill and plain, yet Samarsi defied them and harried (plundered) his father’s land.

He became so tact and shrewd in a robbery that an outlaw against him was decreed by the chief. Yet Samarsi had homage from high and law. While night fell in the copsewood by Saloombra Park and in the vale of Vanmora, then Samarsi became ready and stood by wood with a sword in his hand. In the cave of Pukarna, beneath the green hill, Samarsi went at night taking light in his hand and reveled in freedom till morning.

Thus the poem shows the activities of Samarsi which were illegal and anti-society. Moreover, it expresses his love of freedom and love of nature.

Though the language seemed easy, it is difficult to comprehend easily as the poet has not expressed the theme explicitly. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Brajendra Nath Seal’s Poem  ‘Nature Unveiled’-A Critical Analysis

Brajendranath Seal’s Nature Unveiled is a romantic poem with a touch of mysticism. In this poem, the poet has forgotten himself as a social being and thinks of himself to be a being of nature far away from human society and takes share with the objects of nature.

First, the poet says that he is sick and faint of human society and hence comes out of his home as a streamlet leaps out from a dark cavern of hills. Thus like a rivulet, he wandered over gorse (a spiny yellow-flowered shrub) and heather (a bush of shrub) following the tract of golden mist upon the glades. He makes his spirit bathe in the morning dew where the wood-nymphs stroke against the morning light. Not only so, he thinks himself to be one with the woods. He budded in the bud and grew rapidly afresh in the green shoots. The tendril (slender shoot of creeper) of the leaves of trees was his veins. His eyes blossomed on every bush. His arms waved in the tall spike of grass. He, with the hillside, breathed in the white fog. He felt that the twirling leaves vibrated through the pores of his skin. Thus he thought himself to be one with the woods and he felt that the earth was his body. The poet ceases not to think of himself to be one being of nature but continues to think more that the life of the object of nature was his own life. Like birds, he sang on every bough. He leaped rock to rock. He snorted the ‘crisp air’ (fresh air). He frisked, dined and bathed his plumage in the stream as a bird. He glided, swayed and curved like a flight of cranes and he poised his body like an eagle in the mid-air. In the serene dale, till it was morning, he heard the indistinct cry and song of birds. He thought that the wind came from heaven. He saw, in front of him, a dark green mound and climbed it.

After this, the poet adds a mystic vision of the creator of nature, to the poem and says that while he climbed the top of the hill he saw the Mother of Nature (here Swarashwati Hindu goddess of Learning) and saw that her spirit was brooding over the objects of nature like a dove as to give birth to a new object. The poet saw that the Mother of nature with motherly instinct reared and moulded the bird. More he saw that she had moulded the starred tail of the peacocks and the crest of the parrots.

After giving the mystic vision of the Mother of nature, the poet turns his eyes again towards the objects and beings of nature and sees that a spotted spider, coming out from the molted grass, caught her tiny mate in a lustful grip and dealt the fatal hug. Then a spotted lizard came out of a crevice and flew at the spider and screeched. After this, the poet saw that a hawk swooped down and an eagle-eyed on the ‘quarry’ (a heap of dead bodies) from the sky. Suddenly he saw that Djinn appeared and coiled them all in voluminous folds. The mist rolled in and blotched the scene. Then the earth’s face seemed to turn grotesque with a monstrous frown. The mist rolled on and all were wiped out. Thus in the latter portion of the poem, the poet shows the odd side of nature.

The poem is written in blank verse. The diction of the poem is not easy as the poem bears the characteristics of compactness of using words. The last stanza of the poem is not easy to understand as in the stanza the poet evokes imagery of some voracious huge monsters.

This, as a nature poem, is as grand as Wordsworth’s ‘Tintern Abbey’ and Toru Dutt’s ‘Casuarina Tree’. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Brajendranath Seal’s Poem ‘The Rime of the Wizard Knight’-A Critical Analysis

‘The Rime of the Wizard Knight’ by Brajendranath Seal is a literary ballad as Coleridge’s ‘Rime of the Ancient Marines or Keat’s La Dame Sans Merci’ is. The poem is a romantic one. This poem reveals the poet’s love and interest in the past world of nature full of beauty and romance. The poem has two distinct portions.

In the first portion, the poet gives a vivid, sensuous romantic description of the woods to which the wizard knight visited. The poet says that the ‘bracs’ (the steep hillside) of the woods were brightening while the sun shined. The ‘Shaws’ (the stalks and leaves of vegetables) seemed green and their leaves of them were dancing in the wind merrily. No summer tint was visible on the glen. Over the woods, the ghost of a dead white moon sailed and all the elements of the woods were enmeshed and so they were laying swoon. As the lightning sparkled and shed a gleam of light in the evening before raining so rill (streamlet) of the woods was flowing through the valley of the ‘glen’ (a narrow plain tract between the hills). The birds sitting on the ‘spray’ (the shoot of trees) folded their plumes as it was feeling cool with the setting of the sun. While the sunset was complete and it became dark then the elf of the woods appeared and seemed to whisper. It was the month of May and everyone seemed to be in a gay mood. The pallid ‘amethyst’ (a precious stone of bluish-violet colour) shone brightly. There, in such a state and in such a time, the wizard went and dreamt. He was alone and was musing on something.

After giving this sensuous description of nature, the poet goes on to say about the wizard knight and his activities done alone in the woods. In this second portion of the poem, the poet says that the knight crossing the rock fern and moss blew his bugle, and being afraid of the sound of his bugle, the quivering leaves of trees stood still. The sound of his bugle echoed in the mountain. Then the knight came down to the ravine and saw the bright light of an elf. The knight held his buggle fast and then heard the voice of the elf. Suddenly, the knight met the ghost of dark-red colour and thus he roamed about in the woods. The knight came back when the sun rose the next day.

The style of the poem may be called not to be easy as the language and some words and terms used in the poem are puzzling to interpret. The poet has used some unfamiliar words and phrases with their uncommon meanings as – baes, shaws, shimmerings, levin, forest-world, cloud-banks wrought etc. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Brajendranath Seal’s Poem ‘ An Ancient Hymn’-A Critical Analysis

An Ancient Hymn is a poem pertaining to a Greek mythological theme. It is a song in praise of Coelius, a marine animal huge in size and full of horror. Here, the poet uses it in the sense of the sea-god. The poem is written addressing to Coelus.

The poet wants to mean that Coelus, the sea-god is still alive through the cycles of ages. The poet does not know -where the god was in the primitive ages when there was no human being on the earth. In other words, to say, everything was in chaos. There was none to chase the god. The world was full of water and the ocean had no shore. Then there was no motion of the sea-tide. There was no flow of water. Now the water of the ocean is roaring. It leaps and peals with the waves of the ocean and amid this uproar, the god has been living. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Michael Madhusudan Dutt’s Poem ‘King Porus: A Legend of Old’-A Critical Analysis

‘King Porus: A legend of Old’ is a narrative poem by Madhusudan Dutt. As the title suggests the poem deals with a legend of ancient India.

The background of the poem is historical, and its background dates back to the third century before the Christian Era. In 327 B.C. a young king of ancient Macedonia named Alexander, son of Philip, desired to conquer the world and with this intention, he took a huge well-trained body of soldiers and began to invade land after land that lay in front of him. First, he conquered his neighbouring countries including Parsia (now Iraq) and then came to India. As his soldiers were well-trained and huge in number, no king of India dared to face and resist him. Many Indian kings, surrendered to him without fighting. But in the northwest of Indin, there was a small kingdom, the king of which was Porus. Conquering the small kingdoms of India one by one, when Alexander arrived at the frontier of the kingdom of Porus, then Porus stood against him and began to fight like a hero. But the number of the soldiers of Porus was so small that it was like making fun in front of a huge army like that of Alexander. Yet Porus fought proudly and at last, he got defeated at the hand of the soldiers of Alexander. Porus was caught hold by the soldiers of Alexander and was presented in front of Alexander.

Then what had happened to the imprisoned king Porue has been narrated by M. Dutt in this poem. The poem is dramatic. It is narrated in six stanzas.

In Stanza-1, the poet s expresses his emotional dirge as India had lost her freedom in the hand of Alexander. He writes in highly imagerical language that while Alexander entered the kingdom of Porus, it was midnight and then suddenly the alarm bell of peril was rung. All startled in fear. The poet says that the bell was the dirge of the death of the kingdom of Porus. The clouds in the sky also startled at the alarm bell and it also roared in a thundering voice. The rain fell in darksome torrents. The wave Hydaspes swept onwards and began to flow headlong. The lightning flashed at a fair woman’s glance. The air also seemed to moan. In such an atmosphere Alexander entered the city of king Porus. He entered stealthily as a tiger. But Porus was not sitting idle. He also rang the bell and come out with his soldiers to resist his foes.

Thus in this stanza, the poet has given a poetic account of the atmosphere of the night when the soldiers of Alexander entered the city.

In stanza -II, the poet gives a vivid picture of how and when Porus faced the soldiers of Alexander and how he fought against his foes. It was morning. The sun spread its blight rays. During such a time, king Porus waved his flag and defied his foes. Though his soldiers were small in number yet they rushed upon his foes as bravely as a lion. They fought to protect freedom. But all the soldiers of king Porus were badly defeated at the hand of the soldiers of Alexander.

In stanza -III, the poet narrates what king Porus did on the battlefield after the fall of his soldiers. The poet says that King Porus stood dauntlessly amidst the foes as firmly as the peak of the Himalayas wearing the regal diadem on his head. He did not care about the phalanx of his foes around him. He was standing there amidst the foes proudly. Seeing his hero-like courage, the soldiers of Alexander did not dare to approach him.

In stanza -IV, the poet narrates what the soldiers of Alexander did to king Porus. Amid the foes,  Porus was standing as strong as a rock in the ocean. He was wounded badly and red blood was issuing out of his body. Seeing him so, Alexander forbade his soldiers to kill Porus. The poet writes.

”Desist–desist! He cried-

Such noble blood should not be shed.”

Then he was brought to Alexander as a war prisoner.

In stanza V, the poet tells what had happened to king Porus after he was taken to Alexander. The poet writes that though he was imprisoned in the hand of his foe, yet his look was bold like a hero. He did not bow down to Alexander. He stood in Himalayan majesty. Then Alexander asked him,

”How should I treat thee?’

Porus replied:

‘Ev’n as a king

In royal pride……..”

Alexander,  appreciating his heroism, released him and made friendships with him giving back his crown and kingdom.

In stanza VI, the poet evaluates the heroism of king Porus and thinks of the poet’s age. Porus was the truest heroic son of India who fought bravely for his own land. But now (poet’s time) there is none to fight for India’s freedom.

”But where, oh! Where is Porus now?

And where the noble hearts that bled 

For freedom – with the heroic glow.’

The poet also laments, (during the time of the poet, India was under the English) that India has lost its freedom. All its gold and riches are in the hand of foreigners.

From the above analysis of the poem, it is seen that this poem expresses the great humanism of Alexander and the patriotism of king Porus. They are the pride not of India alone but of the world also. Stanza -VI expresses the poet’s own patriotism as he laments the loss of India’s freedom.

The theme of the poem is lofty no doubt; its style is also so. The language of it is also grand as the poet has used rich imageries made of similes.

In the use of imageries, the poet proves that he was conscious of a lofty style for a lofty theme. At random, the following imageries, made of similes, may be quoted as examples:

(i)The lightning flashed bright dazzling like 

Fair woman’s glance from beneath her veil.

(ii) He stood –as stand the ocean rock 

Amidst the lashing billows.

(iii) But stood, as stands an oak.

(iv) Then standest like a lofty tree 

Shorn of fruits –blossoms –leaves and all –. 

If the theme and style of the poem is compared with the poems of the Indian English poets before him it must be admitted that the poem is a grand one. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Michael Madhusudan Dutt’s Poem ‘Satan’- A  Critical Analysis

The present piece of poetry entitled ‘Satan’ by Michael Madhusudan Dutt is biblical in theme. In it, he has given an account of the forlorn and pathetic state of Satan after his fall from heaven being crashed down in the hand of God for disobeying Him. The poem is full of imageries made up of similes.

The poet beings the poem abruptly and says that while Satan was thrown down from heaven for his sin of disobedience then his physical structure seemed very awesome and yet looked beautiful like a sepulcher. Being fallen down from heaven it had to live in a solitary place mourning long, where it kept awake recalling its past pride and anticipating his sufferance throughout the futurity. It had been crushed down as a giant tree in a whirlwind. Its gigantic body was blasted and wasted away and thus he was deprived of his former pride, His pride was crushed down like a barque that often walked in the deep night proudly and then was attacked by a fiend and was thrown into a dark cave of ocean bereft of its all beauty and pride.

The poem teaches us a religious lesson that one who disobeys God must suffer so. The theme of the poem is not only biblical, but it is Islamic also. In the Holy Koran, there is a brief reference to the story of the fall of Satan from heaven for his sin of disobedience.

The imagery of the poem is somewhat grand like that of John Milton. His imageries employed in the poem cope appropriately with the matter. Though the poem is little yet it is poetically great. o o o

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Michael Madhusudan Dutt’s Poem ‘The Captive Ladie’- A  Critical Analysis

‘The Captive Ladie’ is a historical poem as the theme of the poem is taken from history. The background of the poem is narrated by the poet himself in prose before he begins the poem.     

In the historical background of the poem, the poet says, the Captive Lady referred to in this poem was the Daughter of the king of Kanuj, (Kanuj was a small Kingdom near Delhi ruled by  Hindu kings of India). He had a beautiful daughter whose hand the king of Delhi solicited but the king of Kanuj did not give her to the king of Delhi in marriage. The king of Kanuj thought himself to be the Lord paramount all over the country and hence he once celebrated the Feast of Victory. The kings and princes who were unable to resist his power were to be attended the feast according to traditional custom. Almost all the contemporary princesses, being unable to resist his power, attended the feast except the king of Delhi. the king of Delhi refused to attend the feast, it insulted the king of Kanuj much and in anger, he made an image of the king of Delhi and represented the images in the Court of Kanuj. It was really an insult to the king of Delhi. On the last day, of the feast, the king of Delhi with a few chosen followers entered the palace of the king of Kanuj in disguise. And then seeing the image of himself, the king of Delhi carried it off with one of the Royal Princess whose hands he once solicited. This fair royal princess, however, was rescued by the king of Kanuj; but eventually, the king of Delhi affected her escape in the disguise of a Bhat and married her. The king of Kanuj never forgot this insult. After only a few years of that event, Mahmud, the Sultan of Ghazni invaded Delhi. Then to retaliate the King of Delhi, the king of Kanuj did not assist him. As a result, Mahmud first crushed the King of Delhi and then the king of Kanuj. The king of Delhi was slaughtered by Mahmud and on the funeral pyre, the queen of Delhi burnt along with her dead husband.

This is the historical background of the poem narrated by the poet and after narrating the background, the poet begins the poem. The poem is about dreams which the queen of Delhi dreamt before the invasion of Sultan Mahmud. 

The dream seen by the queen presaged the coming disaster; the invasion of Sultan Mahmud and the tragedy of the queen. As the poet writes, the queen had dreamt two dreams.

First, the queen dreamed that in front of her, there came a maid warrior. She appeared to be blood-stained and handling a sheathless sword. Her physical hue was as dark as a cloud. Around her waist, there was a hideous zone of hands with charnel lightings. She wore the garlands of heads that were bathed in coagulated blood. Her eyes were fierce as Death. From her eyes blasting light was emitting out.  Seeing her, the queen shuddered in fear. The queen thought that she was none but a ruthless awful Deity. From the dreadful alter of the Deity the blood of her victim was flowing down. The Deity said to the queen addressing her as a daughter, that as the queen saw her so would happen to her soon. The time was coming. Saying so, she bade farewell.

After this dream, the queen saw another dream. In the second dream, the queen saw that in front of her, there appeared a he-warrior. It looked to be faint but bold and undaunting. He stood like a huge hungry monster. A hideous curtain was waking in him. The queen feared and shrieked and asked him why he was so dreadful. But he disappeared. Seeing so, the queen anticipated and thought whether her father had forgotten his anger, or whether her father would help them to crush down their foes.

The poetry ends here. Later on, the dream came into reality. Sultan Mahmud of Ghazni invaded Delhi and crushed the king. The queen also burnt herself on the funeral pyre with his husband.

The poem shows the royal conditions of eleventh-century India. It shows that the native kings were not on good terms with one another for which the foreigners could invade India and were able to crush down the Indian kings. Moreover, the poem shows the devotion of the queen to her husband.

The dreams dreamt by the queen are full of horror. It reminds us of the three weird sisters in Shakespeare’s Macbeth and the horror scene in John Webster’s ‘The White Devil’.  

The language of the poem including its imageries is simple but the imageries startle us with romance and horror. It has a charming simile as –

”Dark was her hue, as darkest cloud,

Which comes the Moon’s fair face to shroud.” 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Ram Sharma’s Poem ‘Bhagobati Gita’-A Critical Analysis

‘Bhagobati Gita’ by Ram Sharma is a mystic poem on mother-goddess, Durga. In the poem, the poet has expressed his mystic experience with Durga and then he praises her as the mother of all beings.

The poet says that on a Dewali night he was sitting alone in his dimly lighted chamber and was meditating on the mystic power in whose honour the feast of light was held. Suddenly a flame appeared in front of him changing the dimness into a perfect blaze. The poet did not heed to that striking glow of height but still mused on and saw a child whose head was encircled with a crown of glory. It seemed brighter than the sun, even milder than the moon. This radiant child, in a sweet, musical voice as the lute of Sarasvati, said to the poet:

”Poor Martal! She whom thou hast striven to find

Through weary years of anxious quest and toil

The virgin –Mother –Single Wife in one-

Before three stands.  Art thou my son, content?”

The poet gazed and gazed at that vision then again the vision spoke to the poet. While the poet sought to lift the veil of that child, she said that the poet should not try to unveil the screen because the poet would not be able to endure the terror of the vision. So she advised the poet not to lift her veil and she also asked if the poet need any boon from her. Saying so, the vision of Durga disappeared.

The remaining portion of the poem is the hymn in praise of Durga. The poet writes that Durga is the Mother and primeval Force of all things and beings. Her power is eternal. She is life and she is dead also. Both life and death are the rhythmic variations of her breast. She sheds countless orbs of light. The universe is hers. She maintains law and harmony in the universe. At last, the poet shows his devotion to her saying: ‘salutation, salutation ever unto thee’.

From the above analysis of the poem, it becomes explicitly clear that the poet was deeply fed in Hindu scriptures and Hindu philosophy. But he adds mysticism to that philosophy and then transcribed them into poetry.

Like his other poems, the language of it is also simple and spontaneous. He uses fewer figures of speech but the matter of the poem itself serves as its imageries. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Ram Sharma’s Poem, ‘Music and Vision of the Anahat Chakram’-A Critical Analysis

‘Music and Vision of the Anahat Chakram’ by Ram Sharma is a spiritual poem on Hindu philosophy. Through this poem, the poet says that the soul is the vital spirit of everything that communicates with God. Nature and its activities are the expressions of the Soul and the expression of the Soul is the expression of God. The poem is written in simple language. It is full of onomatopoeias and alliterations. 

The poet hears a song, but he cannot understand – where it comes from. The song may be the song of a bird, or it may be the cadence of a lute or the reed of flute. Later on, the poet thinks and makes out that the song arises from the heart. The song is spontaneous and it is beyond the reach of any human art. Sometimes the poet owns perfect calm of mind and this calmness is the ‘sabbath’ (leisure, peace) of the soul. The soul expresses itself through the boundless creations of God. Sometimes he hears the sound of the conch and the sound of cymbals and thinks that the sounds come from heaven. And what comes from heaven that arises from within. The soul of any human being adores the unseen self (God). By saying so, the poet wants to mean that there is no difference between Soul and God. The bloomed lotus also reflects the Soul and God. Soul and God express themselves as one being or one being as two as Krishna and Kisare are seen together in Brindavon kadamb grove. Each of the two is happy in each other’s love. The bluish colour of Krishna mingles with her whiteness as a cloud is seen bright while lightning. While Triveni (here soul, God and nature ) makes union then a cadence of melodious song arises everywhere which is full of love, and he who can realise this union bathes in the infinite love of God.

From the above analysis of the poem, it has come to our view that the poet is more interested in spiritual thought than in the material world. He looks at the material world with the eyes of the mind and heart, not with the physical eyes. This thought expressed in the poem is highly elevated and spiritual and as this philosophy is based on Hindu spirituality, so it proves how high and dignified the Hindu philosophy is.

The poem is written in very simple language. The words employed in the poem echo the sense. In this poem, there is some onomatopoeia as –cling, cling, cling; onkar shrinker of lute; song and gong and cymbal.

There are also some alliterative words such as – songbird singing sabbath of the soul etc.

To conclude is it to say that this piece of poetry is a unique spiritual poem both in theme and style. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Ram Sharma’s Poem ‘In Memory of Swami Vivekananda’ -A Critical Analysis

‘In Memory of Swami Vivekananda’ by Ram Sharma is a poem in which the poet expresses his devotion and praise to Swami Vivekananda who was a Hindu sage, poet, and preacher of Hinduism both in India and abroad. The poem is elegiac in tone and written in simple language.

The poet says that Vivekananda died at the middle age of his life while he got maturity in wisdom. By means of his piety and spiritual teaching, he became the pride of India. But he is no more. He is dead and his pious soul has gone to heaven. He earned spiritual knowledge and got wisdom by studying ‘The Bhagavata Gita’ and other Hindu scriptures, and he preached the teachings of the scriptures both in India and abroad. His soul was most pious which shone like a star and it enlightened both the East and West. Wherever he went he was greeted with honour by all. His life on the earth was brief, only forty- two years. But this brief life was full of noble deeds. While he was dying, he heard a voice from God that he would meet God in heaven. In the words of the poet:

”– Well done!

Here in Elysium realise, my son;

The vision of the glorious Infinite!”

At last, the poet blesses the soul of Vivekananda and asks the countrymen to weep on Vivekananda’s death.

The poem shows the poet’s love and devotion to Vivekananda for his spiritual enlightenment. His love is sincere and without flattery. The language of the poem is very simple. It bears two imageries, as:

(i) In flower of life, when full of fragrance sweet.

(ii) His soul was one of rarest grace, and like a star, it shone.  0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Ram Sharma’s Poem ‘Lines Addressed to James Skibblerus’ -A Critical Analysis

‘Line Addressed to James Skribblerus’ is a poem about an individual. He was an English editor of a daily newspaper. In this poem, the poet shows the personality of Skribblerus, who was thought to be a fool.

The poet says that Skribblerus was born of a very poor family and was brought up in very poor conditions. He was fed on low rations. To earn his livelihood, he left his homeland, England and came to India. He always remained in an empty pocket. He was a fool in wit and in sense like an ass. Instead of wearing a helmet, he wore a kind of cap that looked like the cap of a fool. He took a ‘lath’ in his hand as his sword and first became a ward-boy in the Group Street of Calcutta. Though he was considered a fool, yet he could perform impossible tasks. He sometimes appeared as bold as Phaeton who was the driver of Apollo’s car in Greek mythology. His sense, taste, and virtue always seemed to remain busy. The poet says:

”With fool’s cap for helm and sword of lath,

The Grub Street Hero apes Pelides wrath,

And dares like Phaeton drive Apollo’s car,

With sense and taste and virtue still at war.”

Once a man shook him into sense, but he again seemed to blare in raging impotence. He rushed on where his master feard to tread on. This man had embarked to many works from time to time. Some days he worked in an industry where he poured a stream of lead. Some days, he became a teacher, some days he preached like a prophet and still he begged. He scorned Bengal and hated his own son. He added false to truth and seemed to be servile to the great. He abased this land. Many grieved at him. The poet says:

”…O grieve not for Britain’s sons,

All, all detest the bore, the foul mouthed dance

Let him jeer on and be a Jackass still” 

Though he made troubles, but he never did any ill to anybody. The poet says:

‘The brute may bray and vex, but do no ill.’

Through this poem, the poet has expressed his sympathy for a man like Skibblerus. Though many thought Skribblerus to be a fool, yet the poet did not say so, instead, he noticed his works and found that he did no ill.

The poem is written in two-lined rhyme. It is language is very simple and easy to understand. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Kasiprasad Gosh’s Poem ‘ The Shair’s Farewell Song’-A Critical Analysis

‘The Shair’s Farewell Song’ is a patriotic poem of Kasiprasad Gosh. Through this poem, the poet expresses the love and praise to the motherland of a person (the shair) who is grief-worn and goes to the sea to make an end (suicide) of his life to get rid of grief. Then he sings a song bidding farewell to his native land.

The poet, addressing his audience or readers, says that the grief-worn shair goes to the sea to die.  In the sea, the water is flowing making gigantic moves. The shair goes there and climbs up the craggy rock beside the sea. The sea is full of the tide and it arises woe in the heart of the shair. He, climbing up the craggy rock,  looks downwards clasping his hand and sees the sea is blowing and there he will meet his desired death. But before jumping down to the sea, he loiters a little and sings a song farewelling his dear native land.

He looks around and sings that it is his native land in her valley various kinds of roses bloom, where many green-clad (with trees of green leaves) hills are standing majestically, from where the flowers spread their fragrance in the wind. It is his native land from its sky the sun sends its rays and brightens the land. Many rivers flow down upon which the moon shines. The moonlight falls upon the water of the streams and brightens the beauty of the land. The mighty Ganga also flows through the land. Then turning his look to the sea, he says that the serene sea is smiling below the sky of his motherland. Besides these, many sacred rivers flow through the land and wash the greenwood and mountains. In the mountains, many pines and citron trees are standing proudly. It is his motherland, dear motherland whose name is lofty, fair, and beautiful. It is the land of gods and bards (minstrels) of fame.

Singing so, the shair jumps down the sea to die in order to get rid of his grief, but the poet has not revealed what happened to the shair at the end. 

The song is full of Indian sensibility. The description of the natural objects and their beauty is realistic no doubt, but its expression is poetic that wakes up our sense organs and thus delights our heart and mind. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Kasiprasad Gose’s Poem ‘ To a Dead Crow’ – A Critical Analysis

‘To a Dead Crow’ by Kasiprasad Gosh is a poem written on the theme of love and death. The poem is elegiac as well as pathetic and at the same time meditative. Like other poems of the poet, this piece of poetry is also written in simple diction. The poem consists of four stanzas and each stanza bears independent thought and feeling pertaining to a dead crow.

In the first stanza, the poet says about the crow when it was alive. The poet addresses the crow as ‘Gay minstrel of the Indian clime’ that means cheerful singing bird of India and says that while it was living, it came out from its nest every morning and song ‘caw, caw’ in numbers which vexed the mind of the poet and awoke him from sleep. The poet hated the sound of the crow and to avoid the sound of the crow he walked out in his garden where there was a tank on a spacious piece of land. Besides the tank, there bloomed various kinds of flowers such as lilies, jasmine, roses etc. In the garden, there were many trees and thick foliage of trees. Amid the foliage of the tress, the crow built its nest. There the crow took a rest after daily labour. But suddenly, one day the crow died.

In the second stanza, the poet says about what the crow did during the days it was living. The poet, noticing the dead crow, goes back to his past, while it was living, it took the offals of the poet’s meal. It took food from the rubbish but now it is no more. It is still and its eyes are shut forever. Its beak is not now active to seek food from carcasses, or it is no more to catch the mice from the poet’s home. It is dead and it will never come to stray and bask in the sunlight.

The poet’s thoughts and feelings, rounding the dead crow, run on and in the third stanza, he says if death did not come to the crow! But death had taken the soul of the crow with its destructive sharpened dart. The death pierced his dart to the heart of the crow. Though life is no more in the crow yet the poet feels that the crow is still warm. The eyes of the crow are so open that it seems to be alive. Now the crow is dead and death no more can mar the form and features of the crow. Still, now its former ugliness is in it.

In the fourth but last stanza, the poet meditates and anticipates his own death. When death will come to the poet his eyes must shut and his soul will be exempted from earthly bondage and would fly to heaven and meet eternity. And then, the poet’s body will remain to lie on the cold lap of the earth. Then the poet would not be able to compose a verse to please the public ears. Here the poet thinks that while the crow was living, the poet thought its voice to be harsh, and unlucky and so he hated the voice of the crow. But while the crow dies, the poet thinks that its voice had poured the voice of joy and delight. So would happen to the verses of the poet. At last, the poet thinks if he meets death at this moment then it will be his last poem.

From the above analysis of the poem, it is seen that this poem is a nature poem with a note of mysticism. The poet’s kind feeling for the dead crow, a wild bird, is really a silly matter, but poetically it is very significant as the poet succeeds to arouse his readers’ sympathy towards the dead crow.

Its language is very simple. The second stanza is rich in visual imagery. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Kasiprasad Gose’s Poem ‘To a Young Hindu Widow’ -A Critical Analysis

‘To a Young Hindu Widow’ is realistic social poetry in which the poet, addressing a Hindu widow, portrays the sorrow and sufferance suffered by a woman after her husband’s death. It is elegiac in mood and tone. In Hindu society, There was a social custom that if the husband of a woman died, she could not get into a second marriage. She had either to jump to the burning pyre o die along with her dead husband or if she did not do so, she would live a life of extreme austerity throwing away all the comforts and happiness of life. Later on, in the fourth decade of the ninetieth century, Lord William Benting the Governor-General of British-Indian made a law against that age-long tradition and banned it. Yet today this custom is seen to be practised, though not often, in some Hindu societies. This poetry was written before William Bentinck banned the custom.

The poet addressing to a young Hindu widow says that when her husband died all her charms and joys died with her husband. Her beauty was in vain and then she became lonely as a desert flower. As there was none to enjoy a flower bloomed in the desert so was her life. The poet says that the moment was fatal when the husband of a woman died because it brought everlasting grief and pain to the widow. After her husband’s death, the whole world and every path of her life became forlorn and desolate. She had been bereft of all the comfort and enjoyment of life and her life became full of severity. After being a widow, she became helpless, friendless and poor of all things. Then she should lead such a life as if she was not a being of this world. None became friendly with the widow. It is the pitiless humanity that had bestowed such a life of sufferance upon her. Wherever she went she met only negligence and shame, she had, in reality, no entity in society except only her room. She had to accept only sorrows which would end in death only. In short, a widow was bereft of all the pleasure and enjoyment of life and she had to quell her thirst for life within herself.

The narration and theme of the poem are very pathetic and the poet has succeeded in portraying the sorrows and sufferance of a widow very well in an easy and simple language.

This poem is a social criticism also. The poet criticizes the society saying—

”Has pitiless humanity

Forgot its so sacred ties and laws?”

To conclude, it is to say that this poem is a social poem with Indian sensibilities. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Soul-Weariness’: A Critical Analysis

‘Soul–Wearinees ‘is a mystic poem by Nizamat Jung through which the poet communicates with the soul of God through the medium of nature. In it, he shows the unity of the human soul, the soul of Nature, and the Divine soul.

The poet, being weary of human society and of the five senses, comes out of his chamber and gazes at the heavens (sky) at night and tries to seek the Divine soul. He wants to seek life’s essence (soul) in all things of nature. The poet says:

”O for a feeling of Infinity 

That I, a fragment sundered and afar, 

May feel Life’s essence in all things ……………. 

But signs and symbols of Thy Deity.” 

After this, the poet Nizamat Jung prays to God to give him the power to see ) and prays to strengthen his faith in God so that the poet’s heart cannot deviate from spiritual thought of the pressure of the senses. He prays to God to guide the poet to heaven protecting him from the trammels of the senses.

From the above analysis of the poem ‘Soul–Wearinees ‘, it seems, like his other mystics poems, that the poet is weary of worldly life and hence he takes shelter on spiritual thought to drive away his weariness. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Prologue’-A Critical Analysis 

‘Prologue’ by Nizamat Jung is a mystic poem through which the poet expresses the union of his soul with the Divine Soul. A mystic is one who believes in the oneness or likeness of the human soul with the soul of nature and the soul of God. More he believes that the human soul can communicate with the soul of God not by physical perception but by mental feeling.

First, the poet says that he met the Divine Soul in open nature while he was wandering alone being wearied of human society through desert tracts at silent night. He saw the Divine Soul in front of him and he chased Him. But he could not catch or embrace the Divine Soul as it was like a shadow and as fast as he chased it so fast it ran away. The poet’s soul was wandering seeking the Soul of God with a view to uniting with Him in this life and afterworld.

After chasing for some time, the poet saw that the Divine Being suddenly stood before him. It was like a spirit but, in form was like a human being. Its eyes emitted light and sang the music of heaven. Then the poet’s soul and the divine soul got united. And then the poet felt that the soul of God was in him. In other words, to say, the poet felt that there was no difference between his soul and the soul of God.

The mystic theme is a subject of the human heart and feeling only. It is above intellectual reason and argument. It is the highest state of human feeling. It is a spiritual as well as religious belief. Mystic communication is not possible through meditation only. So only the highly pious-hearted religious men can claim to have seen the Divinity in nature through the eyes of the heart; not through the eyes of skin and flesh. In this respect, the poem ‘Prologue’  as analyzed above is a perfect mystic poem.

The language of the poem is simple. Therefore the poet Nizamat Jung has employed some phrases in the poem which are compound and figurative in meaning as desert tracts of silence and night; chasing shadowy forms that mock and flee etc. 0 0 0  

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Spirit of Light’-A Critical Analysis

The poem entitled ‘Spirit of Light’ by Nizamat Jung is a mystic poem. It expresses the union or oneness of the human soul with the Divine soul (God). It is written in a very compressed and entangled language that makes it difficult to interpret. 

In this poem ‘Prologue’, the poet asks the sun (the spirit of light) for sending its light to the world full of woe and strife because its light conveys the meaning of the mystery of life that life is the expression of God Himself. While sending light to the world, the sun makes a tract of light to guide the human soul to soar up to heaven from the dreadful passionate world. It should send light to cheer the toil-worn and weary heart of the human being and thus gladden them with the promise of heaven. Saying so, the poet asks the sun to sing the song of hope till the song frees the human heart from doubt, fear, and sadness. The sun should hold its spirit-tempered blade (the source of light) in its hand because the sun is the symbol of God (the lord of light) himself.

A mystic seeks communication of the heart with the divine heart through the medium of nature. Here the sun becomes the medium of communication.

A mystic theme is always difficult to understand because a mystic matter can not be substantiated or analyzed through experiment or intellect; it can be felt in the heart only. And as is its theme so is its style – because the words and phrases used in this poem are no doubt, made up of easy words but they lack logical and grammatical unity and order. The following stanza may be quoted for example:

”Bare to the skies in its unsullied brightness 

The keen edge of thy spirit-tempered blade,

Held in that hand aloft, whose radiant whitnees 

The Lord of Light hath his own symbol made!” 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Nizamat Jung’s Poem ‘Golconda at Sunset’-A Critical Analysis 

‘Golconda at Sunset’ by Nizamat Jung is a poem written on a historical theme. Golconda was a small Indian kingdom ruled by a series of Indian kings. It was a prosperous beautiful kingdom. During the British rule in India, it lost its independence and was annexed to the British-Indian Empire. The poet has written the poem praising its beauty at sunset. It is romantic in treatment, elegiac in feeling patriotic in ideal, and simple and lyrical in language.

First, the poet praises its beauty at sunset. With the setting of the sun, the night was coming on. The last rays of the sunlight fell on the buildings, castles, and palaces of Golconda. The evening star was shining faintly in the silent sky. It had lost its independence but its buildings and palaces were proudly standing that proclaiming its past fame. The king of it was bereft of power and the city did not lose its fame. The poet says:

”Bereft of power though not of fame

Custodians of the past, they stand 

In mournful grandeur yet to claim 

Dominion over the subject land.”  

The fortresses of the city still survived proclaiming their triumph over its foes. The main city of it was circled by ramparts, and hills which gave protection from foes and invaders. But now the poet laments that there is no need for the tower and of bastion-girded wall as it has no king to govern. The king is dethroned and the kingdom has fallen down.

Secondly, the poet Nizamat Jung reminds the past history of the kingdom and laments how the kingdom lost its freedom. The last king of Golconda was the gentlest of his line. His warriors were brave and heroic enough to protect the king. But now their swords shine in vain because their king and kingdom are no more. The king himself was a brave hero, but when he was defeated by his foes then he was chained as a captive and had been exiled. Now with the passing of days, he is praised by all. But the victorious king who took over the sway of Golconda is facing the same tragedy. Treason arose behind him and foes are in front of him. At last, the empire comes to an end.

Thus the above analysis of the poem has clarified that it is a romantic and elegiac poem with a patriotic theme. The description of the city of Golconda at sunset and the poet’s interest in the past fame and glory of the city is really romantic.

In language, the poem is lyrical as it is written in the scheme of abab rhyme scheme. The poem ‘Golconda at Sunset’ is free from the use of the figure of speech except for some use of alliteration as: ‘mosques and minarets’; ‘garb of grey’; ‘silence sleep’ and so on. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Sri Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Rose of God’ -A Brief Comment

‘Rose of God’  by Sri Aurobindo is a mystic poem. In this poem, the poet expresses his mystic view on God and has said that the natural objects are the expressions of God himself. The title ‘Rose of God’ refers to the spirit or soul of God. It may mean the soul of a human being also. Symbolically it may denote the stars through which God has expressed himself. The poem bears five stanzas each of four lines written in a couplet. The language of the poem ‘Rose of God’ is very simple but the symbols used in the poem make it somewhat difficult to understand. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Sri  Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Trance of Waiting’-A Brief Comment

Sri Aurobindo’s ‘Trance of Waiting’ is a mystic poem. In it, the poet has shown himself to be in a state of waiting to have communication with the divine spirit.  To have communication with God (Divine soul) he has kept him away from the din and bustle of human society and goes to contact with nature and in the silence of nature, he broods over the objects of nature and feels that like the poet the objects of nature also waits for the command from God. In the poet’s words:

”All waits hushed for the fiat to come 

and the treat of the eternal 

Passion of bliss yet to be swept ….”

The language of the poem is prose-like but with rhythm within itself. Sri Aurobindo’s diction is somewhat like that of Walt Whitman. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Sri Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Thought the Paraclete’-A Critical Analysis

‘Thought the Paraclete’ is a romantic-mystic piece of poetry by Sri Aurobindo. The title word ‘Paraclete’ means the Holy Spirit (God) as an advocate or counselor. In this piece of poetry, the poet shows his mystic experience in nature and thus he believes that his soul has made a communication with the soul of God. The poem is lyrical in tone. Its language is simple but bears some compound words and phrases.

The poet says that as the vision of the ‘bright archangel’ (here comet) flies in the sky for a moment with light so the thought of the poet was lost within itself and looked at God’s universe. Then he saw a vision. The vision was like a hippogriff (a mythical griffin-like creature with the body of a horse). Its face was bright. It seemed like a hermit. Its glow was so bright that all the brightest stars and objects of the universe withered in front of it. It drew near the poet singing a sweet song. It came suddenly from heaven, seeing that vision, the poet felt immense joy within himself and had felt more that it illumined his heart. But after only a moment, it fled away singing a song to the poet, and disappeared. The poet says:

”Thought the great-winged wanderer Paraclete

Disappeared slow – singing a flame word tune

Self was left, love, limitless, nude, immune.” 

From the above analysis of the poem, it is seen that the poet was spiritually lofty-minded. He believed that the spirit of God is present everywhere. A meditative man may experience it. But this belief has no realistic basis. It is the temper of the mind.

The language of the poem ‘Thought the Paraclete’   seems to be easy, but in reality difficult to paraphrase. It has all the characteristics of compactness in structure and meaning. There are some compound words and phrases that add difficulty to the understanding of the poem. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Sri  Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Revelation’ – A Critical Analysis 

The poem ‘Revelation’ by Sri Aurobindo is a mystic poem. The title ‘Revelation’ is itself mystic and it refers to the act of revealing the mystery of something that is obscure. In this poem, the poet expresses his mystic vein that human beings can make communication with God through nature not physically but spiritually.

The poet Sri Aurobindo says that one day in an open field beside hills, he suddenly saw a being that was so bright. It was leaping behind the poet from the rocks. It leaped and ran on. Its motion was as swift as the wind. The scene was seen only for a moment. Before the poet could think of it, the glimpse of light disappeared. At last, the poet thought that it had come from heaven. The poet says:

”And a hurried glance behind 

And then nothing – as a thought 

Escapes the mind ere it is caught 

Someone of the heavenly rout 

From behind the veil ran out.” 

The mystic revelation of the vision of God is a temper of the mind only; in reality, it cannot be proved. It is the highest stage of spiritual thought on God. A mystic believes in the existence of tri-souls – the human soul, the soul of nature, and the Divine Soul. He also believes that the human soul is capable of communicating with the Divine Soul. The poet Sri Aurobindo has done so here in the poem.

The style and language of the poem are simple and easy. It is written in two-lined rhyme. It has no figure of speech except the objects of nature which symbolizes the soul. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Sri Aurobindo’s Poem ‘Transformation’ -A Critical Analysis

Like many other poems of Sri Aurobindo, this present poem entitled ‘Transformation’ is also a mystic poem through which the poet has shown the union of his soul with the Divine soul. The title word ‘Transformation’ means the change of the form or substance (here refers to the change of the poet’s heart from mortal to immortal shape).

First, the poet says that the poet’s ‘breath’ (that means his life ) is like a stream and all his limbs are filled up with the divine spirit. His heart is devoted to spiritual thought and he is mad of spiritual lofty thought as a drunkard is of wine. The world for him is a stage and his days on the earth are a drama that he has been playing since his birth. All his limbs are illumined by God’s spirit and this spirit has changed his nerves and made a channel to communicate with the Divine soul and thus his heart fills up with excessive joy not earthly but divine.

Secondly, the poet says that as his heart is spiritually uplifted so is his soul, It is now not a slave to his flesh. Instead, his soul is the slave to nature or the Divine soul and now he is being guided not by his desire but by spiritual thought. The poet’s body and flesh are caught by the Divine Soul. His heart is widened to infinite. The poet believes that his soul arrives at immortality. The Divine soul has entered his heart and hence his soul itself becomes a source of light.

The mystic thought expressed in the poem is the highest stage of spiritual thought. But mysticism is not possible to be perceived by all. Only a heart full of piety can perceive it by means of meditation on God and the poet has succeeded in perceiving it fully.

The language of the poem ‘Transformation’ is simple. It has some poetic phrases such as – illumined cells (for spiritually lofty limbs); the unknown and the supreme (for God); god’s happy living tools (human body) etc. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘Lakshman’ -A Critical Analysis

‘Lakshman’ by Toru Dutt is a poem on a Hindu mythological theme. The subject matter of the poem is taken from the ‘Ramayana’, a Sanskrit epic by Valmiki. Lakshman was a younger brother of Sri Ramchandra. Once Ramchandra with his beloved wife, Sita, had to go to exile after his father’s will. With Ram and Sita, Lakshman also went to exile. Sita was chaste, pious, and very beautiful. Ravana, the king of Lanka, had heard of Sita’s qualities and hence he desired to carry her off. While Ram, Sita, and Lakshman were in exile, Ravana took the avail of it and by his magic power, he created a golden deer. To please Sita, her husband Ram pursued the deer leaving Sita and Lakshman in the bower. Then at distance, Sita heard a voice as same as that of Ram seeking help. Really the voice was not of Ram but of Ravana. Ravana made a plan to drive Lakshman away of the bower so that he can carry Sita off. Sita, hearing the calling of Ravana to be Ram’s, asked Lakshman to go to help Ram. First Lakshman did not want to leave the bower leaving Sita alone. But Sita persistently persuaded Lakshman to leave the bower in order to rescue Ram. The poet Toru Dutt has given a very poetic as well as a dramatic description of Sitas persuasion to Lakshman. The poem bears the stamp of how much devotion and love Sita had to her husband.

Hearing the voice like that of Ram, sita says to Lakshman and calls him to go to succour Ram without making any delay. She thinks that perhaps her husband is surrounded by foes, so Lakshman should go there quickly with his sword and bow. But Lakshman seemed not to heed Sita’s order. Then Sita, being angry, wanted to go alone. Seeing Sita’s agitation and anxiety, Lakshman says to Sita that there is no cause to fear because Ram is strong and brave enough to fight an enemy. He then gives a poetic account of Ram’s prowess and says that the lion and bear shrink back in fear when they see the royal look of Ram. The anger of Ram none can endure, Even sun-staring eagles drop down at Ram’s look. Pythons and cobras, at Ram’s tread, glide to their secret holes. The serpent bows down to his feet. The poet says:

”The lion and the grisly bear

Cower when they see his royal look,

Sun-staring eagles of the air

His glance of anger can not brook,

Python and cobras at his tread

To their most secret coverts glide,

Bowed to the dust each serpent head

Erect before in hooded pride.”

Lakshman anticipated the wailing cry for help is not of Ram but of an enemy uttered to delude them. So Sita should not beseech Lakshman to go out in search of Ram leaving Sita alone. Instead, he made Sita remind that he had been commanded by Ram to remain with Sita as a guard as there might have some giant foes in the forest to harm her. But Lakhman’s persuasion could not calm Sita of her anxiety. Instead, she argued and says: 

”Search well and sea! One brother takes

His kingdom— one would take his wife

A fair partitional— but it makes

Me shudder and abhor my life.”

At last, being ashamed of Sita’s argument, Lakshman came out of the bower and tracing a magic circle in front of the door, and ordering her not to cross the circle, goes to help Ram. While he left Sita alone, Lakshman heard the scream of a vulture which was a symbol of ill omen. After his departure, Ravana came to the bower and carried off Sita to Lanka.

The poem shows Sita’s devotion and love to her husband; but Sita herself is responsible for being carried away by Ravana, the king of Lanka. Besides this Lakshamn’s wisdom and rationality are also expressed in the poem.

The poem is written in a rhythmic tone. The imagery of Ram’s valour narrated by Lakshman is highly poetic. The language of the poem is easy and simple. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree’ – A Critical Analysis

‘Our Casuarina Tree’  by Miss Toru Dutt is an exceptional nature poem. It is a narrative, reflective, philosophic, and romantic poem. The poem contains five stanzas.

The first two stanzas are narrative in which the poet gives a description of the Casuarina tree which shows her minute observation of the natural object and thus he expresses his love for nature. The Casuarina tree was a very big tree. It had been standing high very proudly. The creepers climbed up to it. Its flowers hang in a crimson cluster. All-day long many birds and bees came and perched on it. At night, sweet songs of birds were heard. On the very morning while the poet opened his door his eyes first rested on the tree which was in front of his home. Sometimes, in winter a grey baboon came to the tree and sat on its branch alone like a statue and watched the sun rising scene. His puny offspring leaped here and there and played, cuckoos (kokilas) also came to the tree and sang songs hailing the day. The cows grazed on the pasture under the tree. Beside the tree, there was a broad tank (pond) of water and in it, beautiful lilies sprang and bloomed.

The third and fourth stanzas of the poem ‘Our Casuarina Tree’  are reflective. Here the tree stands as a token of reminiscence. The tree reminds the poet’s childhood days. The poet says that the tree is dearer to his soul not because of its magnificence but because the poet with her brother and sister played under the tree during their childhood. But the merriment of childhood days has passed away. Now, while the poet looks at the tree, the memory of her childhood days comes to his mind. But his playmates are no more now. Some of them are either dead or have gone away leaving the poet. While he remembers his childhood days with his mates and maids then tears come out of her eyes. In his mind. the poet hears a murmuring sound which he thinks to be a dirge lamenting the past days. The poet says:

”Unknown, yet well known to the eye of faith!

Ah, I have heard that wail far, far away

In distant lands, by many a sheltered bay.”

In the fifth but last stanza, the poet Toru Dutta says that the tree is dearer than life to him. The tree was dearer to them also who have died already. It was for them a token of fear, hope, and death. In the future, the beauty of the tree would faint but in the verse of the poet the tree shall be living, and thus his love for the tree would remain alive and thus his love to the tree shall defend the tree from the course of oblivion.

As a nature poem, this is a grand one. It is as grand as Wordsworth’s ‘Tintern Abbey‘ as it bears the description of nature, and memory of his childhood which is autographical and philosophic.

The language of the poem is not an easy one as the poet uses compact phrases full of meaning. The imageries of the poem are also fascinating as-

”What is that dirge-like murmur that I hear

 Like the sea breaking on a single-beach?

It is the tree’s lament, an eerie speech.”

The poem both in theme and style is a fine poem which as a nature poem, is an unprecedented specimen in the whole range of Indo-Anglian poetry. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘The Lotus’-A Critical  Analysis 

‘The Lotus’ by Toru Duttis a romantic poem in which the poet glorifies the beauty of the lotus. It is highly imaginative and full of vivid imagery.

First, the poet Toru Dutt holds up a quarrel between rose and lily. He says that both the flowers are beautiful and both desire to be the queen of flowers. Many poets and minstrels also have sung a song in praise of them. Some minstrels claim rose to be the lovelier,  and some claim lily to be lovelier than the rose. Thus the strife had been running between the two regarding their beauty. Love came to Flora, the goddess of flower, and asked her to give such a flower that might be as delicious as the rose and as stately as the lily in her beauty and pride. Then Love choose the colour and prayed to Flora that the new flower in colour should be a mixture of red of rose and white of lily. Flora granted the prayer and gave birth to lotus, which according to the poet is the queen of all flowers. And thus the strife between rose and lily to be the queen of flowers came to an end.

‘The Lotus’ is the national flower of India. By writing a poem on lotus the poet glorifies lotus and thus she glorifies India and her nature.

‘The lotus’ is a romantic poem as the poetess glorifies beauty in nature. His nature is sensuous like that of John Keats’ nature poems.

The language of the poem is not so easy. The imageries of the poem are very rich and charming. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Toru Dutt’s Poem ‘A Mon Pere’- A Critical Analysis

‘A Mon Pere’ is a French phrase and it refers to ‘my father’ as this poem is written addressing the volume of ‘A Sheaf Gleaned in French Fields’ wherein she had translated one hundred and sixty French lyrics by seventy different poets. In translating these poems from French to English, she suffered from some limitations and in this present poem, which is her own composition, she has confessed her limitation in translating the poems. Her limitation as a translator has been expressed through the symbol of a flower.

The poet Miss Toru Dutta says that the flower looks loveliest in its native soil and if its kindred plant or branch is cut or plucked off then it fades away and loses its natural grace and dye. So had happened to the translated poem by Toru Dutt. She with assiduous toil wandered from place to place in France and collected the poems and translated them into English. The poems in their original forms looked very beautiful, but in translation, they had lost their original grace, and thus they had become tarnished. The poet knew better than anyone how much the translated poems lost their tender hues and how much they become dim. At last, the poet asked his father and readers that she as a translator was like a child who stammers and speaks indistinctly.

The poem ‘A Mon Pere’  is little no doubt, but the symbol of flowers through which the poet has portrayed her limitation as a translator is very attractive and appropriate to the theme. Truly, she tried her best in translating the French lyrics into English, yet she could not keep intact their original glow. Her comments hold good to any translated piece of literature. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Swami Vivekanand’s Poem ‘The Cup’ A Critical Analysis

‘The Cup’ by Swami Vivekananda is a poem that deals with a mystic theme. The poem is expressed in the first person through the mouth of God. By means of the poem, the poet says that the world is full of sorrow and sufferance the mystery of which none can understand. The title word ‘Cup’ stands here symbolically and it symbolises the earth which is full of sorrow and sufferance.

The poet (through the mouth of God) says addressing the human being that the world is their cup and the contents of the cup are assigned to human beings from the beginning. The ‘contents of the cup’ refer to the sorrow and sufferance of earthly life and these are the output of the sins and passions of human beings that they have committed through the ages. In other words, to say, sorrow and suffering is the creation of their own. Through sufferance, they would meet salvation. The earth is a mystery as it is full of sorrow and sufferance which become a burden in the way of peace. God has sent the prophet to show human beings the right path of living well that would lead the human being to heaven. Suffering and salvation is the main business of human being on the earth. This sufferance is assigned to human beings only not to any other being. God then bids human beings to take up the sorrows and sufferances that they meet in their everyday life because God would reward them in accordance with their piety to the soul and sufferance they meet during their earthly life. And then they would see the face of God and must enter into heaven.

As the content of the poem is mystic, so is its language. The poem is easy but the words employed to the poem are also easy but their purport is grand.

The poem is a reflection of Hindu philosophy. According to the Hindu scriptures, the whole universe is full of mystery that only sages and pious-hearted men can make out. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Swami Vivekanand’s Poem ‘Peace’ A Critical Analysis

‘Peace’ by Swami Vivekananda is a philosophical poem through which the poet tries to define peace. ‘Peace’ is a mental as well as social state which depends on our environment. But the poet speaks here about mental peace, not of social peace. Mentally or philosophically peace is an abstract idea. The poet, in this poem, tries to give a concrete idea of peace through both abstract and concrete imageries (Imageries is a mental picture of an idea or of an object of sensuous appeal). But the imageries through which the poet gives the idea of peace is somewhat puzzling like a riddle. The poem contains seven stanzas every stanza of which contains independent imagery.

The first two stanzas are like apparent riddles. Through these stanzas, the poet says that peace comes in might. It has great power though not seen by eyes. Peace is like a light in dark. It is like shade in dazzling light. It is the joy about which nothing can be said. It is as profound as grief that is not felt. It is immortal like them who are dead. It is as eternal as the death of them on whose death none mourns.

In the remaining stanzas, the poet Vivekananda continues to define or characterize peace and says that peace is a state which gives rise to neither joy nor sorrow but between the two. By saying so, the poet wants to mean that peace is a mixture of both joy and sorrow. Peace is neither as darksome as night nor as shining as the morning, but as the dawn. It is like the pause in music or art. It is the silence between speaking and fits of passion. It is the calmness of the heart. It is the beauty that can never be seen. It is love that stands alone. It is a song that is unknown.

The poet, yet ceases not, but continues to say more as:

”It is death between two lives 

And lull between two storms 

The void whence rose creation.

And that where it returns.” 

And again he says:

”To it the tear-drop goes 

To spread the smiling form

It is the Goal of life,

And peace – its only home.”

The above analysis of the poem ‘Peace’ shows that though the poet tries his best to define or characterize Peace, but he seems to fail. Peace always remains a mystery. It can be felt only; never can be caught or seen. It always pertains to our mental state more than our material world.

The language of the poem is easy to read but difficult to mean. It gives the only idea which can never be explained in words. But the imageries which the poet evokes in this poem are appropriate to the theme and these imageries are enough to grasp a mental idea of what peace is. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Swami Vivekanand’s Poem ‘Kali the Mother- A Critical Analysis

‘Kali the mother’ is a horror poem by Swami Vivekananda. In Indian mythology, she was the wife of Shiva. Here, in this poem, the poet represents Kali as the goddess of death and destruction.

The poet says that Kali the mother is omnipotent and has the strength of destroying all evils. She is so powerful that she easily can blot out all the stars. Being afraid of her valour, the cloud heaps upon the cloud. She is so swift that when she walks or runs the air becomes a whirlwind. A million souls of lunatics asylum come out and become free. She can wrench any tree by the root. The sea swirls up the waves. While she runs a flash of light emits from her body. She is so destructive that everything over which or through which she goes gets perished into dust. The poet evokes her to come to the earth to destroy all evils. Her name is terrible whose breath can cause death to every being. In the language of the poet:

”For terror is thy name;

Death is in Thy breath,

And every shaking step

Destroys a world forever,

,Thou ‘Time’ the all Destroyer!

Come, o mother come!”

The poet, by representing Kali as the mother of death, wishes to make the world free from evils. In Indian mythologies, it is often said that while the world becomes full of sin, disorders, impedance and evils then God himself takes birth in human society as a human being or he sends any god or goddess to perish all evils and thus restore peace and order in society. The ‘Kali the Mother’ is based on this philosophy.

The poet has used the imageries of horror and destruction very compactly which need an exhaustive explanation for a fuller understanding. In this poem the poet has used some alliterative words and phrases such as: ‘the clouds are covering clouds’; whirling wind’; ‘lurid light’; ‘dance in destruction’s dance’ etc.

To sum up, it is to say that this is a philosophical poem through which the philosophy of Hindu scriptures is reflected well. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Anilbaran’s Poem ‘My Beloved’-A Critical Analysis

‘My Beloved’ by Anilbaran is a romantic-love poem. In this piece of poetry, he has glorified the beauty of his beloved. The love expressed here is first amorous and then spiritual. It is written in free verse. The language of the poem is simple.

The poet says that his beloved is very beautiful. Her face is as beautiful as the glowing sun-rays at dawn (early morning). Her face is like a moment’s glow of heavenly light. Then, the poet praises her voice and says that her voice is like the cadence of a heavenly flute and while the poet hears the voice of her beloved then the poet’s attention goes to his beloved and thus he becomes mad at her love. The breath of hers is as sweet as the breeze in May. She is a source and dream of immortal joy. While she touches the poet, then his body fills up with rapture (excessive joy) from head to feet. When the poet senses enjoy her beauty and body practically then the poet becomes intoxicated and falls asleep at her feet. Her contact with the poet gives the poet so much joy that it is beyond his dream. While the poet and his beloved twine together then the poet feels heavenly joy. The poet says:

”And when my senses drinking deep

They honied beauty face asleep

Intoxicated at thy feet.


Spirit with spirit twined, and in

Our union earth and heaven meet.”

This latter part of the poem is sensual (amorous), but it is concluded in spiritual union through bodily union.

The poem  ‘My Beloved’ bears some fine similes as: 

(i)Thy face is like a sacred down.

(ii)Sweetness as of a breeze in May.

This piece of poetry, as a love poem, is an enjoyable one. The imageries of body, voice, and beauty of the poet’s beloved are quite sensitive and enchanting.

The poem reminds us of Robert Burns’ lyric ‘My Love is Like a Red Red Rose’ in which, like this present poem, the poet glorifies his beloved’s beauty and that allures the poet to fall in love with her. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Manmohan Ghose’s Poem ‘London’-A Critical Analysis

‘London’ By Manmohan Ghose is a romantic poem. The poem bears an autobiographical background as the poet, along with his parents, spent his early days in London, one of the sweetest cities in the world. After having his studies finished, he left London for India, and then the poet composed this poem in praise of London and its fascinating nature.

Bidding farewell to London, the poet says that England is one of the sweetest countries in the world. It is rich in beauty. The waysides are full of roses, the scenery of which fascinates the travelers and allures them to enjoy them. The poet spent hours after hours walking alone in the deep meadows of the city. The poet endured (enjoyed) the beauty and the silence of the city. To live in London is a rapture of life. It is full of ‘throngs’ (a great multitude of people), lights, and houses seeing which the poet seemed to be awakened from sleep. Sometimes, he was stunned (stupified) by the fresh thunder, with the harsh but delightful noises of the city. He, being fascinated by its beauty, often wandered on the pavement. In enjoying her beauty, the poet’s eyes were gratified by its green trees and its dusty-brick-walled streets. The city of London seemed to be rejoiced in being lost among others and bathing in the tones of human voices. He often got startled by the happy tread of the travellers. In sympathy for the city, the poet almost became crazy. As wine gives a new spirit to the heart so each fresh face and each figure of London spirited his heart. Various kinds of flowers blossomed beside its streets enhancing the charm of the city. It was to the poet, really a ravishing divine city on the earth. The poet thought that the murmuring voice of its people was sweeter than all the wood’s caresses. London is the forest of life and its entire people are its trees and leaves and it is sweet to be one of them. The beauty of nature is nothing in front of the beauty of London. The poet wishes to talk about the leaves of trees of London and more he wants to fall in love with his breezes. Thus beautiful and charming the city of London is: The poet lied on its soil and twined himself in the roots of its trees.

Thus the poet has glorified the beauty of the city of London in the poem.

The poem  ‘London’ is written in an easy style. Its imageries are also life-like which expresses the poet’s praise for London appropriately. In the poem, the poet has used some alliterative words and phrases as Each fresh face, each figure etc.

It is a romantic poem no doubt, but it is not a fully nature poem as the poet praises the man-made city of London but it has all the charms of a romantic lyric. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Manmohan Ghose’s Poem ‘ Can It Be’ -A Critical Analysis

‘Can It Be’ by Manmohan Ghose is an elegiac love poem written on the death of his beloved.

The poet reminds of his beloved who is dead and recalls her sweet smiles and cheerful (gay) look. She was a source of joy and merriment. But it is a sorrow for the poet that his beloved is dead. The roses and daisies have grown upon her grave and they look very beautiful as they are shining like stars. But these bloomed flowers can not give pleasure and joy to the poet’s heart. Instead, they become a token of death that pains the heart of the poet. All lonely things are full of beauty and as the beautiful things shine so do the just (legal or noble) deeds. Thus the faith and truth and duty of the poet remain the same, but only his beloved is lying in the dust as she is dead. Everything in the universe is full of beauty and so are the poet and all things including his beloved. But it is a matter of sorrow that his beloved is not living to enjoy the beauty.

The poem shows that every beautiful thing becomes meaningless to a broken-hearted man. So is the poet. While he had lost his beloved, everything which was beautiful became meaningless as his beloved was no more to share his joy.

The poem bears an autobiographical background. The poet had lost his beloved at an early age which broke his heart and depressed his spirit. This elegiac love poem was written perhaps in memory of his dead wife.

The poem is a little one with condensed words and phrases. It bears four stanzas each of four lines. The last line of each stanza contains the same idea that his beloved is dead and no more to enjoy the beauty of the world. Every stanza is an aposiopesis (aposiopesis is a figure of speech in which the speaker suddenly breaks off from what he is going to say and leaves the sentence incomplete as if the speaker is unable or unwilling to continue). To show how compressed his style is, the following lines may be cited as an example:

”All lovely things with beauty are;

And just deeds shine as just

And faith and truth and duty are-

And she is the only dust.”  0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism 

Manmohan Ghose’s Poem ‘The Garden Passion’-A Critical Analysis

‘The Garden Passion’ is a romantic poem by Manmohan Ghose. In it, he narrates the romantic, passionate lovemaking of Juliyan and Irene. Julian was a Roman emperor (361-363 A.D) who had fallen in love with Irene. She was very shy and beautiful. The poet narrates in this poem how passionately they were in love with each other and approached each other in spite of their coyness.

First, he gives a vivid description of the garden in which the lovers met each other and made love to each other. It was the season of Autumn during which the joy and natural beauty both of summer and spring could be seen and enjoyed. The garden was full of flowers. It was shaded by various kinds of trees and plants. The lilies blossomed. The river was flowing through the garden making a rippling sound. The fishes were gliding in the river. Many birds including linnets were singing on the boughs of trees. In such a joyous time Juliyan and Irene came to the garden. Though they loved each other yet they hesitated to approach each other. They came but were standing aloof in the shade of trees. Irene suddenly dropped her veil and then came out of the splendour of her eyes. Her two cheeks looked as beautiful as a rose. Her heart was full of passion. But she could not speak as she was shy. The eyes reflected her passion of love for Julian.

After this, the poet narrates, in detail, the coyness of Irene and her hesitating approach to Juliyan. She was so shy in nature that he turned her eyes away from Juliyan. Her coyness was visible in her mantle. She covered her cheeks and folded her hands and was standing. On her face, there was a smile. Her look was full of passion and the passion of love was so strong in her that her bosom could not tolerate its spirit. Tears of love came out of her eyes and it followed through her cheeks. She was in a dilemma as she loved Juliyan the most. But she was so shy that she hesitated to offer her love or receive Juliyan’s love. At last, she overcame the sense of hesitation in love and unveiled her eyes and looked and gazed at Juliyan.

Secondly, the poet shows Juliyan’s approach to Irene. He was also in a hot temper of love, but he also remained silent. His sigh proved the depth of his love to her. His heart was pining and he was mad in love to her but for his hesitation, he could not approach her. At last, he, throwing away all his sense of hesitation, approached Irene and held her trembling and willing hand in his hand. In joy and hesitation, tears came out of her eyes, and in such a time Juliyan embraced her with her fingers and hand and he pressed on her cheek and on her breast. They then began to kiss each other and it seemed that they talked to each other which became the music of love.

By giving such a passionate description of their union, the poet gives a very sensuous impact of their lovemaking. Water, wind, and flower — every natural object seemed to have rejoiced in their love-making. The roses breathed the fragrance of their love. The sun shined in sympathy for them. Then heaven seemed to bend over them as to give shade upon them. The woodlands showed their virgin wealth. The nightingale began to sing a melodious song in praise of them and in such a joyous moment Juliyan became the king and Irene became the queen of love.

The love expressed here is less spiritual; more amorous. The poem is full of sensuous imageries. Moreover, it bears a series of hyperbolic descriptions of some natural objects. (Hyperbole is a figure of speech by which things are presented as greater or less, better or worse than they really are. By it, in other words, to say, more is said of a thing than is expected to be said). While the poet says that the rose breathes the fragrance of the heart of Juliyan and Irene is hyperbolic in the description. In the words of the poet:

”It is the fragrance of their hearts

That the rose breathes: the water’s sound

Answers a feeling near, profound,

And flashing, eddying first and bright

It leaps with their own heart’s delight

Those spehere of solemn light on high

Shine but in glorious sympathy

And heaven seems for no other and

Spread there, but over them to bend.”

The words and phrases used in this poem ‘The Garden Passion’ are easy but the imagery by means of which the poet narrates the love story of Juliyan and Irene is very sensitive.

As a romantic love poem, this is the highest paradigm in the whole range of Indo-Anglian poetry. 0 0 0

Indian English Poetry Criticism

Manmohan Ghose’s Poem ‘Poplar, Beech and Weeping Willow’- A Critical Analysis

The poem entitled, ‘Poplar, Beech and Weeping Willow’ by Manmohan Ghose is a romantic nature poem. In this poem, the title words which are the names of trees are shown as personified objects of nature and human activities are imputed upon them. In this poem, the poet seeks a world which is natural freedom. The poet, like Wordsworth, wants to seek a lesson from nature and thus nature for him stands as a teacher, a guide and a philosopher.

First, the poet says about ‘poplar’ (a kind of plain tree) which is white in colour and standing lofty like a maiden. It, like a human being, is thinking and musing over something which the poet does not know. The tree is light in weight and it seems that it is always in a gay mood. So the poet asks the tree to teach him its secret thought so that the poet may be as gay as the tree. The poet experiences that the earth is full of grief and passion, so the poet asks the poplar tree to spring with the poet and to soar up the sky to leave the word of grief and there to have peace. There, in the sky, the floating clouds and the stars shall be their palace, and the clouds and the stars will offer the tree and the poet a world of beauty. There the birds will sing a song to their pleasure. In the sky, they will flourish and live with the breeze in peace.

Secondly, the poet says about ‘Beech’ (a kind of oak tree with edible acorns). Beech is said to be the queen of all trees. It gives shadow to every being. It is very tall, but the poet asks her to soar up to heaven i.e. to grow taller so that it can give more shadow. Now the poet asks her to teach him the lesson with which the poet can grow taller and can give shade to all. More the poet asks her to soar sunward, with the poet so that the poet along with the tree can take shelter for the shepherd to save and protect them from the heat of the sun. Sitting on the branches of the trees, the bird sings a melodious song to please all who listen to the song. Thirdly, the poet says about the Willow. He sees her weeping more to drench her soul with tears and by doing so she will experience the agony of love and separation. At last, the poet asks her to sour up so as to touch the bright stars and the moon. Thence she will be able to see the birth of brooks and will experience the emotion of the pines. And then, she will be able to catch the sound of the broadening stream and the swell of the ocean.

From the detailed analysis of the poem, it is learned that the poet is tiresome of the man-made society where he gets only pain, sorrow, and agony and he desires to soar up skyward to live in peace. The poem is Wordsworthian in theme and ideal.

The whole poem is the imagery of soaring skyward— but the imageries are hyperbolic and though they are hyperbolic yet the imageries fail to fascinate our senses.

The poem is written in a four-lined stanza in which the rhymes of the lines become the same. In this poem, the poet has used some alliteration (alliteration is a kind of figure of speech that consists in the repetition of the same letter or syllable at the beginning of two or more words). For example,

(a) Poffer their pure world of pomp.

(b) Soaring to a tower of sighs in branches soft and shady. 

(c) Beauty into bounty change, 

Bend down the eye that blesses. 0 0 0

The End of ‘Indian English Poetry Criticism’


Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:

  1. Advertisement Writing
  2. Amplification Writing
  3. Note Making
  4. Paragraph Writing
  5. Notice Writing
  6. Passage Comprehension
  7. The Art of Poster Writing
  8. The Art of Letter Writing
  9. Report Writing
  10. Story Writing
  11. Substance Writing
  12. School Essays Part-I
  13. School Essays Part-II
  14. School English Grammar Part-I
  15. School English Grammar Part-II..

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