World Essay Criticism
World Essay Criticisms
World Essay Criticisms, a book on the critical study of some essays by Menonim Menonimus.
All rights reserved with the author
First edition: 2019
World Essay Criticism
This book of criticism ‘World Essay Criticism’contains critical studies on some English Essays. Hope that this book, like other books of mine, would also be liked by my dear readers.
World Essay Criticism
Jotirao Phule’s Essay ‘Caste Laws’ – An Analytical Study
Omprakash Valmiki’s Essay ‘Joothan’: An Analytical Study
Virginia Woolf’s Essay ‘Shakespeare’s Sister’: An Analytical Study
G. B. Shaw’s Essay ‘Life and Learning’–An Analytical Study
World Essay Criticism
Jotirao Phule’s Essay ‘Caste Laws’ – An Analytical Study.
‘Caste and Laws’ is a critical essay on the caste system in Indian society by Jotirao Phule, an Indian Marathi writer. In this essay, he has discussed how the Brahmins concocted and established the tradition of their supremacy over the other castes of society.
First, the author says about the advent of the Aryans (Brahmins) in India. He shows that the Brahmins are not the natives of India. They were foreign and emigrated to India about three thousand years ago and settled down upon the plains of Hindu Koosh and the other adjoining tracts of the land. The fertility of the soil, the proverbial wealth of its people tempted the Aryans (Brahmins) to come to India. They came to India not as simple emigrants with peaceful intentions of colonization, but as a conqueror. They appear to have been a race imbued with a very high notion of self, extremely cunning, arrogant, and bigoted. They designated themselves to be so.
After coming to the land they had to face resistance of the aborigines of India, but own the battle and subjugated the original inhibitors. They considered the aborigines of the land as Sudra which means insignificant. Since their advent to the land, they offered the greatest resistance in their power to their establishment in the country. From many customs traditionally handed down to us, it is evident that there had been a hard struggle for ascendency between the two races. Many fictions have been scattered over the sacred books of the Brahmins. The Brahmins concocted that they were the offsprings of the gods (divine being) and called the aborigines of the land to be Daityas ( Rakshasas) The author of the essay says that the original inhabitants with whom the earth-born Brahmins fought were not Rakshas but the protectors of the land. The Aryans believe in the incarnation of the god Vishnu or Brahma. It is believed that there were several incarnations of Brahma. One such incarnation was Purshram. He is believed to be the sixth incarnation of Brahma. Under his leadership, the Brahmins waged very protective wars against the aborigines to their entire control. Accounts of those conquests with a mass of incredible fiction are found in the books of the Brahmins. In some instances, they were compelled to emigrate. The author says that the cruelties and inhuman atrocities which Purshram committed on the Kshatriyas, the aborigines of the land, prove that he was more a fiend than a God.
Secondly, the author says about how the Aryans especially the Brahmins designed their scriptures and laws to establish their supremacy over the other castes. They wrote books and scriptures so cunningly that had paved the way for a smooth, easy, and happy life for them. Their religious ordinances were written pointing directly to the Sudras (which they considered to be lower castes). The author put forwards some instances of how the superiority and excellence of the Brahmins are held and enjoined on the pain of Divine displeasure, as under:
The Brahmins have styled the Lord of the Universe, even equal to God himself. He is to be worshipped, served and respected by all. They made laws for themselves as:
A Brahmin can do no wrong.
The King can not kill a Brahmin though he commits all possible crimes.
To save the life of a Brahmin any falsehood may be told. There is no sin in it.
No one can take away anything belonging to a Brahmin.
A king, though dying with want, must not receive any tax from a Brahmin.
The feet of a Brahmin is holy.
A Brahmin may compel a man of the servile class to perform the servile duty because such a man is created by the almighty for the purpose of serving the Brahmins.
A Brahmin can not give spiritual counsel to a Sudra.
If a Sudra cohabits with a Brahminee adultress, his life is to be taken. But if a Brahmin goes even unto a lawful wife of a Sudra he is exempted from all corporal punishment.
The real objects in fabricating this falsehood were to dupe the minds of the ignorant and to rivet firmly on them the chains of perpetual bondage and slavery that their selfishness and cunning hand forged.
Thirdly the author goes on to put forward some suggestions for eliminating the deadly caste system from society.
The author says that only the spread of education can emancipate the lower classes of people from the cunning supremacy of the so-called Brahmins. The government must provide ample funds and privileges for educating the Sudras. The author of the essay justly said that the greater portion of the government’s revenue is derived from the peasant’s lower class. The higher or richer class contributes little or nothing to the nation’s wealth.
Along with this, the government must be conscious of narrowing the monopoly of the upper privileged classes. The lower classes should provide the privilege to get into public services.
The author advocates the establishment of schools in every village so that education may spread to all classes of people. It is because only education can eliminate caste discrimination in society.
In this essay, Phule has employed not impassionate but dispassionate and factual style to demonstrate his theme. His language is simple and direct emphasized by quotations and colored by instances. 0 0 0
World Essay Criticism
Omprakash Valmiki’s Essay ‘Joothan’: An Analytical Study
‘Joothan’ is an autobiographical essay written by Omprakash Valmiki, an Indian Hindi Dalit writer. In the essay, the author has narrated his childhood sufferance as he often became the victim of caste discrimination that prevailed in Indian society.
First, he gives a vivid description of the locality where he spent his childhood. The environment of the locality was full of odds and adverse to civilised human living. He narrates that their house was adjacent to Chandrabhan, Taga’s ( an upper caste people) cowshed. Next to it there lived the families of Muslim weavers. Right in front of Chandrabhan Taga’s cowshed was a little pond. The pond created a sort of partition between the Chuhras’ (lower caste community) and the village. The name of the pond was Dabbowali. It is hard to say how it got the name of Dabbowali. The author guessed that as its shape was like that of a big pit so it might get that name. On one side of the pit, there were high walls of the brick homes of the Tyagis (upper-class community). At the right angle, there were clay walls of the two or three homes of the Jhinwars (lower caste community). After these, there were more homes of the Tagis.
On the edges of the pond, there were the homes of the lower caste community. All the women of the village young girls, older women, and even newly-married brides, would sit in the open space behind their homes at the edged of the pond to take a shit. Not just under the cover of darkness but even in the daylight. The purdah (veil) observing Tyagi women, their faces covered with their saris, and shawls around their shoulders, found relief in this open-air latrine. They sat on Dabbowali’s shores without worrying about decency, exposing their private parts. All the quarrels would be discussed in the shape of a Round Table Conference at the same spot. There was muck strewn everywhere that one would choke within a moment. The pigs wandering in narrow lanes, naked children, dogs, daily fights, etc. were the environment of the author’s childhood.
This description shows us how poor and vulgar the people of the village were. People living in such an environment cannot have a rich mentality. The people living in such a condition can hardly draw the sympathy of common people. Later on, in the essay, we see that the author and the other children of the lower castes suffer a lot in school but their sufferance fails to draw the sympathy of the readers. The sufferance that the children of the lower castes faced seems worth them. It seems that they were responsible for their own sufferance because they were not conscious of a better way of life.
Secondly, after giving a vivid description of the author’s childhood environment, he tells us about his family. Their family lived on Chuhra basis. The author had five brothers and one sister. Besides this, he had two uncles and one tau and his family. Everyone in the family did some or other work, but they did not manage to get two decent meals a day. They did all sorts of work for the Tagas, including cleaning agricultural work and general labour. They often had to work without pay. Nobody dared to refuse this unpaid work for which they got neither money nor grain. Instead, they got sworn at and abused. They did not call them by their names. If the persons were older, then he would be called ‘Oe Chuhre’. If the person were younger or of the same age, ‘Abey Chuhre’ was used.
Thirdly, the author tells us about his sad and disgusting schooling experiences. He says that untouchability was rampant in society. The people of the upper caste considered the lower classes of people to be no humans. If the people touched dogs, cats, cows, or buffaloes, it was no matter, but if they touched a Chuhra (lower caste of people) then they thought to get contaminated. The Chuhras were thought to be things for use. Their utility lasted until the work was done. They use the chuhras and threw them away.
The author says that a Christian used to frequent their neighbourhood. His name was Sewak Ram Masihi. He would sit with the children of the Chuhras around him. He used to teach them reading and writing. The government school did not allow these children to get enrolled. The author’s parents sent only him to Sewk Ram Masihi. His brothers were all working. There was no question of sending the girls to school. The author learned the alphabet in master Sewak Ram Masih’s open-air school, a school without mats and rooms. The author narrates that one day, Sewak Ram Masihi and the author’s father had an argument. After that, his father took him to the Basic Primary School. There his father begged the master Har Phool Singh to teach him in his school. Master Har Phool Singh asked him to go to school the next day. Accordingly, the author went to school. After several days, he was enrolled in the school. It was eight years after India got independence. Gahdhij’s upliftment of the Untouchables was resounding everywhere. Although the doors of the government schools had begun to open for the Untouchables, the mentality of the ordinary people had not changed much. The Chuhra children had to sit away from the others in the school and that too on the floor. The author had to sit away behind everybody, right near the door.
In school, he became the victim of class distinction even in the hand of his classmates. The Tyagi children teased him by calling him ‘Chuhre ka’. Sometime they would tease him without any reason. This was an absurd tormented life that made him introverted and irritable. If he got thirsty in school, then he had to stand near the hand pump. All sorts of stratagem were tried so that he would run away from school. Among his classmates, there were Ram Singh and Sukkhan Singh. Ram Singh was a Chamar and Sukkhan Singh was a Jhinwar. Ram Singh’s father and mother worked as agricultural labourers and Sukkhan Singh’s father was a peon. The three of them grew up together, and experienced the sweat and sour moments of childhood together. All three of them were very good in their studies, but their lower-caste background dogged them at every step. The Muslim tyagis also tormented them.
Fourthly, the author tells us about an incident that happened at the school rounding him. When he reached fourth class, the headmaster Bishambar Singh was replaced by Kaliram. Along with him had come another teacher. After the arrival of the two Omprakash and his two classmates fell into more trouble. They would thrash at the slightest excuse. They were got beaten almost daily. Some good-looking students were sexually tormented by the teachers.
One day the headmaster Kaliram called him to his room and asked his name. He told his name. Then the teacher compelled him to make a broom with the twigs of a tree. He did it. Then the teacher set him to clean all the rooms and the verandahs. Just when he was about to finish, the teacher came to him and compelled him to sweep the playground while the other children were studying. The playground was a large one and he was so tired that his back was aching. The headmaster was watching him. He was not even allowed to get a drink of water. He swept the whole day. Even on the second and third day, he was set to do the same work.
On the third day when he was cleaning the playground, his father happened to pass by. Seeing his son doing the job, stopped abruptly. The author was weeping and tears were falling from his eyes. His father snatched the broom from his hand and being angry went to the teacher. His father’s voice echoed through the whole school. All the teachers were also with the headmaster. Kaliram, the headmaster threatened his father and called him names. But his threats had no effect on him.
His father took his hand and started walking toward their home. As he walked away, he said loudly to the headmaster, ” You are a teacher….. So I am leaving now. But remember this much, Master… This Chuhre ka will study right here in this school. And not just him, but there will be more coming after him.”
His father had faith that the Tyagis of the village would chastise the master Kaliram. But what happened was the exact opposite. His father told the event to his community, But he got no favourable response.
The next day, the author’s father took him to the pradhan, Sagwa Singh Tyagi and narrated to him what was happened to his son at the school. He supplicated the pradhan with tears in his eyes. The pradhan called the author near him and asked him to go to school tomorrow. Accordingly, he went to the school but he was in great dread of undergoing the punishment of the headmaster Kaliram.
Thus in the essay, the author gives a vivid picture of how he became the victim of caste discrimination during his childhood.
The above analysis shows that Omprakash Valmiki’s style and presentation along with his outlook on seeing things is a difference. He does not blame the upper caste people only but in doing so he also gives a vivid picture of the weakness of the lower castes. The reality is that the lower caste people are also responsible for their own pathetic plight as they are not conscious of having their rights. The environment that they live in evokes sufferance for them.
The title of the essay ‘Joothan’ is a Hindi word. It means a scrap of food leftover after a meal. The author uses the word to refer to the lower caste of people who are considered as useless as a scrap of leftover food by the upper caste people in Indian society. 0 0 0
World Essay Criticism
Virginia Woolf’s Essay ‘Shakespeare’s Sister’: An Analytical Study
Shakespeare’s Sister, an essay by Virginia Woolf, has been taken from her book A Room of One’s Own (a collection of essays). In this essay, the author has explored the status of women in English society with special reference to the Elizabethan Age. Along with it, she puts forward the question of why no woman wrote a word of extraordinary literature when every other man was capable of writing a song or sonnets. In bringing about the truth of women’s status and position in society she has taken shelter on the writings of William Shakespeare, Jhonson, Jane Austin, Joana Baille, Emily Bronte, Charlotte Bronte, Robert Burns, Edward Fitzgerald, John Eliot, Geroge Sand, John Milton and some others. In doing so she has compared the data recorded in the fiction with that of the realistic data in Trevelyan’s History of England.
The author’s notion regarding the English women was disappointing. From her study, she had come to the definite conclusion that women were poorer than men through the ages. The characterization and portrayal of women in the plays of the Elizabethan age and the subsequent ages, as the author explored, were a mere exaggeration of what was in reality. She found in Trevelyan’s History of England that beating of the wife was a recognized right of man, and was practised without shame. The historians wrote that the daughters of the bygone ages, especially during the Elizabethan and the subsequent ages were the victim of child marriage. The daughters who refused to marry, their parents compelled them to be locked up and beaten. Then marriage was not an affair of personal affection, but of family avarice, particularly in the chivalrous upper classes. Betrothal often took place while one or both of the parties were in the cradle, and the marriage took place when they were scarcely out of the nurse’s charge. That practice was in circulation soon after Chaucer’s time. During the time of the Stuarts, it was still the exception for women of the upper class to choose their husbands and when the husband had been assigned to be the lord and master of his wife. It was a social custom. But there is a huge distinction between the portrayal of women in the plays of Shakespeare and in the memories of Verneys and Hutchinson. Shakespeare’s Cleopatra, Lady Macbeth, Rosalind, Cressida, Desdemona and other women characters were full of personality. These women characters were portrayed as heroic, splendid, beautiful, and as great as a man. Thus there is a visible contradiction between the portrayal of women in imaginative writings and factual history. In plays, women were depicted to be of the highest importance but in fact, they were treated as most insignificant beings. Women were slaves to men. In the author’s view, the woman was shown with an extraordinary gift of speech, intelligence, bravery, and profound thought but in real life, she could hardly spell a word revealing her inner thought and feeling. Women were considered the property of their husbands and the husband would use them as they liked.
To vivify the status of women in the Elizabethan Age the author of the said essay makes an imaginative account of Shakespeare’s sister, though it is not known for certainty whether Shakespeare had a sister or not.
The author has given the name of Judith to Shakespeare’s imaginative sister. The author said that Shakespeare, being a boy child had got enough freedom to do whatever he liked whereas her sister could do nothing on her own. Shakespeare had enjoyed all the privileges of a boy child. He was sent to school where he probably learned Latin and read Ovid, Virgil and Horace. He was a wild boy and it was said that he once poached a rabbit and perhaps shot a deer but he could scot-free. He soon married a woman in the neighbourhood, who bore him a child rather quicker than he had. That escapade sent him to seek his fortune in London. He had a taste for theatre and got a job in one. He became a successful actor, lived at the hub of the universe meeting everybody, knowing everything, practising his art on the board, exercising his wits in the streets, and perhaps got access to the Queen. On the other hand, his sister, Judith who might have the same extraordinary gift remained at home as the author imagined. She was as adventurous, as imaginative and agog to see the world as Shakespeare was. But she was not sent to school. She had no chance of learning grammar nor was she given the opportunity to read Ovid, Vigil and Horace. She might pick up a book but at that moment her father told her to mend the stockings or mind the stew. Perhaps she scribbled some pages in an apple loft but was careful to hide them from others. However she was out of her teens, she was betrothed to a son of a neighbouring wool-stapler. She cried out that marriage was hateful to her, and for that, she was severely beaten by her father. Then he ceased to scold her. He begged her instead not to hurt him, not to shame him in the matter of her marriage. He would give her a chain of beads or a fine petticoat. Eventually, she would agree to get married.
Again the author imagined that if she got the same chance and freedom as was got by her brother Shakespeare then she would take the road to London before she was seventeen. She had a gift of the singing song more melodious than the birds. She had the quickest fancy, a gift like her brother’s. She had a taste for the theatre too. The author imagined more that she stood at the theatre door and wanted to act. Then people would laugh at her. The manager might guffaw and would say that no woman can be an actress. She could get no training in her craft. She could have found no chance to go to a tavern for dinner. She might have a genius for fiction and lusted to feed abundantly upon the lives of men and women and the study of their ways. The authoress fancied that at last the manager of the theatre party would have taken pity on her and thus he would found herself with a child by him. At last, she would have to wipe away her stigma of bearing a child out of marriage by killing herself and people would bury her at some crossroads.
The author concludes his essay with an optimistic tone that in her days or in the days to come women like Judith would be given the same freedom as is given to men. Women would be considered to be equals with men. Virginia’s vision of women like Judith is that an opportunity would come to women when the dead poet like Shakespeare’s sister would have their gift to be operated. Then women would write a song and plays like men.
Thus the hypothetical Shakespeare’s sister assumed the value of life in the imaginative reconstruction of Virginia Woolf. 0 0 0
World Essay Criticism
G. B. Shaw’s Essay ‘Life and Learning’–An Analytical Study
Gorge Bernard Shaw (1856-1950) was a man of complex personality and as a writer, he was an idealist and intellectualist and as an idealist, he was controversial as he had no belief in the age-long conventions of human institutions. Throughout his writings, he refutes the traditional ideals, theories and manner of human society and tries his best to establish his own idealistic views. The present essay ‘Life and Learning’ is an essay through which he has criticized the system of traditional school education and wishes to preach his own view that education is a life-long process that begins with one’s birth and ends with death. In another word, he has shown through arguments that school education is defective as many unnecessary subjects are taught and many fundamental necessary subjects are ignored.
First of all, the essayist G.B. Shaw begins the essay with the views of the students and then with his own on the system of institutional education. He says that the students think that they have grown up in learning. George Bernard Shaw himself also thought so while he was a student. But with the passing of his age, he begins to appreciate that in learning he has not ‘grown-up’. He assures that the students also will realize this after they make an end of their school education. And then they will discover that the world is a bigger school where they will learn many practical things which are not generally taught in school.
Secondly, the essayist says about the hardest part of school education. He says that the hardest part of school education is the early part which is the primary stage, while the students have to be turned into a ‘ready reckoner’. By the phrase ‘ready reckoner’ he wants to mean that the students during this primary stage have to depend upon their memory and they need to learn all the things by heart.
In this stage, the students have to cram in all the mathematical multiplication tables, which he considers to be “a stupendous feat of sheer learning’. Here the author gives his personal experience and clarifies his view on this hardest part of schooling. While George Bernard Shaw was a student he had memorized many difficult things which his governess (private teacher) taught him. But the difficulty which he crossed with the success gave him no trouble as during that period he did not try to understand them but tried only to keep them in mind. But yet, he regrets that though he memorized many things during his primary stage, yet there had been many things that his governess did not teach him.
Thirdly, the author says about his memory in old age. The strength of memory at one’s old age generally decreases. George Bernard Shaw also experienced so as he forgot everything in a few seconds while he became old and everybody five minutes after they had been introduced to him. But that forgetfulness was not a matter of regret for him instead it was great happiness as he did not want to be bothered with new things and new people. But the author had experienced that what he learned, while he was young, remained intact even in his old age. So he advises the students to cram in all they can while they are young because if anyone learns anything when he is young he remembers it forever.
Fourthly, he goes on to say about school routine and says that school life becomes irksome because of routine. In other words, it is routine that makes school life troublesome because the students have to follow punctuality strictly which is felt by most students to be against their freedom. The students have to get up at a fixed hour, wash and dress at a fixed hour and have to go to school at a fixed hour after the discipline of their school. Generally, the school authority imposes the routine upon the students supposing that it would be suited to everybody; but the routine suits none because the will and eagerness of individuals are different from each other. So an individual needs individual attention. This individual attention cannot be had in school. On the other hand, nobody has time enough to provide each student with a separate teacher and a special routine carefully suited to individual personality. The author clarifies this view by comparing the school routine to a pair of German boots which were not divided into left and right. A boot was a boot and it did not matter which foot anyone put it on, but one’s foot had to choose itself. In England, the socks were made so they were also not divided into rights and lefts, but the author had his socks knitted as rights and lefts by order, though when he ordered a soak knitter to knit his socks as rights and lefts then he was considered a ‘queer sort of fellow’. But everybody has to manage with them somehow. Moreover, the author of this essay says more that in school though the students have to follow a routine which did not suit properly to everybody yet when they will come out of their school they cannot get rid of the routine. In every course of their life, they must face routine to get struck properly in any occupation.
Fifthly, George Bernard Shaw says about the role of a crammer to the students. First, he gives the definition of what a crammer is. As he says, a crammer is a person who devoted his time to the students. He, on behalf of the students, studies all the old examination papers and finds out what questions are generally asked in the examination and prepares the answers to these questions which are expected by the examiners and officially to be correct.
Sixthly, G.B. Shaw says about the preparation of answers to the questions asked to the students in the examination. The author says that the answers prepared for the examinations are not always the correct answer. Because the students have to write those answers which are officially correct. The textbooks prescribed for the students contain those matters which are generally out of date. The students are taught old or outdated matters and they are compelled to give answers from their textbooks. But the textbooks always do not contain the recent or the latest information. The author gives a fine example to illustrate his view and says that in the 15th century, Copernicus, a famous Polish astronomer, propounded the theory that the planets move around the sun not in circles but in ellipses. Thus, Leonardo-da Vinci holds the truth that earth is the moon of the sun. But till then people believed in what the holy books taught them. So Shaw says that if a student in the 15th century gives answers on Copernicus and Leonardo-da Vinci on the movements of the heavenly bodies he would have been ‘burnt alive for heresy’ instead of passing with flying colours. Thus is the matter with modern students. To pass the examination with credit they must not write the latest true information but instead, they must write what their textbooks contain and what their elderly teachers have taught them. And hence the author says that passing the examination today is just what it was in the days of Copernicus and says more that it is dangerous to give up-to-date answers in the examinations.
Seventhly, the author says about the danger of being failed in the examination for giving up-to-date answers to the elderly examiners. This failure is much in the technical professions. If one wants to get into the navy or practice medicine one must get trained for some months in practices that are quite out of date. If the special training is not taken up then one will be turned down. But there are some subjects in which the theories and practices don’t change. For example, Homer’s Greek and Virgil’s Latin, now are dead languages but they don’t change as naval and medical practices change. Likewise, if anyone desires to be a clergyman he must practice those subjects which don’t change. For example, the Greek of the New Testament does not change. The creeds don’t change. The thirty-nine articles don’t change—though some of them are terribly out of date. At last, the author says that the students always should give these answers to their examination questions which are prescribed in the textbooks without judging whether they are true or false. If any student happens to have any original ideas about examination subjects he must not air them in the examination papers. He may know better than his examiners but he should not let his examiners know about it.
At last, the author of the essay ‘Life and Learning’ G.B. Shaw says that the students, after their school education, will enter into the school of the world, and then they will see that their school education was defective. They will then find that they have read and learned things but had not learned how to eat, drink, sleep, breathe which are very important things in life. The author clarifies this point through his own practical experience in life. He says that people may take him as an educated man because he had earned his living for sixty years by such work which only an educated man can do. But the subjects which educated him were not taught in school. The subjects which educated the author were not known to the teachers and they were utterly and barbarously ignorant of them. As many unnecessary subjects were taught in school and many necessary subjects were neglected and as certain disciplines and routines had to follow in school so school life became troublesome to the author. To say in his own words, ”School was to me a sentence of penal servitude.” The author could read all the masterpieces of English poets, playwrights, historians, and scientific pioneers, but he could not read school books. Because the author says that school books are written by those people who don’t know how to write. He says more that a person who knows nothing of all the great musicians from Palestrina to Edward Elgar or of the great painters from Gitto to Burn Jones is a savage and ignoramus even if he is hung all over with gold medals for school classics. He expresses his antipathy against the method of teaching Mathematics. Mathematics becomes a subject of abhorrence to him because the school teachers had not explained the meaning of Mathematics and its relations to science while they taught him the subject. The author after giving all these arguments against school education concludes the essay with a piece of advice to the students that the students should not expect too much from their school achievements.
Throughout the essay, the author has shown his antipathy against school education and finds out the defects of school education through his personal experiences in life. The arguments propounded by him in support of his views are utterly realistic and true to practical life.
People can learn many valuable lessons in their practical life. School as it seems to our practical life that it teaches those subjects without which a man can live a happy and fruitful life. School education generally makes a student specialist in a subject which in his practical social life does not hold well. Shaw’s arguments are realistic and true and this essay has shown nakedly the age-long defective system of education and hence there is a dire need of modifying the curriculum of school education corresponding with the need for practical life.
The structure of the essay is coherent and full of unity. The author propounded his views one by one with illustrations from his personal experiences.
It is one of the finest specimens of personal or subjective essays which is characterized by the originality of thought, realism in application, unity in structure, and simplicity of language. 0 0 0
World Essay Criticism
Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:
- Advertisement Writing
- Amplification Writing
- Note Making
- Paragraph Writing
- Notice Writing
- Passage Comprehension
- The Art of Poster Writing
- The Art of Letter Writing
- Report Writing
- Story Writing
- Substance Writing
- School Essays Part-I
- School Essays Part-II
- School English Grammar Part-I
- School English Grammar Part-II..