Classification of Sentence According to Pattern

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Classification of Sentence According to Pattern

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Classification of Sentence According to Pattern

Classification of Sentence According to Pattern

Classification of Sentence According to Pattern

You have already learned that English sentences, according to their purpose and meaning, are divided into five classes- Assertive sentence, Interrogative Sentence, Imperative Sentence, Exclamatory Sentence and Optative sentence.

Again English Sentences, according to pattern (grammatical construction), are divided into three classes, as Simple Sentence, Compound Sentence and Complex Sentence. Let us discuss them in detail as under:

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

SIMPLE SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

Dogs bark.

Birds fly.

The horse runs.

The rivers flow.

God is omnipotent.

Milk is white.

What a lovely scenery it is!

Have you performed your duty?

May God bless you.

Each of the above sentences has only one Subject and one Finite Verb. These are Simple Sentences.

A Simple Sentence is one that is made up of only one Subject and one Finite Verb.

A Simple Sentence may have four distinct parts, as:

(i) The Subject,

(ii) The Adjunct of the Subject (if any).

(iii)The Predicate

(iv) The Adjunct of the Predicate (if any).

The Subject of a Simple sentence must be a Noun or something that functions as a Noun.

The Adjuncts of the Subject, if any, must be Adjective or some words that function as an adjective.

The Predicate must have a Finite Verb.

The Adjunct to the Predicate, if any, must be an Adverb or words that functions as an Adverb.

Mind the following table:

Subject     Adjunct Predicate   Adjunct 

      to Subject              to Predicate

A boy     with white hairwas running   in the field.

The tiger   in a cage was carried     there.

The Subject of a Simple Sentence may be of different types as shown below:

(I) A Noun: Birds fly.

(ii) A Pronoun: She is reading a book.

(iii) A Gerund: Swimming is a good exercise.

(iv) A Noun-Infinitive: To walk is good for health.

(v) A Phrase: What to do is not known to him.

(vi) A Clause: Whatever you say I am going to leave the land.

The Predicate of a Simple Sentence must be a Finite verb. If the verb itself can not complete a sense then it may take some word or words to complete its meaning. Such word or words form the part of the Predicate of a Simple sentence. For example:

The police caught the runaway thief in the jungle.

Word or words which modify the action of the verb by way of saying something about the time, place, manner, purpose, instrument etc. form the Adjunct to the Predicate.

The followings are the main types of Adverbial Adjuncts to the Verb of Predicate:

(i) Adverb: (a) The boys are playing quietly. (b)The girls are singing silently.

(ii) Adverbial Phrase: (a) They are walking hand in hand. (b) They are practising swimming throughout the day.

(iii) Adjective: (A) He stood there alone. (B) He came here sad.

(iv) Gerundial Infinitives: We went to meet the President.

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

COMPOUND SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

Radha is a boy and Rita is a girl.

He is rich but unhappy.

They are labourious therefore they will shine in life.

You must weep or you will die.

God made the country and man made the town.

You may come in or go away.

I came, I saw, I conquered.

Each of the above sentences consists of two or more Principal (co-ordinate) clauses connected by co-coordinating conjunction or by a Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb. These are Compound Sentences.

A Compound sentence is a sentence made up of two or more Co-ordinating Clauses connected by conjunction or Relative Pronoun or Relative Adverb.

A Compound Sentence is also called a Multiple Sentence or Double Sentence. Mind the Following examples:

(i) She came, she ate, she departed.

(ii) David came to India, saw the Tajmahal and returned to England.

(iii) Man may come and man may go, but I go forever.

(iv) The Sun rose and the day began.

Bear in mind that a Compound sentence is often two or more simple sentences connected by a conjunction.

The clauses with which a Compound sentence is made up of are often Principal clauses.

Sometimes in a compound sentence, some words mentioned in the first clause are not mentioned in the second clause. This is done to avoid repetition. Such a dropping of words is called Ellipsis. For example mind the following sentences:

(i) Robert went to Ireland where (and there) he married Lavita.

(ii) You do or (you) go.

(iii) He is poor but (he is) happy.

(vi) The cow grazed here and (the cow) ran home.

(v) Edward as well as William is honest. (Edward is honest and William is honest.)

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

COMPLEX SENTENCE

Mind the following sentences:

1. If it rains we shall not go there.

2. Buddha is a man whom everybody respects.

3. They smoked when it was evening.

4. This is the pen which I bought yesterday.

5. As he is ill he cannot attend the meeting.

Each of the above sentences is made up of a Principal Clause and a Sub-ordinate Clause. These are Complex Sentences.

A Complex Sentence is one that consists of a Principal Clause and one or more Subordinate Clauses.

There are some sentences that contain two complex sentences or one Simple sentence and one Complex sentence or one Compound sentence and one Complex sentence. Such type of complex sentence is called Mixed Sentence. Mind the following sentences:

1. While we were working in the orchard a beggar come in and demanded some fruits.

If we analyze the above sentence we find the following clauses, as:

(i)  While we were working in the orchard — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause.

(ii) A beggar came in — Principal Clause.

(iii) (A beggar) demanded some fruits — Principal Clause in co-ordination to the clause (ii)

2. Play while you play, read while you read.

This is a complex sentence consisting of the following clauses:

(i) (You) play — Principal Clause.

(ii) While you play — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause.

(iii) You read — Principal Clause.

(iv) While you read — Sub-ordinate Adverb Clause.

Connective: ‘and’ (not expressed).

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

EXERCISE

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

1. Say which of the following sentences are simple, compound or complex.

a. Tell me where my cousin is.

b. A man of courage can do what I do.

c. Shila does the work every day.

d. We know that he is an honest man.

e. He is a boy and she is a girl.

g. You should work hard otherwise you will fail.

h. Love your country and countrymen.

i. It is known that Rakesh has passed the examination.

j. Honesty pays in the long run.

k. As you sow so will you reap.

l. Blessed are those who are merciful.

m. Come in and sit down.

n. This is the house we live in.

o. Cut your coat according to your cloth.

p. United we stand, divided we fall.

q. He can read but cannot write.

r. While we were enjoying the match a stranger came in and asked for some bread. 0 0 0

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

 

N.B.  The article ‘Classification of Sentence According to Pattern’ originally belongs to the book ‘School English Grammar Part- I‘ by Menonim Menonimus.

Classification of Sentence According to Patt

Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:

  1. Advertisement Writing
  2. Amplification Writing
  3. Note Making
  4. Paragraph Writing
  5. Notice Writing
  6. Passage Comprehension
  7. The Art of Poster Writing
  8. The Art of Letter Writing
  9. Report Writing
  10. Story Writing
  11. Substance Writing
  12. School Essays Part-I
  13. School Essays Part-II
  14. School English Grammar Part-I
  15. School English Grammar Part-II..

Books of S. Story by M. Menonimus:

  1. The Fugitive Father and Other Stories
  2. The Prostitute and Other Stories
  3. Neha’s Confession

Books of Biography by M. Menonimus:

  1. The World Writers-Brief Biographies
  2. Introduction to World Writers
  3. Introduction to World Personalities
  4. Love of Reputed Persons ..

Books on Linguistics by M. Menonimus:

  1. A Brief History of the English Language
  2. Essays on Linguistics
  3. My Imageries
  4. Felicitous Expression: Some Examples
  5. Learners’ English Dictionary

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I am Menonim Menonimus, a Philosopher & Writer.

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