Classification of Clauses

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Classification of Clauses

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Classification of Clauses

Classification of Clauses

Classification of Clauses

We know that a Clause is a part of a sentence having a subject and a finite verb of its own and makes a sense though not always a complete sense. Now mind the following sentences:

I know where she lives.

In the above sentence, there are two parts as: (i) I know and (ii) she lives. Here the subject of the first part is ‘I’ and the finite verb is ‘know’ and in the second part, the subject is ‘she’ and the finite verb is ‘lives’. These two parts being connected by the connective word where have made the complete sentence. Each of the two parts of the sentence is a Clause. 

Now mind the following sentence:

She must weep or she will die.

There are two parts in the sentence: (i) She must weep and (ii) she will die. The subject of the first part is she and the finite verb is ‘weep’. In the second part, the subject is she and the finite verb is ‘die’. The two parts are connected by the connective word or. Each part of the sentence is a clause. In the sentence both parts are independent. No part of the sentence is dependent on the other to make a complete sense.

Thus according to the manner of expressing meaning the clauses are divided into three classes, as: 

1. Principal Clause

2. Sub-ordinate or Dependent Clause and

3. Co-ordinate or Independent Clause.

Let us make a detail account of all these clauses as below:

Classification of Clauses

Principal Clause

Mind the following expressions:

2. This is the kite which I bought yesterday.

3. She will not come if it rains.

In the above sentence no.1 there are two parts as: (i) This is the kite and (ii) which I bought yesterday. The first part of the sentence is independent as it is not dependent on the other part of the sentence to express its meaning. This part of the sentence is called the Principal Clause. 

A Principal Clause is a part of a sentence with a subject and a finite verb of its own and can express a complete meaning without depending on the other part of the sentence.

Bear in mind that every Principal clause is a simple sentence.

Classification of Clauses

Sub-ordinate or Dependent Clause

Mind the following expressions:

1. This is the lady who spoke to me yesterday.

2. Raja asked me where I lived.

3. This is the boy who did it.

In the above sentence no 1. there are two parts as: (i) This is the lady and (ii) who spoke to me yesterday. The second part of the sentence depends on the first part to complete its meaning. This part of the sentence is Sub-ordinate or Dependent Clause.

A Sub-ordinate (Dependent) Clause is a part of a sentence that cannot express its meaning independently without depending on the principal clause.

The Sub-ordinate clauses generally begin with connectives like that, which, what, whom, whose, however, whichever, whenever, whoever etc.

Sub-ordinate clauses are divided into Sub-ordinate Noun Clause, Sub-ordinate Adjective Clause and Sub-ordinate Adverbial Clause. (All these kinds of Sub-ordinate Clause will be taken into account in another chapter).

Classification of Clauses

Co-ordinate or Independent Clause

Mind the following expressions:

Charles is a boy and Diana is a girl.

The dogs bark and the babies cry.

Man proposes: God disposes.

Each of the above sentences is made up of two parts. The two parts of the first sentence are : (i) Charles is a boy and (ii) Diana is a girl. These two parts are connected by the connective word and. Both parts are independent to each other. Each part can express its meaning without depending on the other. These are Co-ordinate or Independent Clause.

The Co-ordinate (Independent) Clauses are the parts of a sentence that are independent of each other in expressing their meaning.

Mind that if there are two principal clauses in a sentence then both the clauses are co-ordinating clauses to each other.

Classification of Clauses

EXERCISE

Classification of Clauses

1. Analyse the clauses of the following sentences:

(a) A gun destroys but a pen creates something.

(b) Kalidas wrote in Sanskrit and Keats wrote in English.

(c) I know when his uncle will go there.

(d) The girl who is reading the Bible is my sister.

(e) It is news that the boy bites a dog.

(f) That Renin will shine in life is known to us.

(g) It is a fact that she died of hunger.

(h) Lalita is as intelligent as she is studious.

(i) The little boy who sold newspapers became a great scientist.

(j) Go there whenever you find time.

(k) The beggar is so weak that he cannot walk.

(l) The thief who stole the watch was arrested.

(m) Jack said that he was not well.

(n) We should be mindful to what the teachers say.

(o) He could not get the visa as he was unable to pay the fee.

(p) We should be satisfied with what we have.

(q) We must start now because we must progress.

(r) The boy is poor still he is happy.

(s) He is honest but his friend is dishonest.

(t) I am sick so I cannot attend the meeting.

(u) Work hard otherwise you will fail.

(v) She is lazy therefore she will not succeed.

(w) This is the house that Mac built.

(x) Tell me when you will meet me next time.

(y) We know the reason why he is late.

(z) I asked him how he did the work.

2. Underline the Principal clauses of the following sentences:

(a) They came when it was raining.

(b) She must weep or she will fall ill.

(c) I know that he will pass.

(d) He says that he is happy.

(e) I shall not go if it is dark.

(f) This is what happened.

3.  Underline the Sub-ordinate   clauses of the following sentences:

(a) Today is so hot that nobody can go to the playground.

(b) He is not so wise as you think.

(c) Ram goes there in order to meet his friend.

(d) We eat that we may live.

(e) I shall help you if you are honest.  0 0 0

 

N.B.  The article ‘Classification of Clauses’ originally belongs to the book ‘School English Grammar Part- I‘ by Menonim Menonimus.

Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:

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  3. Note Making
  4. Paragraph Writing
  5. Notice Writing
  6. Passage Comprehension
  7. The Art of Poster Writing
  8. The Art of Letter Writing
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  10. Story Writing
  11. Substance Writing
  12. School Essays Part-I
  13. School Essays Part-II
  14. School English Grammar Part-I
  15. School English Grammar Part-II..

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Books of Biography by M. Menonimus:

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  2. Introduction to World Writers
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  4. Love of Reputed Persons ..

Books on Linguistics by M. Menonimus:

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  2. Essays on Linguistics
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  4. Felicitous Expression: Some Examples
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I am Menonim Menonimus, a Philosopher & Writer.

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