Articles on Contemporary Affairs
Articles on Contemporary Affairs
‘Articles on Contemporary Affairs’ a collection of Essays on contemporary Socio-Political Affairs of the world by Menonim Menonimus.
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DTP by Menonim Menonimus
This present book of mine entitled ‘Articles on Contemporary Affairs’ contains collected articles on the Contemporary Socio-political Affairs of the world. The articles were published in various journals and magazines.
Articles on Contemporary Affairs
The Roles of Language and Literature in Building a Nation
Language is a medium of human communication- either spoken or written- consisting of the use of meaningful words in an agreed way. It is the unique gift bestowed upon human beings by nature. There are thousands of languages in the world the functions of which are varied and the sole one is that it is the spontaneous carrier and conveyer of human thoughts, feelings, emotions, passion and of anything else of human interest. When human thoughts take concrete shape being expressed through language was termed as ‘logos’ (‘knowledge’) by the Greeks in ancient times. In other words, to say, language is the pot, carrier and conveyer of human knowledge, without having any alternative peer, that acts as a bridge of communication from one person to another, from one generation to another generation and from one age to another age.
On the other hand, literature is anything meaningful expressed in language that reflects not only the human mind but also the protean aspects of human society as -political, social, cultural, religious and also geographic phenomena of a nation; and by the side of these roles, language and literature play a vital and crucial step in bringing about national harmony, integrity and above all it takes a spellbound role in building a nation. We can substantiate this truth by studying the history of world civilization briefly as follows:
The world unanimously admits the supremacy of the Greeks in the domain of intellect and knowledge that they acquired and possessed in ancient times i.e. a long span of time before Jesus Christ was born. They achieved a high degree of civilization in such an age when the entire world was sunk into utter darkness. The vivid testimony of their intellectual and technical supremacy is the Pyramids which have been surviving till today withstanding the effects of the sun and rain. This long-standing pride of the Greeks rests on some world-famous poets, philosophers, playwrights and historians like Socrates, Plato, Aristotle, Aristophanes, Euripides, Hippocrates and others. That intelligentsia not only inaugurated the tradition of free thoughts in advance but also contributed much to the building of a nation to which the rest of the world is highly indebted. The writings of Plato and Aristotle had been used as textbooks for one thousand and five hundred years in almost all the educational institutes of Europe.
Likewise, the English, as a nation emerged and began to take shape in the tenth century when only an independent language began to be hatched in the mouth of the Anglo-Saxon. Later on Jeffery Chaucer, Lindale, John Bunyan, and during the fifteenth century the Elizabethan writers and thinkers as- Edmund Spencer, Christopher Marlowe, William Shakespeare, Francis Bacon and some others enriched the storehouse of literature with their valuable writings. In the present day, the world knows the English as a nation because of the language and literature. Today none can deny the fact that in forming the identity of the English nation the roles of the English language and literature have played a poignant role.
Thus after the advent of Hazarat Muhammad in the Arab Peninsula a new awakening happened to a barbarous nation that had no identity of its own till then. The prophet Muhammad blessed mankind with the divine book Kuran and Hadith which were composed in Arabic and by means of the everlasting appeal of the two books, the Arab as an independent nation began to emerge anew in the seventh century and subsequently within only two hundred years the Islamic culture and civilization spread from Medina to Africa and to the far east and thus the Arabic language and literature contributed much to the formation of Islamic nation worldwide.
In India the Sanskrit language and literature played a dominant role in making a vast Hindu Civilization. The impact of the Ramayana, Mahabharata, Veds, Purans have fallen a far-reaching impact and impression on the mind and culture of the Indians. Today all the Indians are proud of this inheritance. During the freedom movements of India all the Indians were ignited by the ideals of the Vedic teachings and thus by means of the ideals of Sanskrit literature i.e. Veds, Purans, Ramayana, Mahabharata etc. the sense of one culture and one nation came to the mind of the Indians and consequently all the Indians united together against the foreign rule in India and achieved freedom from the bondage of the British.
Thus in building modern French nation the French language and literature had played a vital and decisive role as the writings of Montaigne Montesquieu, Rousseau and some others brought about a new awakening, national integrity, anti-monarchy revolution and built a vast democratic nation that became a paradigm of democratic ideals for the rest of the world.
In very recent years, we see that the creation of Bangladesh is the result of linguistic reawakening after the five decades of the twentieth century. During the Bangladeshi Freedom movement, the Bengali language worked as a means of fire flame.
In Assam, the Assamese language has been performing the function of a chorus and mediator in bringing about communal harmony among the varied tribes and castes in the Northeast region of India. The study of the history of the Assamese language and literature reveals that Assamese as a language began to be formed in the tenth century and through a long course of history it got its own identity in the fifteen century. It is said that with the composition of Hem Sharswati’s Prahlad Charita the tradition of Assamese written literature began. After him, some scholars and poets like Madav Kandali, Sri Sankardev, Madav Dev, Bhattadev and a few others strengthened the foundation of Assamese language and literature basing upon which modern Assamese literature and culture flourished. In the writings of Hem Saraswati, Madav Kandali, Sankardev and Madab Dev all the aspects- religious, social , political and cultural have transparently reflected and thus the Assamese language and literature have played a vital role in building the modern peculiar Assamese nation. Though Assam is a land of varied castes and creeds it is the Assamese language and literature which have bound up all as an integrated nation.
In conclusion, it is to say that language and literature act as the soul of a nation and as long as the soul keeps living so long the nation would be flourishing. 0 0 0.
N. B. The essay ’Roles of Language and Literature in Building a Nation’ was first published in the Hilapakri Madrassa High School Annual Magazine, 2014-15.
Communal Conflicts in India-A Thought
The conflict between two or more different communities, castes, religious sects, lineages, or dynasties is termed as Communal Conflict. The Communal Conflict is the burning question of the present-day world. There is hardly a country in the globe that has not faced the problem of communal conflicts. It leads a country to a state of violence and violence leads to terrorism and terrorism leads to suffering, death, insecurity and disorder. And all stand as a blockade in the path of every sort of progress and development. In brief, to say, Communal Conflict is the root of terrorism, separatism, regionalism and so on. There is no doubt that some narrow-minded orthodox and fanatic people are responsible for the rise of communalism. In India, the Communal Conflicts, especially between Hindus and Muslims, began during British rule. The birth of Pakistan, apart from India, was due to the triumph of communalism. In 1947, it got freedom and the leaders promised, at the time of getting freedom, that India would show liberalism to all religions. In short, to say, followers of Mahatma Gandhi declared it to be a secular country. But the word ‘Secular’ was not included in the constitution till 1976. This act shows that the Indian leaders as well as the makers of the constitution of India supported the ideals of secularism in India. Though India takes pride in being a vast secular country in the world, it is hollow in reality. Since the days or independence, India has been suffering a lot from the disease of Communal Conflicts and now, as it appears, this disease becomes an incurable sore which already has reached the head from the foot. If we see at communal conflicts, it will come out that it is the government itself that is so far responsible for almost all the conflicts faced by the nation so far as the government is in the background of each Communal Conflict. Now let us take some instances—
The Babari Masjid issue that occurred in 1992 is one of the most hated examples of Communal Conflict in India. It was destroyed by the Hindu fundamentalists and leader like Lal Krishna Advani was its vehement supporter. Though the then-Indian government sent armed forces to protect it, yet they could do nothing. The failure of its protection takes us to the holes of mystery. It is a shame upon the face of the nation. It shows that the Indian leaders and even the government were in favour of destroying it. As a result, the Communal unrest especially between the Hindus and Muslims spread to the nook and corner of India and even outside India. Thus the chink between the Hindus and Muslims broadened. Everybody knows that L.K. Advani came to the limelight as a leading culprit of that event. In the subsequent election to that event, the same leader occupied the seat of Indian Home Ministry. Had the Indian government, not been in the background of the destruction of the famous Babari Masjid, L.K. Advani would not come to Indian politics.
During the war with Pakistan in 1965, the Indian government arrested many Muslims and without any accusation against them sent them to jail. Thus many Muslims especially Garia-Maria in Assam who had contributed much to the Freedom Movement of India were harassed by the then government.
The Gudhara Conflict of 2002 is not unknown to the Indians. In this conflict, the workers and followers of B.J.P., B.H.P. and Bajrang Dal made a preplanned massacre of the Muslims. Thus in the background Bharodora Conflict, the government had a hand.
In the city, of Bhadodora there was a historical Majar Sharif of Hazarat Rashid Uddin. The Municipality of the city, for the cause of broadening the road, smashed the Majar Sharif with Bulldogger without considering its heritage. As a reaction to this event, the local Muslims came out for a procession. After the behest of the Gujarat Government, the police set firing and killed six Muslims and many were caused to be wounded. If the government had patronized the ideals of secularism then this sad occurrence could have not happened. On the other hand, had the government come under discussion with the consisting authority of Majar Sharif, this conflict could not have happened. Here it is noted that the act of destroying the Majar Sharif took place in presence of Mayor Suhil Sulanki, B.J.P. leader Nalini Bhat and the police. In short, the government of Gujarat was directly responsible for that tragic event.
Another condemnable event of the government of Narendra Modi, the then C.M. of Gujarat, was the destruction of the Major Sharif of K. Okhahi. More, during the tenure of the Modi Government, more than 270 religious rites and cultural arrangements of the Muslims were checked. In addition to these, about 500 Muslims were killed under the leadership of Police Commissioner P.C. Pandey. Thus in the background of every Communal Conflict, there was the Modi Government of the said state.
Communal Conflicts is ever present in the North-east states of India. It is apparent between the Muslims and the Assamese Hindus. Since the days of independence North-east India, especially Assam has been suffering from the suffocation of communalism. For instances, we may allude to the Hindu-Muslim riots of 1950 in which many Muslims happened to become the victims of communalism. The government seemed to take the role of a spectator. During the 1980s and 90s, this conflict reached its climax and thousand and thousand of Hindus and Muslims became its victims. The massacre of Neli is still visible in the eyes of the Assamese. Another instance of Communal Conflict in Assam especially in North-Assam (present Bodoland) is the conflict between the Bodos and the Muslims. In that Conflict, some thousand Muslims were killed intentionally. In the background of that Bodo-Muslim Conflict, there was the then Assam Government. Even some Cabinet Ministers incited the Bodos against the Muslims. For example, Mr. Samsul Hoque, who was a cabinet minister of the Hiteshwar Saikia Government, set fire to some Bodo villages to north of Barpeta Road Town. That was the beginning. As a reaction, the Bodos also made a bon-fire, especially in the northern villages of the districts of Barpeta. Thereupon thousand and thousand of Muslims became refugees. The Assam Government did not take any immediate action to cease the fire of communalism. Instead, the Hiteshwar Saikia government sent peace force after a week of that tragic event when the massacre was over. The silent negligence of the state government is a burning testimony of patronizing that conflict with the government.
Among the Indian states, West Bengal is an exception. We see that in recent time, there are but fewer communal conflicts in the state if compared to that of North-east India. The West Bengal Government seems to be liberal to all the castes and sects of both Hindus and Muslims. The governments of W.B. seem to remain far away from doing such acts which may raise communal conflicts. For example, once in making a road from plane to Shyma Market many homes, houses and even a theatre hall had been broken. But the government was not in favour of breaking a Shiva Mandir which fell in the middle of the road. It was because the government did not like to hurt the religious feeling of that region. In the recent time, we may take the instance of a Masjid near Calcutta Air-Port. For the act of modernization of the air-port, the Masjid is to be replaced. But in fear of the religious conflict, the government seems not to be in favour of breaking the Masjid. On the other hand, C.M. Buddahdev Bhattacharjee tried to come to a conclusion by means of a friendly understanding with the Masjid authority. This act of Buddahdev Bhattacharjee is worth praising.
Thus we have seen that the governments of the concerned Indian states are responsible for the rise of communal conflicts in India. In keeping up the unity of the land the government must not show bias toward any religion. It must follow the ideals of democracy and secularism which had been promised in the constitution. The central government along with the state governments should learn lessons from the ideals of W. Bengal. Otherwise, India would remain no more a pride of unity in diversity but soon it would turn into a living battlefield. The aftermath of which is utter decay. 0 0 0.
Racial Conflicts and the Future of Assam
Assam is a Cauldron the bed of which has always been kept hot by the fire of communal, racial, tribal, regional and such other hundred-and-one problems and conflicts. The ultimate objective of which is to seize political autonomy. Of late the conflict which predominates in Assam is racial conflict the existence of which is visible since the days of independence. But in the 1980s the racial conflicts have taken a vigorous new shape. In 1993, with the formation of the Bodoland Autonomous Council, the racial conflicts among the various races of Assam became even more and more fierce and active. Now it stands as a menace to the unity in diversity of the state.
The word ‘Autonomy’ refers to a system of self-government which is given to a special geographical region or to a group of people related by common descent. To promote the socio-political condition as well to keep up their traditional language and culture, the constitution of India has provided with the scope of Autonomy to especially backward and underdeveloped areas, tribes, races and communities of India. In the 6th schedule of the Indian Constitution, this special privilege has been referred to and in accordance with this schedule, the Autonomous District Council had been formed in Assam after independence. By an special act, besides the 6th schedule, regional autonomies were rendered to the Bodos, Ravas, Micing and Tiwas. The main objective of it was to quicken the progress and development of the consisting races and tribes. But in reality, with the beginning of this system, a new and unwished racial conflict took birth in the concerning areas.
On the clue of the formation of the Bodoland Autonomous Council in 1993, the racial conflicts in Assam had revived with deadly violence and these conflicts affected the districts of Kukrajhar, Barpeta and Bongaigaon very pathetically and added new chapter of terror and unrest to the political history of Assam. Just after a few days of the formation of B.A.C. in Kukrajhar, a racial conflict broke out between the Bodos and the minority communities where 18,000 people of 3568 families lost their homes and houses and became refugees. About 2,02,684 people from 42,214 families became the victims of this conflicts. Again, in the same district, in 1998 the conflict revived and 314,342 people out of 48,556 families became refugees. A total of one-third of the population lost their homes as an effect of all these conflicts. Many died in these conflicts and many of them met their death in the refugee camps for want of food and proper hygiene. Thus many become the victims of such conflicts in the district of Barpeta and Bongaigaon also.
When B.A.C. was formed, then the ABSU and B.L.T. began another Gorilla struggle protesting against the formation of B.A.C. They alleged that B.A.C. was not enough to fulfill the hopes and wishes of them. In the aftermath of the movement the government made a truce with the B.L.T. and a proposal of forming B.T.C. under the 6th schedule of the Indian Constitution was taken. But since the day of taking such a proposal, the non-Bodos of lower Assam began to be united and showed their reaction. The government paid no attention to their reaction and amid much controversy they had been given autonomy under the 6th schedule of the constitution. In such a circumstance the Ravas, Micing, Tiwas, and others also began to cry aloud to have the same privilege. Consequently, the same terror and violence began to appear in the Micing, Rava and Tiwas areas as occurred in Kukrajhar.
Now our question is—why have they demanded autonomy? The answer to the question is transparent that though the consisting tribes or races are the aborigines of Assam, yet they have been being looked down upon by the government authorities since the independence of India. As a result, the Socio-political phenomena of these tribes remain the same as it was before the independence. In other words, to say, they have been deprived of all the effective schemes and planning for Socio-economic progress and development.
In giving political autonomy, we should have no objection because we see that Jharkhand as an autonomous state took birth out of Bihar and thus Uttaranchal was created dividing Uttar Pradesh and Chattishghar from Madhya Pradesh. The newly created autonomous states were economically underdeveloped while they had been the parts of the states from where they were cut off. But after their creation as separate states, they have been rising up economically. So if the autonomous states have been provided to the different races and tribes of Assam then their Socio-economic condition would rise up and it is because the respective tribes would be able to give special emphasis to the development of their condition.
But here again, a question arises concerning the number of such tribes, races and geographical territories. Because Assam is a state made up of an amalgamation of many castes, tribes, races and communities. In short, Assam is a union of diverse races and tribes. There are more than two hundred races, castes and communities. And if all the races and tribes (following the Bodos and few others, to which political autonomy have been given) demand autonomies for themselves then another difficult problem would come out concerning the geographical territories. It is because, in Assam, there is not an area of 10 kilometers where we can find only one community living there. As B.A.C. and B.T.C. is not the territory for the Bodos only—there are Ravas, Koches, Nepalis, Muslims etc. In such a way there are non-Bodos, and non-Micing in the autonomous council of the Ravas, Micing and Tiwas. If such a territory is brought under a particular tribe then the people of other tribes living there must get neglected. As against B.A.C. and B.T.C. all the non-Bodos have united and begins anti-Bodo Movement. In this way against the autonomous in Karbi-Anglan all the non-Karbis have gathered and formed the United Tribal Revolutionary Front. In the Rava-Hasang area all the non-Rava and Hasang as—the Bodos, Garos and others have united against the Rava-Hasang and have been asking for the same status. Already in Lakhimpur, the non-Micing Fronts have begun to show their grievance against the autonomous status of the Micings. It seems that in the imminent future the racial conflicts among all the tribes throughout Assam would rise up with more vigorously and the state must face another deadly disaster as was faced by Kukrajhar.
It is said that in giving autonomy to certain territories, there should have no objection. But in giving autonomous status to only a particular tribe or locality it must be ascertained that in doing so no other tribe or race do not lose its rights. The 1991 census shows that the percentage of the Bodos living in the district of Kukrajhar is 28.5%, Bongaigaon 12%, Nalbari 12.4%, Darrang 16.8%, Sonitpur 9.4% and North Kamrup 5.1%. In such respect it cannot be reasonable to insert lower Assam in Bodoland.
Here it is to allude as a reference that at the time of forming Bodoland, Dr. Bupindra Singh committee had suggested to create Three-fold Satellite Autonomous Administration which gave emphasis on inserting the majority of Bodo villages in forming B.A.C. But his suggestion was not followed.
In conclusion, it is to say, that if autonomy is given to any race or tribe without a fixed geographical territory then it will create new and new problems every day. It is because all the tribes of Assam must demand autonomy for the respective groups of people which is impossible as there are many and many tribes, castes, and communities living in Assam. So, if it becomes necessary and urgent to give autonomy then this status should be given to certain geographical territories and such territories should be created not after the consideration of the demand of any tribe, but for the advantage of administration. Otherwise, Assam must lose its existence from the map of the world. 0 0 0.
Why and What is Organic Manure?
The population of the world has been increasing year by year, day by day. On the other hand, the natural resources which provide food for mankind remain limited. So scientists and economists of the world have been thinking of a means by which the quantity and quality of food could be increased to meet the sufficient need of mankind. And as a result various chemical fertilizers have been invented. The twentieth century was the heyday of using chemical fertilizers as an extra means of enhancing agricultural products. The use of chemical fertilizers got much popularity in the Western Countries and later on it got spread to the third worlds. But within only a few years it is found that the chemical fertilizers have fallen adverse effects on flora and fauna. The constant use of chemical fertilizer destroys the natural nutrients and stamina of soil which is almost irreparable. More, the use of chemical fertilizers give rise to new and new disease on plants against which various kinds of pesticides and insecticides were invented. Too much use of pesticides and insecticides make both the crops and soil toxic which causes harms to our health and environment.
Report says that the use of chemical fertilizers was tenfold from 1945 to 1970. In 1995 about 5.2 million tons of fertilizers were used throughout the world, 2/3 of which was applied in western countries. In India, about 80,000 tons of insecticides were used for which the nutrients of the soil have badly deteriorated. Already the states of Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, and Haryana have suffered a lot from the adverse effect of the use of chemical fertilizers. Thousand and thousand of acres of land have become totally unsuitable for cultivation. Even the cattle grazing on such lands have faced death.
Experiencing such adverse and deadly effects of chemical fertilizers the agro-scientists, cultivators and the governments of some countries have begun to think of an alternative to chemical fertilizers. In this respect, the pioneer was an English botanist Sir Albert Howard. He, in the 4th decade of the twentieth century, put forward an idea of using a kind of fertilizer that is made from the decayed matter of living beings including cow dung, urine, rotten leaves and other domestic wastes. And this kind of fertilizer was called Organic Fertilizer. At first, his ideas caught less importance, but later on some other scientists and humanists as J.I. Rodeli, F.B. Balkar, P.H. Rainworth and some others put emphasis on the use of organic manure as an alternative to chemical manure.
Organic manure has the following qualities as—
(i) It is well-balanced nutrient source.
(ii) It is cheap.
(iii) The cultivators can prepare them easily at home.
(iv) The heating phase destroys weed seeds and pathogens.
(v) It suppresses soil-born diseases.
(vi) It maintains PH in soil.
(vii) It increases soil organic content.
Already in the western countries, the Organic Movement has begun but in the underdeveloped and developing countries, this movement has not reached fully. Here to say that agriculture run by applying organic manure is called Organic Agriculture. A farm to be certified as an organic farm must fulfill the following conditions:
(i) It must avoid any kind of chemical fertilizers and chemical medicines. Instead, the farm must apply organic manure which is generally made from cow dung, home wastes, rotten flesh, the blood of animal, dry leaves, etc.
(ii) During the conversion period, it should grow these plants which create green manure in the soil.
(iii) Beside the main crop there should be nursed domestic fowls, cows, pigs or fishes.
(iv) The unnecessary weeds should be removed by tools or by hand without using the medicine.
(v) To control insects and other diseases the farmers should use such thing as—margosa leaves, garlic, powder of dry chilli and such things which are found in nature.
(vi) We should nurse such flies and birds which eat away deadly insects from the farm.
(vii) The field should have no connection with the open and unprotected fields.
(viii) There should have facilities of processing for the products.
(ix)The products of the organic farms should be distinguished from others by leveling and packaging.
(x) The cultivators of such production should keep written records of all the processes and steps of cultivation and production.
(xi) The farm holder should collect certification from concerned officials to convince his customers that his products are organic based.
(xii) The labourers involved in such organic farming should have social justice and the right to assure that their products would not fall any adverse effect on the environment.
To Sum up, it is to say that till today it is found that organic farming is the safest which increases production without causing any harm to the soil and environment. But in the countries like India and other underdeveloped countries, the organic movement has not begun in full swing and it is because the people are not conscious of such farming. The need of the time is that people, in general, must be aware of the adverse effect of chemical farming and of the effective and prolific effect of organic farming. Besides, we should take the following measures to facilitate and popularize this kind of beneficial farming:
(i) Educated people must come out to make the general public and cultivators aware of such farming.
(ii) By laying down strict law against the use of any kind of chemical fertilizers and chemical medicine, the government must encourage cultivators, farmers and others to follow organic farming by providing agricultural tools and bank loans.
(iii) The agro-scientists and others must lead research work in favour of such farming and enrich the farmers with necessary suggestions.
(iv) The farmers should be encouraged by determining the reasonable prices for their production.
(v) The government should provide the farmers with all agricultural information so that their knowledge might be up to date.
(vi) There should have proper facilities of marketing.
(vii) The farmers should be encouraged by providing training, seminars etc.
(viii) The government must consider the farmers to be the root strength of the nation. 0 0 0.
The Role of Heavenly Bodies in Agriculture
Seventy percent of the world’s population is involved, either directly or indirectly in agriculture as agriculture is the root of all food and things which are necessary for the survival of mankind. But the matter of regret is that the people who are involved in agriculture are mostly illiterate. They can hardly read and write. Even though they are far away from being familiar with the use of modern scientific technology. And more to say, that the scientific research on agriculture got less and late importance. But after the half of the twentieth century, the science and technology of agriculture have been showing rapid progress. Yet still today the scientific technology and scientific outlook have not reached most peasants and farmers living in under-developed and developing countries. They have been cultivating land with traditional hand-made tools. But it is a matter of wonder that the cultivators have some beliefs and customs handed down from generation. They have been running their agricultural activities following their traditional beliefs and rules. We see that our grandfathers, though they were mostly illiterate have some knowledge of climate, weather, seasons and other natural phenomena. They sow seeds; apply manure, plough lands and harvest crops noticing the ascending and descending rhythms of the moon. Only some years back, while we were students and even the most educated people laughed at their customs and beliefs and said that their beliefs and customs were blind faiths.
But, of late, research scholars have found out that some of the traditional beliefs of the illiterate peasants have scientific significance. After constant research, modern science has come to know that the sun, planets, moon and other heavenly bodies interact among themselves and their impact fall, either directly and indirectly, on the flora and fauna of the earth. Let us, now discuss their impact on agriculture as under.
Scientists have found out that the lights of the Sun, Moon, Planets and Stars reach the earth in regular rhythms. Each contributes to the life, growth and form of plants. The planets affect on rocks, metals, plants, animals and human beings. Thus Sun shine contributes to the growth of plants and Moon affects the water content of all organisms. Along with the Moon, the planets as Mercury and Venus work directly on the flora and fauna of the earth through the atmosphere or indirectly through water, humus or calcium. The influences of Mars, Jupiter and Saturn are channeled through warmth and Silica (quartz, feldspar, mica). They stream in through the Silica contents of soil and on plants being expressed in colours of flowers, in fruit and seed production.
The impact of the zodiac, which is a belt of some fixed stars, is also important. The belt which we call the constellation lies behind the elliptic path of the sun. The planets move in front of these constellations. Owing to the different sizes of the constellations, the Moon happens to be in front of a constellation for a shorter or longer duration. At the time of its passing through the constellations, they engender certain favourable effects on the planet. There are four groups of constellations each of which has the same qualities. They are related to the basic four elements i.e.—earth, water, fire and air. These four elements can be placed in relation to the four parts of the plants i.e. the root, the leaf, the flower, the fruit and the seed. The root is associated with the earth. The leaf is associated with water as it contains 80% of water. The flower corresponds to air and light. The fruit and seed are associated with fire as there is no fruit ripening and seed maturity without optimal warmth. Agricultural activities such as—land preparation, sowing, fertilizing, harvesting etc. if performed as per constellation would be more effective and beneficial. Performing farm operations on specific days means harnessing these cosmic and earthly influences for the development of particular plant parts.
The impact of the Sun is even more considerable. It passes in front of the twelve zodiac constellations during the course of a year. From January to June it passes through Sagittarius to Taurus which makes spring and summer times of the year. This can be as the ascending movement of the sun when the sun’s arc gets higher each day till midsummer. From July to December it passes through Gemini to Capricorn which makes the autumn and winter times of the year. This is the descending movement of the sun as its arc gets lower each day. As the sun ascends there is outpouring of growth activity above the ground. Growth forces and sap flow upwards more strongly and fill the plants with vitality. It is said that during the ascending period of the sun the earth breathes out. During the descending period of the sun, the growth activity happens below the soil surface. Underground parts of plants i.e. tubers, rhizome corms etc. especially the roots are activated. It is said that during this descending period of the sun the earth breathes in.
The effect of ascending and descending of the Moon is as similar as that of the sun. During the ascending period, we see the following stages of the Moon as—New Moon (Crescent Moon), First Quarter Moon and Gibbous Moon. During the descending period, we notice the following stages as—Full moon—Disseminating: second quarter: Balsamic. During the descending period, the plants of the earth develop leaves above ground and during the descending period of the Moon the plants develop their root under the ground.
During the ascending period of the Moon the cultivators and others who lead on agricultural works should follow the following activities:
(i) They should use medicine or other things if needed to the upper parts i.e. leaves of the plants.
(ii) They should sow seeds.
(iii) They should harvest crops (except root crops).
The descending period is suitable for the following agricultural activities as—
(i) Plant cutting.
(ii) Preparation of compost.
(iii)Transplantation of seedlings.
(iv) Land preparation.
(v) Manure application.
(vi) Harvesting of root crops.
The Moon’s orbit around the earth is elliptic and not a circle. So the distance of the Moon from the Earth changes every day. The point where the Moon is closest to the earth is called Perigee and the point where the Moon is farthest from the earth is called Apogee. In the Perigee the gravitational force of the Moon accelerates soil moisture upwards. Hence, there is more moisture in the upper layer of the earth. In large water bodies, especially in the seas and oceans tides happen. In Apogee, when the Moon is farthest from the cultivators should mind the following activities as—
(i) No agricultural operation.
(ii) Avoid seed sowing except potato.
(iii) Felling trees.
(iv) Seed storage.
In 48 hours, proceeding to the Full Moon there is a distinct increase in the moisture content in the environment. The growth forces of the plants enhance. The Full Moon period is connected with the growing tendency of the plant and the quick germination of seeds. Often there is a tendency for rain at Full Moon. Besides this, the cultivators are made known that during the Full Moon they should avoid harvesting as during these days water content in the air is higher and the corn may contain more water which may not suitable for storage.
These are, as discussed above, the impacts of the heavenly bodies on the plants of the earth which have come out as a result of research works of the scientists of the world. If the cultivators act in accordance with these facts then their production would be more effective and fruitful. 0 0 0.
Drought in Assam in 2005-A Thought
Among the north-east Indian states, Assam is rich in natural resources yet the economic condition of the state is lagging behind lamentably if compared with that of the other states of India. It is basically a state of agriculture. About 70% of its population earns their livelihood by means of cultivating the land. But the cultivators, as well as the farmers of this state, are far away from having the facilities of using and applying modern scientific technologies in their agricultural works, as the Governments both of the centre and of the states are negligent and indifferent to the agricultural sector of the state. The peasants as well as the farmers of the state depend upon the grace of Nature for their weather. Every year it faces great food, which causes a huge loss of the flora and fauna.
The Northeast states of India get immense rainfall from the monsoons every year. But geologists and scientists have come to know that the climate of the earth is going to be changed unprecedentedly. And it is because of the pollution of air caused by cutting off the green trees immensely. In addition to this, the increase of the use of automobiles, factories, industries etc. also causes to increase in the percentage of carbon dioxide in the air. For these adverse circumstances, the monsoons have turned their direction and as a result, 40% of natural rain falls short in Assam.
The farmers of Assam kept waiting with curiosity and eagerness for rain but when the months of Shaun and Bhad passed off without rain, the heart and spirits of the cultivators broke down. About 10 lacks hectares of land remained uncultivated the direct loss of which was more than 1500 cores. Almost all the districts had been affected badly by the drought. Especially all the districts of west Assam faced a huge loss this year. Among the districts, the district of Barpeta, Nalbari, Kukrajhar, Dhubri, Goalpara, and Chirang had suffered the worst.
India is an agricultural country and 70% of its population is directly involved in agriculture. The agriculture sector contributes a good percentage to the Gross Domestic Product of India. But this sector, especially the cultivators, has been neglected by the Governments. Tea cultivation also falls in the agriculture sector. But we see that the government gives more facilities to the tea cultivators. There are special acts and Policies for the tea cultivators by which the owners and the labourers associated with the tea industries enjoy more protection. For the tea industries, there are such Acts as-Plantation Act, Workmen’s Compensation Act, Fatal Accident Act, Bonus Act etc. Moreover, there is Labours’ Union for the workmen of the tea gardens. But for the peasants, there are no Acts by which the majority of the Indian population may be benefited. It shows that the agriculture sector suffers from the oblique look of the stepmother.
Most of the cultivators live under the poverty line. Their only means of livelihood is agriculture. They have no alternatives. As the State Government along with the Central Government is silent in this respect, the farmers have become grieved at the government authorities. Already in many districts of Assam, the farmers have united and been showing their resentment. Taking the avail of this disaster many businessmen have taken the paths of evil which results in the rising price of necessary things as-paddy, potato, chilly, onion, garlic etc. Already the price of paddy has risen up 20% in Assam. The famine is imminent. Already, in the district of Barpeta, Kukrajhar, Dhubri, Goalpara the famine have begun. All Assam Students Union and Assam Unnati Shava call upon the farmers to come out to show their grievances. In Lakhimpur, the grieved people have destroyed all the goods and documents of the District Agriculture Office. In addition to this, the agitated farmers had plowed the courtyard of the office. This kind of grievance has been shown in the district of Dhubri, Barpeta, Goalpara and some other places also. Yet the Tarun Gogoi Government seems to remain silent as it seemed since its formation. When the people suffer from the negligence of the governing authorities, then revolt takes the birth of its own hearth. History teaches us this. It seems that if the government fails to meet the legal demands of the general public then the government must face a new vehement revolt — the peasant revolt in Assam.
Here it is relevant to cite that in India, after independence, about 50 thousand of farmers committed suicide. Only in Maharashtra, during the last six months of the running year, more than a thousand farmers have met their death by suicide. In that state the farmers cultivate cotton as the cotton of the state is superior to that of other states. But since some years back the production of cotton has fallen down. As a result, the condition of the cotton farmers has deteriorated. As there is no fixed Banking policy of the government for the farmers, they were compelled to take loans from money-lenders at a high rate of interest. On the contrary, being unable to pay the loans the farmers are committing suicide. Such condition has risen up in Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Bihar, Haryana etc. If the government of Assam does not pay importance to the disaster of the state, then the cultivators of Assam might take the path of committing suicide. So, we draw the attention of the government to take necessary stapes erelong.
This disaster should be considered to be a disaster of the nation, not of a region and to meet the disaster; everybody must come out in a body. Scientists must come out with their technologies, and geologists and geographers must come out to find out the mystery of the causes of the disaster. The government must come out with prompt policies to rescue the forlorn farmers. The intellectualists must come out with sharp eyes to keep guard on the operation of the disaster so that no corruption can creep into the operation. Non-government Organizations also must come out with a view to render their services.
To meet the disaster, the government must take both short-term and long-term planning. Short-term planning should be taken to relieve the village farmers from the disaster immediately. And the long terms planning should be taken for permanent relief of the disaster. Among the short-term planning the government must take the following steps:
First, as most of the cultivators of Assam live below the poverty line, so they should be provided with necessary food, medicine and clothes for the year. Already the Assam Government has remitted the land rent (revenue) of the year. It is a praiseworthy step taken by the government, but the remittance of the rent is not enough, the government must remember it.
Secondly, for the next crops to be grown in the winter season, the cultivators should be provided with necessary crop seeds, manure and other fertilizer.
Thirdly, the cultivators should be supplied with a short-term loan from the bank without interest.
For the operation of these short terms planning, the government should form a special task force so that they may help the cultivators directly without making any formal (official) delay. Therefore, the consisting government force should come forward with a sympathetic heart, so that no corruption may happen.
Along with short-term planning, the government must have the following long-term planning:
First, the government must engage scientists and geologists to find out the real cause of the disaster. After finding out the causes, they must take the proper outline against the causes.
Secondly, all the things and means by which pollution of air is caused must be prevented. For this, the government must take necessary steps to increase the scope of social foresting. By means of arranging special seminars, the general people should be made aware of the degradation of the natural environment of the world so that the government may have the cooperation of the general public.
Thirdly, the factories, industries and automobiles, which emit carbon dioxide, must be banned or they should be compelled to take necessary scientific means so that the emission of the carbon-dioxide may be minimized.
It is seen that developed countries such as- America, Australia, Japan, German, France, England, China etc. are basically industrial countries and 90% of the world’s pollution is caused by these countries. Though there are necessary international Acts and Agreements yet it seems that all these countries have been showing their thumbs to the world. Now, all the countries of the world must be united against these countries and must take stern steps to make them abide by the anti-pollution act and agreements.
Fourthly, the government must take a special step to make scientific and effective channels of irrigation. More money should be allotted to this table. The central government along with the state government must work together for it.
In conclusion, it is to warn the government that the people of this state would count the success or failure of the government upon how the government treat and manage the disaster. 0 0 0.
Indian Sovereignty-How Far Secure?
India is one of the greatest democratic sovereign countries in the world. It is rich in natural resources, man-power and at present, it also claims to be self-dependent in science and technology. But after such a claim, a question worries us i.e. whether Indian sovereignty is secure and if it is secure then how far secure it is. If we look up the pages of its history, since its independence and if we look at the present socio-political panorama, then we would see that India is being goaded ahead to the mouth of a bursting volcano the fire flames of which might engulf its entity in no time.
Though India’s foreign policy is amicable with its neighboring countries, yet it appears that most of the neighboring countries have been adding fuel to the unrest of India’s sovereignty. First, mention may be made of China, which since the days of India’s independence, has been claiming its authority over a vast area of north-east India especially Arunachal Pradesh. In 1962, China attacked India, all of a sudden and made a sway over Khingimoni, and Bumla and then rushed towards Tawang where there was the Head Quarter of the 7th Infantry Brigadier of India. The Chinese army defeated the Brigadier and took the control of Tawang. The Indian armies were not lacked of morale to fight against the Chinese, but they were in want of firm leadership, weapons, ammunition, ample food and sufficient clothes to protect themselves from extreme cool. Since then the Chinese authority has been claiming control over the northern region of Arunachal Pradesh. Rajiv Gandhi, the ex-prime minister of India, visited China, then the Chinese paper, Beijing Review published a long news review on the boundary conflicts between China and India. It showed with the argument that the Mac Mohan Line Pact, of 1914 was illegal. Since then up till today, China remains a menace against the sovereignty of India.
The second menace to Indian sovereignty has been coming from Pakistan over the Kashmir issue. Pakistan as a neighboring country of India, and the relationship between the two should have been friendly, but at present, it is on the verge of bad to worse. Outwardly, Pakistan claims to be in a friendly relationship with India but politically the leaders of Pakistan have been keeping the issue alive. It is not wrong to say that Kashmir is an issue that is seen to remain hot because of the political leaders who take the avail of rising to power shrieking the issue aloud at the time of the Parliamentary Election.
Bangladesh, which took birth in 1971 out of the soil of East Pakistan under the patronage of India, now turns back to India. Most of the terrorist organizations in North-East India get shelter and training in Bangladesh. The ULFA leader Paresh Baruah has been staying in Bangladesh from where he is running his terrorist activities in Assam. Besides this, almost all the Muslim terrorist organizations get shelter and instigation either from Pakistan or Bangladesh. Weapons and deadly arms are also being provided to terrorist organizations through Bangladesh.
Myanmar is another neighboring country of India. Outwardly there seems no enmity between the two countries. But inwardly Myanmar has been adding fuel to the terrorist organizations of North-East India by providing them with training and war weapons.
It has already come to light that through Nepal also the war weapons come to ULFA and other organizations. Thus the attitude of all these neighboring countries towards India is like that of an enemy.
In addition to the menace from abroad, at present seems that India has been facing a stronger menace from its internal socio-political circumstances. But only a few of us are conscious that we, all are responsible for arising of such a menace to India’s sovereignty. The existing Prime Minister, Dr. Mon Mohan Singh revealed the truth in one of his lectures that the problem of internal insecurity is much more fatal than the menace from abroad. His speech is true to the root. Indira Gandhi the late Prime Minister of India was assassinated at the hand of her security guards. There is hardly a second example of such an event in world history. The security of the house of the Prime Minister is broken by his own security force. Nothing can be more shameful and abhorrent than this. In the state of Bihar, conflicts among various castes are alive. Most of the terrorist groups belonging to the respective castes have been given political patronage under some political parties. It has come to our knowledge that in the force department there are many youths who have been working as secret agents of terrorist organizations. In the Kashmir Police Force, many fundamentalists have got employment for which the expedition against the terrorists in Kashmir often falls flat. Besides this, even some Pakistani youths have got employment and the problem of terrorists has gone beyond control.
News makes us know that in the city of Mumbai the violent activities of Muslim terrorists have increased. The terrorists of the middle-east have got patronage of the terrorists living in India. And it has become possible because of corruption employing the jawans in the force departments. . In Assam also there have been many employees who have got employment only by means of showing menace to the employing authorities. Some marked terrorists have also got high ranks in important administrative bureaus. So it is seen that corruption in administrative machinery is much more responsible for the rise of terrorists in India.
Everybody would agree to the fact that the act of migration has been running on through the borders though there are huge forces in the borders to keep watch on illegal migration. The armed forces of India are only in name but in reality, they are the slave of corrupt officials that don’t want to protect India from the opposing forces.
The conflicts among various casts are responsible for the loss of peace, order and security in India. It seems that the police forces often stumble down while facing the opposing forces. In the check gates, the police officers have been collecting money from the vehicles without rhyme and reason. Though everybody knows it, yet nobody stands against this day-robbery. It shows how weak our administrative machinery is! For all these corruptions we – all are responsible either directly or indirectly. The citizens of India have forgotten their responsibilities and duties to the country. They sell their votes for money. The political leaders also don’t wish the citizens to cast their votes after their conscience. They buy votes and after the election, they embark to earn money by fair or foul means. In India, politics is a market of earning black money and the political leaders are the patrons of this market. In such a land of corruption how its sovereignty may get secured! 0 0 0.
Indian Political Parties-How Far Secure?
Government (administrative machinery) is an urgent need for a nation or country without which all-round development along with peace, security, and order is impossible. There are many forms of government such as— monarchy, autocracy, bureaucracy, plutocracy, monocracy, theocracy, democracy etc. Among all these forms of government ‘Democracy’ is said to be the best of all. The universal definition of democracy is given by Abraham Lincoln as— “Democracy is a government of the people, for the people and by the people.” In a democracy, the people get more freedom than that all of the other forms of government. In this form of government, every citizen of a country can take part either directly or indirectly in the affairs of governing themselves. The fundamental rights are enjoyed by the people of a democracy which differentiates it primarily from other forms of government. Political parties play an important role in a democratic country without the role of which modem democracy is unimaginable. The fundamental objectives of a political party in a democracy are to play the roles by which the democratic ideals of a country may come into being. Hence the political parties of democracy must conform to democratic ideals. In brief, to say, the political parties in a democracy must be democratic. India is one of the vast democratic countries in the world. In India, there are about two hundred political parties through which the creed of democracy is said to be observed. As the political parties of a country should be based on democratic ideals so, now let us see—how far the Indian political parties are democratic.
India is said to be most political than other democratic countries of the world as there are some hundred political parties in existence. All the political parties of India can be divided into two classes— the National Political Parties and the Regional Political Parties. The National Parties have their existence throughout India and the Regional Political Parties have their existence in respective states or regions only.
Now, let us begin with the most influential national political party viz. the National Congress of India. This party originated in India in 1885, by an English man named Allan Octavian Hume. Since its birth, it had been struggling to free India from the bondage of British rule. And resultantly on the 15th of August, 1947 India got freedom from the bondage of the British and Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru became the first Prime Minister of India. Till the death of Jawaharlal Nehru (1962) the National Congress of India had been the only vigorous and standing political party in the country. But when Mrs. Indira Gandhi, the only daughter of Jawaharlal Nehru, came to power, then the National Congress of India met a disaster and Mrs. Gandhi coming out of the National Congress Party formed a new party called Congress (I). Since then the party Congress (I) has been failing in keeping up the democratic ideals. The party becomes family-centered. After the assignation of Mrs. Indira Gandhi in 1984, Rajiv Gandhi the elder son of Mrs. Gandhi became the prime minister of India. Like Indira Gandhi her son, Rajiv Gandhi remained to be the all in all of the party till his assassination. After his death, his wife Mrs. Sonia Gandhi refused to come to politics and as a result, the party Congress (I) faced disaster. Some higher officials of the Congress (I) liked it as they wished the party to be free from the yoke of the Nehru family. Though from 1991 to 1996, during the Nara Singha Rao Ministry, the party was out of the influence of the Nehru family. But after him, the party again goes buck under the influence of the same family. At present, it is seen that Dr. Man Mohan Singh is the de-jure Prime Minister of India. In every affair and decision of the administration, Mrs. Sonia Gandhi’s influence is so much that Mrs. Sonia seems to be the de-facto Prime Minister of India. Thus it is seen that the most influential national party, Congress (I) fails to keep up the democratic ideals in Indian politics.
Another example of a family-centered political party in India is ‘Rashtriya Janata Dal’. Though it is national in name, yet it is a regional political party of Bihar. It may be called the political party of Lalu Prasad Yadav. He seems to be the inborn president of the party. The influence of his family is immense upon the party. Thus the ‘Socialist Janata Party’ of Malayalam Singh Yadav is also family-centric. There is no probability of coming out of the party from the fist of Mr. Yadav. In addition to these, the political parties of Bal Thackeray named Shiva Shena, the D.M.K. of Karunanidhi, A.I.A.D.M.K. of Joy Lolita, the Bahujan Samajbadi Party of Mayawati, the Telegu Desham of Chandrababu Naidu are either family-centered or person-centered political parties of India. The ideals of democracy are alien to the mechanism and activities of these parties.
On the other hand, there are some parties both national and regional which are truly based on democratic ideals. The B.J.P. is such a national political party to which the credit of being truly democratic in character goes first. Though the internal power of the party seems to be imposed on Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani, yet no other members of their families seem to grasp the handle of the party, but it is a matter of regret that this party seems to patronize communalism.
Among the other national parties of India, the Janata Dal (U) is seen to be free from being family-centered. Though the leaders like George Fernandez, Sharad Power, and Nitish Kumar are at cold wars among themselves yet it can never be to said to be family-centered or person-centered.
The political parties which belong to only some special regions are generally based on democratic ideals. In Assam, the A.G.P. (Assam Gana Parishad) is democratic in character. The present president of the party has been elected in a democratic way.
From the above mention discussion, it has come to our clarification that though India is regarded as one of the vast and reputed democratic countries of the world, yet most of the political parties of India are not based on democratic ideals. Worshiping a particular family or particular person is apparent in the most influential political parties in India.
In the present-day world, the ideals of Secularism are also said to be the ideals of democracy. In other words, to say, it is generally said that the ideals of Secularism can get full protection in a democracy. But in India though it is said to be one of the great specimens of secular countries of the world, yet in reality, the ideals of secularism are far away from being existed. Now let us see into the political parties of India and then find out how far they are secular or how far they are not secular.
Among the national political parties of India, the B.J.P. is far away from being secular in character. It advocates communalism especially the ‘Hindutva’ spirit throughout India. To grasp the administrative power of India it uses religion as an instrument. The salient example of this is the Babari Masjid issue which was broken by the fanatic Hindus instigated openly by the B.J.P. leaders. Thus using religion as an instrument it acquired the support of the Hindu majorities and in the following election, the B.J.P. formed the government in the centre.
The Akali Dal of Punjab is also completely based on religion. The Punjabis think that their religion would be protected if they can take up the controlling power of the province under the influence of their party. We know that once they claimed a separate Free State (sovereignty) for their own. To meet their demand, they took shelter in terrorism, but they could not be succeeded.
In Assam, the A.J.P. is also a regional political party based on communalism. It seems that the party is against the minority Muslims of the state. Thus seeing the communal activities of most of the Indian political parties some Muslim parties as- U.D.F, U.M.F. of Assam, Indian Muslim League, Jamat-e-Islamy etc. have been given birth to as a reaction against the religion-biased politics of most Indian political parties.
In conclusion, it may be said that the democratic ideals in India have been spoiled considerably by the Indian political parties and it is not only a shame upon the fair name of India; but a menace against the existence of India as a democracy. 0 0 0.
The 6th Schedule of the Indian Constitution and the Tribal Problem in North-east India
India is not only a land of unity in diversity but also a land of diversity in unity. This comment appropriately holds well in regard to the North-Eastern states of India. It is because the N.E. States are the abodes of so many human tribes that there is hardly a second counterpart in the map of the world. The peculiar characteristics of all the tribes are that they have their peculiar culture independent of one another. Another peculiarity of their characteristics is that under any circumstance they don’t incline to assimilate with other tribes.
Keeping up such characteristics of the tribes living in the N.E. States of India in mind the makers of the Indian constitution created a special schedule to be provided them with which is called the 6th schedule of the Indian Constitution.
After independence, the political leaders of India especially the central government, in order to grasp the governing power tightly in their hands, amalgamated the north-east regions of India to Assam ignoring the demands of the different tribes. About a decade after India got freedom, the Indian Government could continue its administration without facing any noticeable opposition from the tribes. But with the passing of time, especially from 1965, the different tribes living in the hilly regions of North-East India began to be conscious of their cultural differences and their deplorable economic condition and with this consciousness, some of the regional tribes, especially the Nagas and Mizos began to claim separate states for their own. By degrees, their demand began to be stronger and at times they became rebellious and violent activities began to be pursued by the rebels. When the government became unable to keep them under control, then two separate states as— Nagaland for the Nagas and Mizoram for the Mizos were created cutting off from Assam.
Towards the end of the sixth decade of the gone century again a new political shake arose in Assam. The three hilly districts of Assam as— Khasi, Jayantia, and Garo began to demand a separate state for their own. The Indian government was compelled to meet their demand. In the parliament, the Acts like— The Assam Re-organization (Meghalaya) Act 1969 and the North-Eastern Areas (Re-organization) Act 1971 were passed. And as a result, Meghalaya as a separate state out of Assam took birth. The vast Assam shrank down. After these, there remained other two hilly districts as— Karbi Anglong and North Kacher. Both districts have been included in the 6th schedule of the Indian Constitution. Since some years back, some political parties and organizations have been demanding under schedule 244 (A) separate states for their own.
Again at the beginning of the 7th decade, the Bodos living in the plains of Assam propounded the claim of ‘Udayachal’ a separate state for them in the model of Meghalaya. They demand half of the territory of Assam, especially the north side of the Brahmaputra. Then the governments made an understanding with the Bodo leaders and by far with political flattery the issue had been kept under control till the middle of the 8th decade. But after this, when the leadership of the rebellion went to the hand of ABSU, then their movement took a stern turn. Armed extremists began to fight against the governments. At last, the law and order so much deteriorated that the government failed to keep them under control. As a consequence, the state government and the central government, after a series of conversations and meetings with the Bodos, the BAC (Bodoland Autonomous Council) was formed. But by this, the Bodos seemed not to be calmed. On the other hand, BLT and NDFB (two extremist organizations of the Bodos) continued their demands for a separate state, and thus by means of their vehement activities the political condition became worse to manage. Then under the interference of the central government, the B.T.A.D. was included in the 6th schedule. It is to be noted that the NDFB has not withdrawn its demand of sovereign Bodoland till today.
When the Bodos were given the Bodoland Autonomous Council, the other tribes of the plain as— Micing, Rava, Tiwang, etc. got enraged and began to claim Autonomous Councils for their own. In 1995, the Hiteshwar Saikia Government, being agreed to meet their demand created Micing Autonomous Council, Rava Hasang Autonomous Council and Tiwa Autonomous Council. After this, being instigated by these, the other tribes like Deori, Sonowal, Thengal, etc. raised heads and began to claim Autonomous Councils like the MAC and RHAC. The state government, being compelled by law, gives them the same status.
After the formation of B.T.A.D. the other tribes grumbled at the councils formed by ad hoc nominated members and on the contrary, they began to claim to be included in the 6th schedule of the Indian Constitution and began to claim Autonomous Councils like BAC. But till today the government seems to be blind to their demand. Already several tribal organizations congregated in Baku where they have blueprinted the procedure of their rebellion.
Already, on the other hand, the Koch Rajbangsi, Maran, Matak, Chutiya, and the tea tribes since long have been keeping on their demand in favour of including them in the 6th schedule. On 26th October 2006, a meeting of the tribal organization of the state was held. They took several resolutions and one of their resolutions is that they would oppose the demand of the above-mentioned six tribes who have been claiming to be included in the 6th schedule. Thus the moments of tribalization have become complex. The possibility of conflicts between the scheduled tribes and the non-schedule tribes has increased. Because it is futile to think that the above-mentioned six tribes would discard their demands after the opposition of the organizations of the scheduled tribes. It is to be noted that after the meeting of the tribal organizations, a meeting of the Marans was called upon at Tinichukia where about twenty thousand Marans were present. Now a question arises— what do they signify? It is obvious that they signify a new vehement political as well as social unrest to be faced in North-East India.
Assam is an abode of many aboriginal tribes with independent cultures. Almost all of them are socio-politically weak, so I think all the aboriginal tribes should be given the Status of scheduled tribes. Here to say that it is necessary for their economic development. In this respect, the aboriginal Brahmas, Kalita, Kayastha, and even the aboriginal Muslims should be given special privileges under the constitution.
Again it is worth noting that no tribe can get autonomy by giving pressure upon the state government only, but the central government must come forward with a willful motive and sympathy and thus a new law should be passed under the constitutional process. As mentioned in the 368 Article of the Indian Constitution the Amendment Bill for the constitution should be propounded and passed in both Houses and then the President of India should give his consent to bring it into force. Without performing this constitutional process no autonomous council could be given under the 6th schedule to any scheduled tribe. Indeed the state government may perform the groundwork such as— the identification of the tribal areas or villages, the demarcation of the area of the proposed Autonomous Council, the scope of the council etc. It is obvious that the demands of Autonomous Councils of all the tribes are the same and their problems are also almost the same. 0 0 0.
Whether Asom, Axom, or Assam-Where is the End of Controversy?
In India, if one swims across a river it becomes news whereas in England if one swims across the Atlantic Ocean it hardly becomes news. It shows that the Indians are accustomed to making a fuss of trifling. Since some months back a controversy has been going on concerning the changing of the English spelling and pronunciation of the name of the ‘Assam’. The state government without inviting public opinion alters the English spelling of the word ‘Assam’ as ‘Asom’ and with this, the controversy has begun and till today this controversy is running on.
No sooner did the Government alter the name than the opposition from all rounds had begun. Most Assamese are on the side of keeping the previous name ‘Assam’ not ‘Asom’. The people are in violent opposition to keep intact the previous name. Already a professor of Assamese literature has proposed that the name of the state should be neither ‘Assam’ nor ‘Asom’ but ‘Pragjotishpur’. A group of people advocates that the name of the state should be ‘Axom’. There is another group who advocates that the first letter of the name of the state should be ‘O’ and hence the name of the state should be ‘Oxom’.
From the study of all these controversies, it seems that the views vary from person to persons. But the arguments of those who support the name ‘Assam’ not ‘Asom’ are stronger than the rest. The historical data shows that the name ‘Assam’ is not given by the British. Since long back the English came to North-East India, the name of Assam as ‘Assam’ was in circulation. Only the pronunciation, not spelling, got altered from mouth to mouth. In another view, the name ‘Assam’ may be derived from ‘Shan’ or ‘Sham’ which was used to mean the Tais. Some historians think that the name Assam may come from the Bodos who used this name to mean the coarse plain of the region. In the papers and magazines published in the early 19th century the name of the state was written as ‘Assam’ not ‘Asom’ and from this, it is evidently known that the scholars of that period found ‘Assam’ to be a suitable name for the state.
The English after their advent in Assam did not rename the state as ‘Assam’. They only wrote the English spelling of the name which they found in various written sources. Dr. Pona Mahanta writes, “About half a century we heard the pronunciation of the state as ‘Assam’ not ‘Asom’, even in the mouth of the satradhikars”. They also wrote ‘Assam’ in their memoirs and letters. Srimanta Sankardeva used ‘Asom’ in his writings to mean the Ahom tribe, not to mean the land.
Those who advocate ‘Oxom’ or ‘Axom’ instead of Assam or Asom are also in the wrong because the pronunciation of ‘X’ cannot express the sound of ‘S’, ‘Kh’ or ‘sh’. It sometimes expresses the sound of ‘j’ in English. If the word ‘Oxom’ or “Axom’ is taken up then the pronunciation would be ‘Okjam’ or ‘Akjam’ which can never be acceptable.
To conclude it may be said that the name of this state is written as ‘Assam’ in English, though it does not echo the sound of the word that we use or write in Assamese. In Assamese the pronunciation of the second letter of the word is ‘kh’; but in English, we use ‘ss’ in place of ‘kh’ in Assamese. But we the people of Assam are accustomed to what we have possessed traditionally. We are acquainted with the name ‘Akhom’ in Assamese and ‘Assam’ in English. The difference is only in sound not in meaning, so I think the name of the state should remain what we have inherited from our forefathers to which we are well accustomed. And hence I support ‘Assam’ instead of Asom or Axom.
Here is to say more that if it happens that the name of the state must reflect the sound, not letters while writing in English then it must be ‘Akhom’ instead of ‘Assam’ or ‘Asom’. And if ‘Akhom’ is not acceptable to most of us then the name of our state must remain ‘Assam’ in English. The government must give up its whimsical decision. 0 0 0.
My Letter to Late Mahatma Gandhi
Date: 12 August, 2017
At the opening of my writing please take my salute along with my heart-felt humble gratitude for being my life-long beacon of light and a never-ending source of inspiration. Here, my venerable Bapu, I am going to tell, though I find a shortage of suitable words to express my feelings of debt to you, about how you inspire me.
You were first introduced to me by my mother when I was goaded to frequent school with the wayward children of my neighbourhood. My mother often told me about your mission in life. She told how we, the young generation can be inspired by your ideals and make our life a successful one in the truest sense. Since then, you have been inspiring me in every walk of life.
Dear Bapu, you have inspired me in the following ways:
First of all, you have inspired me to be a proud possessor of ‘Good Hand Writing’ when I came across your message “Good handwriting is a part and parcel of education.” Following your advice, I practised the art for months, and eventually, I have become an owner of enviously good handwriting which help me to draw the praise, love and affection of my teachers, friends, and colleagues for all my life.
Secondly, I have learned the lesson of Truthfulness from your ‘Kettle’ episode. One day when the School Inspector asked you the spelling of the word, you did not copy it in spite of your teacher’s help. Since I had heard of that event from my teacher, it fell a far-reaching effect on me, and truthfulness, both in speaking and dealings, has become an ornament of my character and personality. What a valuable lesson I have learned from you, my dear Bapu!
Thirdly, you have taught me the lesson of Sincerity. Once, during your school-going days, you were deceived by the cloudy sky and attended school very late for which you were badly rebuked by the teachers. From this incident, you realized that a man of truth should be a man of sincerity. Since I happened to read about this incident in your autobiography, The Story of My Experiment with Truth, sincerity and punctuality have been added to the assets of my habit.
Fourthly, you have taught me the lesson of Love and Non-violence as means of achieving any goal in life. You have shown the world that Non-violence is so a powerful policy that it could compel the imperialist English to leave India. Truly, non-violence is the only weapon by which we can overcome hatred and conquer the heart of our opponents and achieve both physical and spiritual victory.
Fifthly, my dear Bapu, you have inspired me to adopt Simplicity in every sphere of life. You advocated economy in the use of things and wore hand-woven silk-cotton clothes, did not you? Since I have been acquainted with your simplicity, I have taken to it and have been being benefited much by adopting a simple lifestyle.
Sixthly, you were an advocate of Communal Harmony and National Integrity. You listened to the reciting of the Geeta, the Bible, the Tripitak and the Koran equally and drew inspiration from them all with much devotion. You were the first modern personality that realized the urgency of communal harmony in India to make it a powerful nation and worked for it with heart and soul. You said, “The best way to find yourself is to lose yourself in the service of others”. You have also grafted this ideal into me and I promise to work for my countrymen with utmost honesty.
Seventhly, you introduced Basic and Technical Education to turn India into a self-dependent nation. How realistic and relevant your philosophy of education was! We have come to realize, though late, that there is no alternative to wipe away the burning unemployment problem of our country except for adopting your principles of Basic and Technical Education. You have inspired me to persuade our young generation to take to technical education for self-employment.
Eighthly, my reverent Bapu, you have inspired me to love my motherland above my life. You gave up your personal well and comfort, devoted yourself to the welfare of the nation, and walked on foot to the nook and corner of the country awakening people to come out for freeing our land from the yoke of the British. In doing so, how much you had to suffer! Being inspired by your ideal, I am ready to do my best for my dear motherland and even I would not hesitate to shed my blood.
Ninthly, I have been inspired by you to honour Work Culture. Did not you say, “Action expresses priorities”? Since I heard these words of yours I am so much inspired by them that I have devoted myself to serving my nation through actions because I believe in what you say, “Happiness is in what you do”.
Dear Bapu, once you said, “Be the change that you want to see in the world”. Verily, you have changed my life. I entreat you to bless me from where you are so that I can serve humanity drawing inspiration from your life.
Menonim Menonimus. 0 0 0.
A Letter From Hozai to My Younger Brother
February 3, 1996
Some days have passed since I had been thinking of writing to you. Sorry that I could not get time and opportunity for writing a letter to you. As I have got some leisure time today, I am writing to inform you how I have been doing here at Hozai.
Forget not to take my love. Convey my respect to our parents. Hope that you are all well there at home. But how am I here? I am telling you, listen to:
On the last January 20, 1996 I along with Bellal, my friend started our journey to Jorhat. I had no special purpose for going there. But my friend Bellal told me, ‘There is a Junior College where the post of an English teacher has been laying vacant.’ I had a faint hope of getting it. But man proposes; God disposes. When we were the mid-way, we come to know that there is no hope of getting the post of an English subject teacher; we were compelled to turn our course of travelling.
Already from a reliable source, we came to know that in a Higher Secondary school at Hozai, Nagaon the post of a teacher is laying vacant. Hence we turned our course of travelling and took the way to Hozai from Guwahati. It was 2.15 p.m. we got in an omnibus. I was on a fast for a religious cause. The bus kept on running at full speed. I felt tired and bored. The sad hour seems long. As time was passing, so much bored and tired I felt. When we passed halfway then suddenly one of the wheels of the bus got punctured. With this, our journey was delayed there for one and a half hours. The puncture happened in such a place where there were neither habitats nor any restaurants. The sun got its setting on the western horizon. I could not have any food to break my fast. When we got at Nagaon town it was 7.30 pm.
We searched for the bus to Hozai. But found none. The last bus to Hozai had left the bus stand fifteen minutes before we reached the town. Then we began to search for a hotel to stay the night. We were very hungry. My stomach was revolting like a soldier against his stubborn superior officer who is reluctant to grant him a leave. At last, after a search of half an hour, we got a hotel named Partha. There the hotel manager told us that there is no seats; all were booked already. Then we requested him to do us some favour so that we can spend the night. Eventually, he provided us with a private room with two-bed seats and we took that at seventy-five rupees each. A guard boy ushered us to the room on the third floor. After entering the room, we became glad to see the facility in the room. The thing which pleased me was that the room was very neat and clean. We asked whether there was a provision of food. But the boy told us that only tea might be served after an order. No other heavy food was available there. Then he provided us with a cup of hot tea. We drank eagerly and lay on the bed to sleep.
When I woke up it was 3.30 am, and the dawn was approaching quickly. There was a pack of biscuits with me and I ate it and decided to keep fast for the next day. After eating the biscuits, I went to bed and sleep again. In sleep, I dreamt a wonderful dream. At 7 o’clock, we left the hotel and got on a bus to Hozai. The bus took three hours to carry us to Hozai town. We were strangers in the town. We knew none and no one knew us. We only followed the direction of Mr. Mehbub, a friend of my friend Bellal. After reaching the town we went to a P.C. O. and made a phone call to Mehbub. On phone, he gave us a phone number and asked us to call the number. We did accordingly. After only 10 minutes a Maruti car came and stopped near the P.C.O. From the car a man about 50 got off and called us by our names. He told us that he was the man whom we phoned about ten minutes ago.
The gentleman carried us to his home. It seemed that he belonged to an aristocratic family. After our arrival, all the members- the wife of the gentleman with their three children came out of rooms and received us. It seemed that they were glad to have us in their house.
Going there, I became astonished that they had already known many things about me. Perhaps the Friend Mehbub had told about me to them beforehand. We talked for a while with the gentleman and after half an hour my friend Bellal left for Jorhat because he was a student at Jorhat Agriculture University.
Then I came to know that the name of the host of the house was Mr. Sahab. He was a big businessman dealing in sandal wood and fragrance.
They have provided me with a room in a nearby hotel. Now I am tutoring his three children: the elder one is in class V, second a girl child is in class III and the third one a boy child is in class I.
Here I am spending my days well but I have found none to be a friend of mine. All seemed to be busy with their own business. Most inhabitants of the town are Muslims. There are some Bengali Hindus. The Muslims living in the town seem to be well-to-do.
The problem I have been facing here is that most inhabitants of the town speak in Silheti Bangla which I hardly understand. Some educated people know good Assamese and I speak with them in Assamese instead of Bengali. Bengali is my favorite language. It does mean that Sylheti Bengali is a completely different language from standard Bengali but that they utter words so quickly that I cannot grasp them. I usually do not like people who speak so swiftly. So it seems harder for me to understand their language. I think after some days I would be able to understand their tongue.
There is a big Masjid in the centre of the town. The home of my host is near the masjid. Here to note that the residence of Mr. Ajmal, a reputed businessman and liberal humanitarian of Assam is only a kilometer away from the home where I have been staying.
There are many things to tell you about this place and its people. But let me leave them to tell you later on.
I wish you a happy day. Tell our parents that here I am searching for a job. If the opportunity offers, I may go home the next month to celebrate the Id-ul-fitre with you. No more today.
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan
Swachh Bharat Abhiyan (Clean India Mission) was launched on 2nd October 2014 by Narendra Modi, the Prime Minister of India on the occasion of Mahatma Gandhi’s 145th birth anniversary. The main objectives of the mission are:
- Construct individual, cluster and community toilets.
- Eliminate or reduce open defecation.
- Construct latrines and work towards establishing an accountable mechanism of monitoring latrine use.
- Create public awareness about the drawback of open defecation and promotion of latrine use.
- Change people’s mindset towards proper sanitation use.
- Keep villages clean.
- Ensure solid and liquid waste management through Gram Panchayats.
- Lay water pipelines in all villages by 2019.
The mission was embarked into action in 2015. According to government expenditure data, the Central Government had spent 89% of its annual budget by early January 2017. The measure of success has been moved from mere construction of toilets to achieving ‘’Open Defecation Free” status and village after village has been busy meeting the goal. Already 200,000 toilets have been constructed and Kerala, Himachal Pradesh, and Sikkim have been declared as Open Defecation Free states. In other states, toilet construction activities are in full swing. But in some states like Assam, the mission seems to lag behind and in addition to that, it has been alleged that the standard of toilets built in Assam is not up to the government standard. Some officials are embezzling the government fund. The contractors, availing the corruption of some officials, have been withdrawing their payments without having their tasks completed. On the other hand, Prime Minister Narendra Modi says in a lecture, “A clean India would be the best tribute India could pay to Mahatma Gandhi on his 150th birth anniversary.’’
After all the Swachh Bharat Abhiyan is a very praiseworthy step taken by the Modi Government and if the mission can reach its objectives then India would go a long step ahead toward its advancement. 0 0 0.
Articles on Contemporary Affairs
Books of Composition by M. Menonimus:
- Advertisement Writing
- Amplification Writing
- Note Making
- Paragraph Writing
- Notice Writing
- Passage Comprehension
- The Art of Poster Writing
- The Art of Letter Writing
- Report Writing
- Story Writing
- Substance Writing
- School Essays Part-I
- School Essays Part-II
- School English Grammar Part-I
- School English Grammar Part-II..
Books of S. Story by M. Menonimus: