Determiners | The Use of Determiners






Mind the italicized words in the following sentences:

1. I have a cow.

2. It gives much milk.

The word ‘a’ in the first sentence qualifies the noun ‘cow’ and indicates its number. In the second sentence, the word ‘much’ indicates the quantity of the uncountable noun ‘milk’. The words like these, which qualify the noun, are Determiners.

The Adjective-like words such as: a, this, these, that, some, much, many, few, little, a lot of, etc. which are put before a noun to determine whether the noun is singular, plural, countable, uncountable, definite or indefinite are called Determiners.

Determiners are many in number. Some are used only before countable nouns; some are used before both countable and uncountable nouns.

On the basis of their uses, the determiners are divided into 6 classes as:

A.Articles: a, an, the.

B.Quantitative: little, few, much, many, several, some, any etc.

C.Demonstratives: this, these, that, those.

D.Ordinals: first, second, third, fourth, fifth etc.

E.Cardinals: one, two, three, four, five etc.

F.Possessives: my, mine, your, our, his, their, Ram’s, Rahim’s etc.

The Uses of these Determiners are being discussed in detail as below:



Articles are three in number as- ‘A’,  ‘An’ and ‘The’. They are put before noun like adjectives.

Generally, ‘A’ and ‘An’ is put before a singular noun and ‘The’ is put before singular and plural noun to indicate the noun definitely. 

On the basis of their uses- Articles are divided into two types as: (a) Indefinite Article:  ‘A’ and ‘An’ and (b) Definite Article: ‘The’.

Their uses are shown below:

(a) The Uses of Indefinite Articles. (‘A’ and ‘An’)

1.‘A’ is generally used before a noun the first letter of which is a consonant. For example- a pen, a book, a cow, a dog, a fan, a tree, a lion, a tiger, a table, a box etc.

2. ‘An’ is generally used before a word the first letter of which is a vowel. For example– an ox, an eye, an apple, an Indian etc.

These are two general uses of ‘A’ and ‘An’ as articles. But there are some exceptions of the rules of their uses. These Exceptional Rules of the Uses of the Indefinite Articles ‘A’ are shown below:

(i) ‘A’ is used before a vowel having the sound ‘yu’ or ‘yoo’ as:

A university, a union, a unit, a unicorn, a ewe, a European, a useful thing etc.

In those words ‘a’ is used though the first letter of these words are vowels. It is because the vowels are pronounced in these words as ‘yu’ or ‘yoo’.

(ii)‘A’ is used before the vowel ‘o’ when it is sounded as ‘wa’. For example-

A one-eyed man, a one-act play, a one-rupee note etc.

In these words ‘a’ is used though the first letter of the words contains the vowel ‘o’. It is because ‘o’ is sounded as ‘wa’.

(iii) ‘A’ is used before a singular countable noun to indicate a class. For example:

A dog is a faithful animal.  

A lion is a ferocious animal.

(iv) ‘A’ is used before a Proper Noun to mean one of the same name, as-

There was a Karishma in our school. A Talukdar invited us.

(v) Before a Proper Noun or Common Noun to mean a person or object having the same qualities. For example:

He is a Mohammad (as religious as Mohammad). 

He is a Homer of India. (as great as Homer).

Ramen is a tiger of the village (as ferocious as a tiger). 

(vi) ‘A’ is used before an Uncountable Noun to give a particular instance or kind of a material or quality. For example: 

Milk is a food. Silver is a metal. 

Menon showed me a courage.

(vii) ‘A’ is used to mean one, the same, certain, as:

Thirty days make a month. (one)

Birds of a feather flock together. (the same)

A collection of many books make a library. (one)

Twelve inches make a foot. (one)

(viii) ‘A’ is used before Plural Countable Nouns such as: dozen, hundred, thousand etc. as:

Kanak lent her brother a hundred rupee.

Give me a dozen of pencils.

He borrowed a thousand books from the library.

(ix) ‘A’ is used before an adjective in the superlative degree to denote excessiveness, as:

‘The Gone with the Wind’ is a most interesting novel.

Iron is a most useful metal.

(x) ‘A’ is used after the word ‘what’ to make an exclamatory sentence, as:

What a beautiful flower it is! 

What a nonsense!

(xi)‘A’ is used as a shortened form of  the preposition ‘on’, as-

Ramen visits us once a day. (a = on)

He earns a thousand rupee a month. (a=on)

Kerosine sells here fifteen rupees a litre. (a = per litre)

(xii)‘A’ is used with such words and expression as: a good many, quite a, such a etc. For example:

I have a good many books.

They had quite a happy hours there.

I met there such a wise man like you.

(xiii) ‘A’ is used when ‘so’ is used before Adjectives, such as:

Sita is so nice a girl.

Narayana is so wise a man.

(xiv)‘A’ is used before telling about a profession or occupation, as-

Abul Kalam is a scientist.

I want to be a writer.

The Exceptional Uses of Article ‘An’

(i) ‘An’ is used before a noun which though begins with ‘h’, yet the ‘h’ sound remains silent. For example: an hour, an honest man, an heiress, an honorary secretary.

(ii) ‘An’ is used before a single consonant (abbreviation) having a vowel sound in the beginning. For Example: 

An M.A.,  An M.P.,  An M.L.A.,  An R.C.C. Building,  An M.B.B.S.,  An H.S. School, An N.C.C. etc. 

b.The Uses of Definite Article ‘The’

(i) ‘The’ is used to denote a particular person or thing known already, as:

I like the book. (Known already)

The pen is red which was given to me. 

Let us go to the theatre.

(ii) ‘The’ is used before a singular common noun to denote the entire class or group.

The cow is a useful animal.

The lion is a ferocious animal.

The rose is a lovely flower.

Note: The noun ‘man’ and ‘woman’ don’t take an article, when they are used in a general sense to denote the whole class, as:

Man is mortal. Man is the best creation of Nature. Woman is man’s mate.

(iii) ‘The’ is used before a singular noun referring to a thing of which only one exists, that is before a unique thing that has no plural form as: sun, earth, north, east, west etc. For example:

The sun rises in the east.

The moon shines at night.

The sky is blue.

The Venus is hotter than the earth.

(iv) ‘The’ is used to point out a noun defined by a qualifying word or phrase. For example:

The pen which you gave me is very smooth.

The boy is he whom I trust.

The book he borrowed was valuable.

(v) ‘The’ is used before an Adverb used in comparison, as:

The more you read, the more you learn.

The more you get, the more you want.

The sooner, the better.

(vi) ‘The’ is used before an Adjective in the plural sense to indicate a class, as:

The poor are often innocent.

The virtuous are not happy.

We should not look down upon the poor.

(vii) ‘The’ is used before an Adjective in the superlative degree, as-

Manmohan is the tallest boy in our school.

This is the loveliest drawing.

He is the best student of our class.

Kanak is the finest footballer of our team.

Note: When the superlative is formed with most to mean ‘very’ then ‘the’ is not used, as-

This is a most interesting novel.

That was a most enjoyable match.

(viii) ‘The’ is used before a noun to give the force of a superlative, as-

Ramanan is the leader of the gang.

He is the worker of the farm.

(ix)‘The’ is used before a noun to indicate a profession, as-

He joined the church. (Became a clergyman) 

He joined the bar. (Became a lawyer)

(x) ‘The’ is used before a proper noun to denote a type or to indicate likeness, as:

Rajnikanta Bordoloi is the Scott of Assam.

Kalidas is the Shakespeare of India.

(xi) ‘The’ is used before an Ordinal Number when written in letter (not in Roman number), as-

Richard the Second (not Richard the II)

Louis the Fourteenth (not Louis the XIV)

(xii) ‘The’ is used before some Adjectives or Nouns denoting title, as:

Alexander, the Great.

Peter the conqueror.

Napoleon, the warrior.

(xiii) ‘The’ is used before a Common Noun in the singular number to denote an abstract idea, as:

The mother in her arose soon (the motherly qualities)

The fool in him played the best (the foolish manner)

(xiv) ‘The’ is used before the Dates of Months, as-

The 26th of January, 1950.

The 21st April.

The 1st July.

(xv) ‘The’ is used before the Adjective of a proper noun, as-

The sonneteer Shakespeare.

The late Dr. Johnson.

(xvi) ‘The’ is used before the names of rivers, gulfs, seas, oceans, aeroplanes, ships, newspapers, straits, desert etc. as:

The Brahmaputra. (river)

The Persian Gulf. (gulf)

The North sea. (sea)

The Pacific Ocean. (ocean) 

The Palk Straits. (straits)

The Sahara Desert. (desert)

The Queen Elizabeth. (ship)

The Bayudoot. (aeroplane)

The Hindustan Times. (newspaper)

(xvii) ‘The’ is used before the names of mountain range, as:

The Alps, The Himalayas, The Bindos.

Note: ‘The’ is not used before the name of a single mountain and mountain top. As-

Baghbar Hill. (not the Baghbar Hill)

Mount Everest. (not the Mount Everest)

(xviii) ‘The’ is used before the name  of islands, as:

The Andamans.

The Philipines.

The West Indies.

Note: ‘The’ is not used before the name of a single island, as-

Ireland (not the Ireland, as it is a single island)

Sumatra (not the Sumatra)

(xix) ‘The’ is used before the name of famous historical building, as:

The Tajmahal, The Red Fort, The Rabindra Bhawan, The Supreme Court etc.

(xx) ‘The’ is used before the names of historical events, as:

The battle of Haldighat.

The Russian Revolution.

The Glorious Revolution.

The Treaty of Verssaille.

(xxi) ‘The’ is used before the names of Hotel, Cinema and Theatre, as:

The Hotel Emperor.

The Hotel Mayur.

The New-Star Theatre.

The Rupayan.

The Nataraj

(xxii) ‘The’ is used before the name of a Nation or a community of people, as:

The Assamese, The French, The Muslims, The Sikhs etc.

(xxiii) ‘The’ is used before the name of sacred books, as:

The Quran, The Bible, The Kirtan Gosha, The Ramayana, The Mahabharata, The Paradise Lost etc.

(xxiv) ‘The’ is used before the descriptive name of a place, country and association, as:

The Punjab. (The land of five rivers)

The Netherland.

The U.N.O.

The U.K.

The A. A. S. U.

The F. B. A. B.

Note: ‘The’ is not used before the name of Abbreviation which is pronounced as a single word, as-


(xxv) ‘The’ is used before a particular means of Vehicle or Conveyance, as-

We shall go to Delhi by the Rajdhani Express.

We shall return by the Assam Express.

(xxvi) ‘The’ is used before Abstract Nouns and Material Nouns if they are particularized, as-

The gold of this ring is pure.

The tea of Assam is famous.

The beauty of Tajmahal is unique.

Note: In an ordinary sense, no article is used before Abstract and Material Noun, as-

Gold is a precious metal.

The ring is made of gold.

(xxvii) ‘The’ is used before the name of Municipal or Government departments and name of banks, shops etc., as:

The Municipal Committee of Howly.

The Education Department of Assam.

The State Bank of India.

The Kalpataro (shop).

Note: ‘The’ is not used if any bank or shop is named after the name of a person, as-

William’s Bank. (not The William’s Bank)

Tarali Store. (not The Tarali Store)

(xxviii) ‘The’ is used before Adverbial expression denoting division of time, as-

He had worked all the evening.

It had been raining all the day.

They were dancing all the night.

The uses of Articles have been discussed above in the detail. There are some nouns before which ‘no’ article is used as shown under:

(i) ‘No’ article is used before the names of lake and cape, as-

Lake Baikal.

Cape of Good Hope.

Cape of Comorin.

(ii) ‘No’ article is used before the names of street, road, school or college if they are named after a proper noun as-

The house stands at Gauhati Road.

He came along Indira Gandhi Road.

I was a student of Barpeta Road Howly College.

He stays at Bodoa Street.

(iii) ‘No’ article is used before the Collective nouns as: people, cattle, government, mankind, parliament as-

People see it every day.

The government cannot do it alone.

The proper study of mankind is man.

Cattle are grazing.

Rajesh is a Member of Parliament.

(iv) ‘No’ article is used before nouns used as complements, as-

We made Ram our president.

(v) ‘No’ article is used before the word ‘God’ or any word that mean ‘God’, as-

God is good.

Allah is Omnipresent.

(vi) ‘No’ article is used before Proper Nouns, Material Nouns and Abstract Nouns, as-

Proper Noun: Ram, Rahim, Kabita etc.

Material Noun: Gold, Silver, Water, Salt etc.

Abstract Nouns: Kindness, honesty, falsehood etc.

(vii) ‘No’ article is used before the word ‘Man’ and ‘Woman’ when they are used in general sense, as-

Man is mortal.

Woman is man’s mate.

(viii) ‘No’ article is used before the Common Nouns as: father, mother, baby, when they relate a particular one of them, as: 

Father gave me the advice.

Mother is giving milk.

Baby is sleeping now.

(ix) ‘No’ article is used before a Common Noun descriptive of rank, title  and used in apposition to a proper noun as-

Akbar, emperor of Delhi, was a noble king.

President, A. P. J. Abul Kalam, visited Assam.

(x)  ‘No’ article is used before the words as- dinner, lunch, super, breakfast. For example-

I had taken my dinner at your hotel.

He likes tea as his breakfast.

After lunch, he takes rest.

It was time for supper.

(xi)‘No’ article is used before the name of certain diseases, as-

fever, dysentery, cholera.

Note: But ‘the’ is used before such diseases as: the gout, the mumps, the measles.

(xii) ‘No’ article is used before the name of a university, as-

I was a student of Gauhati University.

Ramen was an M.A. from Kerala University.

Note: But article ‘the’ is used when written as: the University of Gauhati.

(xiii) ‘No’ article is used before the name of a language,as-

I can speak Urdu fluently.

Note: But article ‘the’ is used if the word ‘language’ is used after the name of a particular language, as-

I can write the Urdu language.

Already, we have discussed all the uses of articles. But there are some occasion where we can repeat the use of the same article to make a difference in meaning. Mark the difference in the following sentences:

1. I have a black and a white cat.

2. I have a black and blue pen.

In the sentence No. 1, there are double uses of ‘a’, one before the word ‘black’ and the other before the word ‘white’. The double use of ‘a’ indicates that I have two cats – one is black and other is white.

Now, notice the sentence No.2. In this sentence, the article ‘a’ is used once before black and blue. It indicates that I have one pen which is partly black and partly blue.

Thus the repetition of articles or determiners differentiates the meaning of a sentence.



There are some Determiners put before a noun to mean quantity i.e. the amount, measure or number of the noun which are called Quantitative Determiners. Their numbers are many, as many, much, some, any, few, little, each, every, plenty of, a large number of etc.

Some of these Quantitative Determiners are used for Countable Nouns, some are for Uncountable Nouns and some are used for both the Countable and Uncountable Nouns. Their usages are shown below.

1. The Use of ‘Many’ and ‘Much’

‘Many’ is used for Countable Noun and it means numbers. It is plural in sense. On the other hand ‘Much’ is used for Uncountable Noun to mean amount. For example-

I have many books. (Countable noun)

He has many friends. (Countable noun)

There is much water in the pot. (Uncountable noun)

He faced much trouble to win the prize. (Uncountable noun)

Note: There are many more other words used in place ‘many’ and ‘much’, as- 

To express the meaning of ‘many’ there are such phrases as: a large number of, a lot of, lots of, heaps of etc. For example-

Rehan had a large number of books.

There was a large number of leaders in the meeting.

To express the meaning of ‘much’ there are such phrases as- a good deal of, a large quantity of, a lot of, lots of, plenty of etc. For example-

Karim did a good deal of work.

I have a lot of work to perform.

Lachit borrowed a large quantity of sugar from Luhit’s shop.

2. The Use of  ‘Any’  and  ‘Some’

These two Determiners are used for both Countable and Uncountable Noun to express number and amount.

Generally ‘Some’ is used in Affirmative Sentence and ‘Any’ is used in Negative and Interrogative Sentence. Both are used to mean indefinite number or amount of both Countable and Uncountable Nouns. For example-

I have some apples. (Affirmative, Countable noun)

He did not meet any friend there. (Negative, Countable noun)

You gave him some sugar. (Uncountable noun)

Would you like to have some soup? (Uncountable noun)

Have you any work to do now? (Uncountable noun)

Note: In a Negative Sentence ‘any’ may be preceded by ‘not’ or ‘n’t’ but not by ‘no’. For example-

There is not any water in the jug. (but not- There is no any water in the jug)

3. The Use of ‘Each’ and  Every’

‘Each’ is used for two or more. ‘Every’ is used for more than two. Both are used to mean singular countable noun. For example-

Each boy will get a prize. (Here the number of boys is two or more than two)

Every boy was present in the class. (Here it means that the number of boys were more than two)

4.  The Use of ‘Either’  and  ‘Neither’

‘Either’ and ‘Neither’ are used before singular countable noun. ‘Either’ refers to one between two or both of the two nouns. On the other hand ‘Neither’ refers to none of the two. For example-

He may join either party. (It means that- he may join any party of two parties)

The village is situated on either side of the street. (Here it means that- the village is situated on the both sides of the street)

Neither boy is innocent. (Here neither means none of two boys)

Kamala joined neither party.

5. The Use of ‘Few’, ‘A few’ and ‘The Few’

These Determiners are used for plural countable nouns. ‘Few’ has a negative force and denotes ‘almost none’. For example-

Few students were present in the meeting. (Here it denotes that- almost none of the students were present)

‘A Few’ bears a positive meaning and it denotes ‘some’. For example-

A few students were present in the class. (Here it means that some students were present)

A few books were bought by Tapas.

‘The Few’ denotes ‘all, though not many.’ For example-

I lent him the few books that I had.

 Give me the few pens that you have.

I cannot part with the few rupees I have.

6. The Uses of ‘Little’, A little’ and ‘The little’

These determiners are used before Uncountable Noun to mean amount.

Little has a negative meaning and denotes ‘almost nothing’. For example-

There is little milk in the cup. (Here it means that- there is almost no milk in the cup)

A Little bears a positive meaning and it denotes ‘some, though not much’. For example-

He has a little money. 

She has a little courage.

Give me a little milk to quench my thirst.

The Little denotes ‘all, though not much’. For example-

Give me the little milk of the cup.

The little honey of the bottle is drunk out by Peter and John.

7. The Use of ‘No’, ‘Not’ and ‘Not any’

All of these determiners are used in a negative sense.

No denotes ‘nothing or none at all’. It is used as an adjective, as-

I have no pencil.

Ram has no money. 

Not is used before a singular countable noun in place of ‘no’. as-

I have not a pencil.

Sabina has not a book.

Not any is used with Singular Countable Noun, Plural Countable Noun and Uncountable Noun. For example-

He has not any pencil. (Singular Countable Noun)

He has not any pencils. (Plural Countable Noun)

Rashmi had not any time to do the work.

8. The Uses of ‘Both’

It is used before Plural Countable Noun to denote all of the two nouns. as-

Both Ram and Rahim are good students.



‘This’, ‘these’, ‘that’, ‘those’ are called Demonstrative Determiners. ‘This’ and ‘That’ are generally used to denote Singular Countable Nouns. The plural forms of ‘this’ and ‘that’ are ‘these’ and ‘those’ successively. They are used before Plural Countable Nouns. For example-

This is my laboratory.

That is your library.

These are my books.

Those are your books.


The words which are used for counting numbers are called Cardinal Determiners. as- one, two, three, four etc. For example-

I have four red pencils.

They have five pens.

Ramen had six shirts.



The words which are used for denoting the order of numbers are called Ordinal Determiners, as- first, second, third, fourth, fifth, sixth etc. For example-

Rana is the first boy of our class.

He is my second friend.

They are the third party who comes here.



Possessive Determiners are- my, mine, your, yours, his, her, hers, its, their, theirs, our, ours, Ram’s etc. They are used to mean ownership of something. For example-

This is my pen.

That is your pen.

This pencil is yours.

That school is ours. 0 0 0.




Q.1. Insert appropriate determiners (the, much, an, many, enough, few, both) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i)……….. Taj is a historical building.

(ii) Give me ……….. umbrella.

(iii) How …….. money will you need?

(iv) ………. people were present there.

(v)I want …….. book that I lent you the other day.

(vi) The class was cancelled because ………. students were present.

(vii) There is ………. milk in the pot, you can take some.

(viii) ………. Ram and Hari were good friends.

Q.2. Insert appropriate determiners (a, an, some, no, any, this) in the blanks of the following sentences.

Arun: I have ____ essay to write. But my pen has _____ ink in it. Can you lend me ____ ink?

Neela: I’m sorry, I have ____ ink.

Arun: Don’t you have ____ ink at all?

Neela: I don’t have ____.

Arun: Well, can you lend me ____ pen?

Neela: You can borrow _____  pen from me but you must return it soon.

Arun: I’ll buy ____ ink and then return your pen.

Neela: I’ll need my pen  _____ afternoon. I have to write a letter.

Q.3. Insert appropriate determiners (much, some, all, the, any, either, one) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i)Mary is not at ____ office, I think she has gone home.

(ii)They stood on ____ side of the bed.

(iii)You can stop at ____ time you like.

(iv)Could you give me ____ examples?

(v)Do you watch ____ television?

(vi)I know ____ household where that happened.

(vii) I shall miss ____ my friends.

Q.4. Insert appropriate determiners (own, the, this, these, his, a, some, little etc.) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i)We have very ____ information.

(ii)I remember ____ name now.

(iii)I heard it with my ____ eyes.

(iv)I got ____ postcard from Sushan.

(v)I am going to walk up ____ steps towards you.

(vi)Good evening, in ____ programme we are going to look at the way in which Indian music has developed in recent years.

(vii) We went to see ____ Pyramids.

(viii) I had ____ good ideas.

Q.5. Use appropriate determiners (own, the, a, any, few, a few, the few, our) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) He stopped ____ car in front of the house.

(ii)They would be welcome to use ____ library.

(iii)Make your ____ decision.

(iv)His younger sister was ____ sensitive child.

(v) You can stop at ____ time you like.

(vi)We have made ____ progress.

(vii) They went to London for ____ days.

Q.6. Insert appropriate determiners (the, a, the little, a few, some, any, much, many) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) There is not ____ oil in the bottle.

(ii)  Are there ____ women there?

(iii) I spent ____ money I had.

(iv) I have read ____ books.

(v) He is ____ Union Secretary of our school.

(vi) We have ____ books in the almirah.

(vii) Only ____ students are likely to fail.

Q.7. Insert appropriate determiners (much, either, both, any, each, some, few, the) in the blanks of the following sentences.

(i) Kalidas is ____ Shakespeare of India.

(ii)He has not ____ money to buy this picture.

(iii)He has found ____ trouble to finish the work.

(iv) The class was cancelled, because ____ students were present.

(v)____ Sita and Gita are good friends.

(vi) Could you give me ____ examples.

(vii) They stood on ____ side of the bed.

Q.8. Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners.

(i)He is ____ European.

(ii) How ____ land does a man need?

(iii)We reached there ____ 10th December.

(iv)____ little learning is a dangerous thing.

(v) Will you give ____ sugar?

(vi)I don’t have ____ pen.

(vii) Mr. Baruah is ____ honourable man.

Q.9. Fill in the blanks with appropriate determiners.

(i) This is ____ one rupee note.

(ii)There is ___ water in the glass, you can take some.

(iii)Gita is ____ European girl.

(iv)The man is ____ honourable man.

(v)He has ____ books.

(vi)Will you lend me ____ pen?

(vii)  He is ____ B.Sc., but his brother is ____ M.Sc.

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N.B.  The article ‘Determiners’ originally belongs to the book ‘School English Grammar Part- I‘ by Menonim Menonimus.

Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:

  1. Advertisement Writing
  2. Amplification Writing
  3. Note Making
  4. Paragraph Writing
  5. Notice Writing
  6. Passage Comprehension
  7. The Art of Poster Writing
  8. The Art of Letter Writing
  9. Report Writing
  10. Story Writing
  11. Substance Writing
  12. School Essays Part-I
  13. School Essays Part-II
  14. School English Grammar Part-I
  15. School English Grammar Part-II..

Books of S. Story by M. Menonimus:

  1. The Fugitive Father and Other Stories
  2. The Prostitute and Other Stories
  3. Neha’s Confession

Books of Biography by M. Menonimus:

  1. The World Writers-Brief Biographies
  2. Introduction to World Writers
  3. Introduction to World Personalities
  4. Love of Reputed Persons ..

Books on Linguistics by M. Menonimus:

  1. A Brief History of the English Language
  2. Essays on Linguistics
  3. My Imageries
  4. Felicitous Expression: Some Examples
  5. Learners’ English Dictionary

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I am Menonim Menonimus, a Philosopher & Writer.


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