Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

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Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

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Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

You have learned that a clause is a part of a sentence having a subject and a finite verb of its own that makes sense though not always a complete sense. According to the manner of expressing meaning the clauses are divided into three classes as Principal Clause, Co-ordinate Clause and Subordinate Clause. A general account of these clauses has been given in the previous chapter. In this present chapter, we have taken the Sub-ordinate Clause under special consideration.

A Subordinate (Dependent) Clause is a part of a sentence that can not express its meaning independently without depending on the principal clause.

Sub-ordinate clauses, according to their functions, are divided into three classes as: Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause and Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause. Let us discuss them in detail as below:

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

Sub-ordinate Noun Clause

The function of a Sub-ordinate Noun Clause in a sentence is similar to the function of a Noun. A Sub-ordinate Noun Clause acts in a sentence as under:

(a) Subject to a Verb: 

(i) That Tom is honest is known to all.

(ii) Why Ram was absent remained a mystery.

(iii) What he had done was correct.

In the above sentences, the italicized words make the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause and act as Subjects to the verbs in the Principal Clauses.

(b) Object to a Verb:

(i) I know when Saxena will return.

(ii) Ramesh can say that he did it.

(iii) They know when their opportunity will come.

(iv) Please tell us whether we shall get your help.

In the above sentences, the italicized words form the Sub-ordinate Noun Clauses and they act as Objects to the Verbs in the Principal Clauses.

(c) Complement to a Verb:

(i) That was what happened that day. 

(ii) It is true that the news can never be denied.

(iii) That was what we really hoped.

(iv) The problem is how the patient can be sent to the hospital.

In the above sentences, the italicized words act as Complement to the Verb in the Principal Clause. They also form the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause.

(d) Object to a Preposition:

(i) I don’t bother about what you say.

(ii)Please listen to what your elders say.

(iii) All things will depend on how you react to the affair.

(iv) We can not rely on your remark.

In the above sentences, the italicized group of words are Sub-ordinate Noun Clauses. They act as Objects to the respective prepositions.

(e) In Apposition to a Noun:

(i) The news that he was guilty was not true.

(ii) Their decision that a general meeting will be called is accepted by all.

In the above sentences, the italicized words extend the meaning of the Nouns preceding them. This is called Apposition. The italicized words form the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause.

Note: Sometimes the connective word that before the Sub-ordinate Noun Clause is omitted. This is generally done while speaking. Mind the following sentences:

(i) They say (that) they will never go there.

(ii) I hope (that) they will soon meet me in the club.

(c) We say (that) we are not in the wrong.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause

An Adjective Clause qualifies (as an Adjective does) the Noun or Pronoun in the Principal Clause. The Noun or Pronoun placed immediately before the Adjective Clause is called Antecedent. The Adjective Clause generally begins after the Antecedent. An Adjective Clause begins with a Relative Pronoun like who, which, whom, whose, that or a Relative Adverb like where, when, why, how etc.

(a) Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause Beginning with Relative Pronoun:

(i)This is the boy whom I know for years.

(ii) This is the car that we sold last year.

(iii) This is the lady who gave me a ring.

(b) Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause Beginning with Relative Adverb:

(i) Would you tell me the time when the bus arrives?

(ii) This is the spot where we met our new President.

(iii) Can you tell the place where your son lives?

Note 1: Sometimes the Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb may remain understood (omitted) as in the following sentences:

(i) The boy (whom) you met yesterday is my son.

(ii) She found the bag (that) I had lost that day.

Note 2: Sometimes an Adjective Clause may begin with ‘but’ or ‘such’ as in the following sentences:

(i) You should lend me such an amount of money that I can buy a car.

(ii)There is none in the club but will assist him.

Note 3: Sometimes an Adjective Clause beginning with which or whom may be preceded by a Preposition as in the following sentences:

(i) Bhupen Hazarika is a singer whom the Assamese are proud of.

(ii) The man was Manish whose help they abandoned the place of.

Words like who, whose, which, whom, when, that, where, why etc. establish the relationship between the Adjective Clause and the Antecedent. Adjective Clauses beginning with such Relative words are called Relative Clauses. 

Relative Clauses are divided into (1) Defining or Restrictive Relative Clause and (2) Non-defining or Non-restrictive Relative Clause. Let us tell about them as below:

1. Defining or Restrictive Relative Clause:

The relationship between the Antecedent and the Relative Clause is so close and inseparable that without this clause the Antecedent loses its relevance in the sentence as:

A student who studies hard generally secures more mark than others.

In the above sentence without the Relative Clause who studies hard, the antecedent A student will lose its relevance and the meaning of the sentence will not be clear.

In place of whom, which etc. the that can be used as in the following sentences:

(i) The pen which you bought is fine.

or 

The pen that you bought is fine.

(ii) The lad who is standing under the tree is my brother.

or

The lad that is standing under the tree is my brother.

2. Non-defining or Non-Restrictive Clause:

In a Non-defining Clause, the relation between the clause and the antecedent is not as close or as inseparable as in the Defining Clause. A Non-defining Clause provides additional information and even when it is omitted the meaning of the sentence will remain clear as in the following example:

The Deputy Commissioner who is a man of few words is really honest.

In the above sentence, the relative clause who is a man of few words provides only additional information and its omission will not much affect the meaning of the sentence.

Sometimes a sentence with Non-defining Clause can be transformed into a Compound sentence as in the following examples:

The bus, we hired, reached the place at 11 A. M.

We hired the bus and it reached the place at 11 A. M.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause

An Adverb Clause in a sentence acts like an Adverb and modifies a Verb, an Adjective or another Adverb. An Adverb Clause indicates, like an Adverb, how, when or where the action of a verb takes place. Adverb Clauses according to their functions in a sentence are divided into 9 classes, as: (1) Adverb Clause of Time (2) Adverb Clause of Place (3) Adverb Clause of Manner (4) Adverb Clause of Comparison (5) Adverb Clause of Reason (or Cause) (6) Adverb Clause of Purpose (7) Adverb Clause of Result (8) Adverb Clause of Condition and (9) Adverb Clause of Contrast. Let us discuss them in detail as below:

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

1. Adverb Clause of Time

Adverb Clause of Time refers to the time of an action (verb). It begins with such Adverbs as when, whenever, before, after, till, as, while, since, now, once, that, until, as soon as etc. Examples:

(i) The sun shines when the night is over.

(ii) It has passed a month since we met them.

(iii) As soon as he saw the lion he ran off.

(iv) Look before you leap.

(v) Strike while the iron is hot.

(vi) Renin lamented while his father died.

(vii) You should earn much money before you go to marry.

(ix) He left the place while the police came.

(x) When he won the lottery he was in Delhi.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

2. Adverb Clause of Place

Adverb Clause of Place indicates the place of the action of a verb in the Principal Clause. Adverb Clause of Place begins with where, wherever, everywhere etc. They modify the verb. Examples:

(i) William makes friends wherever he goes.

(ii) He sees everything beautiful where he visits.

(iii) Where there is a will, there is a way.

(iv) Everywhere we go, we meet people of the street.

(v) In our India a citizen may live, wherever he likes.

(vi) You may go where you choose.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

3. Adverb Clause of Manner

Adverb Clause of Manner refers to the manner of the action of a verb in the Principal Clause. Adverb Clause of Manner begins with as, as if, as though, like, in that etc. The Adverb Clause answers the question of how to the verb in the Principal Clause. Examples:

(i) As you sow, so will you reap.

(ii) He will act as I advised him.

(iii) Do as you like.

(iv) It appears as though it might rain again.

(v) He behaves as if he is the master of all things.

(vi) She can’t sing like her cousin.

Note: Sometimes the Subject in an Adverb Clause beginning with as may remain understood. For examples:

(i)The news reads as (it) follows.

(ii) The matter is as (it) narrated below.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

4. Adverb Clause of Comparison

Adverb Clause of Comparison is used to compare things. Adverb Clause of Comparison is made up of words like as, as…. as, so…. as, than etc. Examples:

(i) Ronaldo was not as good as his father was.

(ii) You are wiser than I am.

(iii) He is not so wise as you think.

(iv) Lalita was younger than her friend.

(v) He is as wise as Buddha.

Note: Adverb Clause of Comparison may also be composed of using the…… the. Examples:

(i) The more you read, the more you learn.

(ii)The higher you soar, the cooler you feel.

(iii) The more you earn, the more you crave for.

5. Adverb Clause of Reason (Cause)

Adverb Clauses of Reason (Cause) are used to mean some cause. It begins with words like because, as, since, in as much as, that etc. Examples:

(i) As he is ill, he can’t walk.

(ii) I am pleased that you have come back.

(iii) How can I rely on you since you keep away from me?

(iv) I am unable to help you as I have little means.

(v) Lewis could not attend the meeting because he was sick.

(vi) I was fortunate that I did not go there.

Note: In the Adverb Clause of Reason beginning with that generally that is omitted. Examples:

(i) He was fortunate (that) he passed the examination.

(ii) She was angry (that) her friend committed the sin.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

6. Adverb Clause of Purpose

Adverb Clause of Purpose explains the purpose mentioned in the Principal Clause. An Adverb Clause of Purpose begins with so that, in order that, that, lest etc. Examples:

(i)We read that we may learn.

(ii) We eat that we may live.

(iii) Walk fast lest you would miss the train.

(iv) Nabin goes there in order to meet his friend.

(v) He worked hard so that he could progress.

(vi) The rich should spare some money in order that the poor may live.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

7. Adverb Clause of Result

Adverb Clause of Result tells of the result (consequence) of the work mentioned in the Principal Clause. Adverb Clause of Result begins with words like so…..that, such ….. that, so that, such that etc. Examples:

(i) Michael was so tired that he could not speak.

(ii) Today is so hot that nobody goes to the playground.

(iii) I am so busy that I cannot meet you.

(iv) Kanak was away from the town for thirty years so people took him for dead.

(v) The impact of the earthquake was such that no homes and houses remained intact.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

8. Adverb Clause of Condition

Adverb Clause of Condition indicates in what state or circumstance the action mentioned in the Principal Clause will happen. Adverb Clause of Condition begins with if, unless, whether, on condition that, provided that, so long as etc. They modify the verb. Examples:

(i) I may help you if you help your brother.

(ii)They must fail unless they study hard.

(iii)You may find him there if you go soon.

(iv) So long one remains silent there is no chance of quarrel.

(v) Whether he helps me or not, I must do my duty.

(vi) Be more industrious if you want peace.

(vii) If you deceive me, I shall be in trouble.

Note: The sentence like this (in example no.vii written above) can be written without using if as under:

Should you deceive me, I shall be in trouble.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

9. Adverb Clause of Contrast (or Concession)

Adverb Clause of Contrast (Concession) refers to the contrast between two things or ideas. Adverb Clause of Contrast begins with although, even, whereas, even if etc. Examples:

(i)Though he was poor, he was happy.

(ii)Though he is rich, he is dishonest.

(iii) I am not afraid of him, though he is strong.

(iv) Even if you are late, please don’t miss the meeting.

(v) Although Renin is rich he is a miser.

(vi) Though we are striving for development, we are in the first stage.

(vii) Even if I fail, I would try again.

(viii) I shall go there even if it rains again.

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

EXERCISE

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

1. Point out the Noun Clause in each of the following sentences:

(a) There is no meaning in what he says.

(b) Life is what we make it.

(c) This is what I expected.

(d) That he is honest is known to me.

(e) This is the place where they work.

(f) Pay heed to what your teacher says.

(g) I don’t believe in what he speaks.

(h) It is true that she has gone there.

(i) Ask Ram if he is ready to do it.

(j) Tell me who is wrong.

(k) The news that he is dead is false.

2. Point out the Adjective Clause in each of the following sentences:

(a) Take care lest you should fail.

(b) The girl you see is my daughter.

(c)This is the land we live in.

(d) They never fail who die in a great cause.

(e) This is the book that he wanted.

(f) He who lives fast shall die young.

(g) Tell me the reason why he has failed.

(h) Her son who is a professor is my friend.

(i) There is no man but loves his country.

(j) He laughs best who laughs last.

(k) I lost the umbrella that you gave me.

(l) This is the way I solved the problem.

(m) This is the village where I was born.

3.  Define the clauses of the following sentences:

(a) Everybody knows that ours is an independent country.

(b) People say that the war must come to an end.

(c) Do whatever you like.

(d) Whatever may happen I must leave the country.

(e) You may come again whenever you can make time.

(f) We are happy that our school team wins the first prize.

(g) It is a tragedy that he died young.

(h) Man proposes but God disposes.

(i) I know when his father will return.

(j) This is the place where Shakespeare was born.

(k) Our success depends on how we work.  0 0 0

Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

N.B.  The article ‘Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause’ originally belongs to the book ‘School English Grammar Part- I‘ by Menonim Menonimus. Kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause

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